Decisions by Topic: Sustainable cities and human settlements
The Future We Want - Rio+20
Reference
A/RES/66/288
[Arabic] [Chinese] [English] [French] [Russian] [Spanish] United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio+20
A/RES/66/288 - Sustainable cities and human settlements

134. We recognize that, if they are well planned and developed, including through integrated planning and management approaches, cities can promote economically, socially and environmentally sustainable societies. In this regard, we recognize the need for a holistic approach to urban development and human settlements that provides for affordable housing and infrastructure and prioritizes slum upgrading and urban regeneration. We commit to work towards improving the quality of human settlements, including the living and working conditions of both urban and rural dwellers in the context of poverty eradication so that all people have access to basic services, housing and mobility. We also recognize the need for conservation, as appropriate, of the natural and cultural heritage of human settlements, the revitalization of historic districts and the rehabilitation of city centres.

135. We commit to promote an integrated approach to planning and building sustainable cities and urban settlements, including through supporting local authorities, increasing public awareness and enhancing participation of urban residents, including the poor, in decision-making. We also commit to promote sustainable development policies that support inclusive housing and social services; a safe and healthy living environment for all, particularly children, youth, women and the elderly and disabled; affordable and sustainable transport and energy; promotion, protection and restoration of safe and green urban spaces; safe and clean drinking water and sanitation; healthy air quality; generation of decent jobs; and improved urban planning and slum upgrading. We further support sustainable management of waste through the application of the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle). We underline the importance of considering disaster risk reduction, resilience and climate risks in urban planning. We recognize the efforts of cities to balance development with rural regions.

136. We emphasize the importance of increasing the number of metropolitan regions, cities and towns that are implementing policies for sustainable urban planning and design in order to respond effectively to the expected growth of urban populations in the coming decades. We note that sustainable urban planning benefits from the involvement of multiple stakeholders as well as from full use of information and sex-disaggregated data, including on demographic trends, income distribution and informal settlements. We recognize the important role of municipal governments in setting a vision for sustainable cities, from the initiation of city planning through to revitalization of older cities and neighbourhoods, including by adopting energy efficiency programmes in building management and developing sustainable, locally appropriate transport systems. We further recognize the importance of mixed-use planning and of encouraging non-motorized mobility, including by promoting pedestrian and cycling infrastructures.

137. We recognize that partnerships among cities and communities play an important role in promoting sustainable development. In this regard, we stress the need to strengthen existing cooperation mechanisms and platforms, partnership arrangements and other implementation tools to advance the coordinated implementation of the Habitat Agenda with the active involvement of all relevant United Nations entities and with the overall aim of achieving sustainable urban development. We further recognize the continuing need for adequate and predictable financial contributions to the United Nations Habitat and Human Settlements Foundation so as to ensure timely, effective and concrete global implementation of the Habitat Agenda.


Commission on Sustainable Development
Reference
E/CN.17/2005/12
[Arabic] [Chinese] [English] [French] [Russian] [Spanish] 13th session of the Commission on Sustainable Development
E/CN.17/2005/12 - Human settlements

(p) Provide an enabling policy and regulatory environment and mobilize the requisite means of implementation, including through regional cooperation and international support, including increased financial resources to promote sustainable human settlements development in both urban and rural areas, in accordance with
national priorities;

Integrated planning and management

(q) Support integrated planning and management of human settlements, incorporating land use, housing, water supply and sanitation, waste management, energy, employment and income-generation, education and health-care services, transportation and other infrastructure, giving due consideration to urbanization
trends, in particular, to the needs of the urban poor in implementing the Millennium Declaration, with a view to preventing new slum formation, by:

(i) Integrating urban-rural linkages into national planning processes and promoting further research to inform policies and measures to manage urbanization;
(ii) Integrating slum upgrading and slum prevention into national development planning, taking into account social, economic, cultural and environmental aspects;
(iii) Including natural disaster risk mitigation, early warning, preparedness and post-disaster considerations and related capacity-building measures in human settlements planning and development, including at regional level;
(iv) Establishing and strengthening regional and subregional initiatives for human settlements planning and development, and supporting such initiatives through capacity-building and resource mobilization;
(v) Strengthening capacities for waste management, including through implementation of the relevant international instruments including the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal;
(vi) Promoting increased participation of all stakeholders, in particular women and youth as well as slum-dwellers and their organizations, in planning, implementation and, where appropriate, decision-making processes;
(vii) Decentralizing responsibilities to local authorities depending on national circumstances, specificities and legal frameworks accompanied by capacitybuilding and corresponding transfer of resources;
(viii) Promoting international networking for information exchange among local authorities and stakeholders, including for the implementation of Local Agendas 21;
(ix) Resolving to take further effective measures to remove obstacles to the full realization of the rights of the peoples living under colonial and foreign occupation, which are incompatible with the dignity and worth of the human person and must be combated and eliminated;

Access to affordable land, housing and basic services

(r) Assist in providing access for the poor, in urban and rural areas, to decent and affordable housing and basic services, in accordance with the Habitat Agenda, through:

(i) Achieving, by 2020, a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers, as proposed in the ?Cities without slums? initiative;
(ii) Designing pro-poor policies, with a focus on tenure security and access to affordable serviced land;
(iii) Promoting stable and transparent land markets and strengthening land administration;
(iv) Targeting subsidies to poor people for housing and basic services, including the consideration of loans and subsidies that reflect the payment capabilities of the poor for housing and basic services;
(v) Improving equal access to basic services and land tenure, with particular attention to the equal rights of women to own and inherit land and other property and to access credit markets;
(vi) Promoting public-private partnerships for financing and developing infrastructure and affordable housing;
(vii) Strengthening enforcement capacity for building codes and laws in the housing sector;
(viii) Promoting research, production and use of local construction technologies and building materials and integrating traditional knowledge and practices, as appropriate, in national housing policies;
(ix) Facilitating transfer of technology for low-cost housing construction using local materials;
(x) Strengthening the capital base and building the financial capacity of community savings and microfinance institutions serving the poor;
(xi) Encouraging donors and international financial institutions to provide innovative financing for low-income housing and community improvement, including through loan guarantees, seed capital for revolving funds, and
facilitating access of local authorities to capital markets;
(xii) Providing increased financial assistance, including by multilateral and regional development banks, for slum prevention and upgrading;
(xiii) Providing support to refugee host countries in developing and rehabilitating infrastructure and environment, including affected ecosystems and habitats;

Employment and enterprise promotion

(s) Support national measures encouraging private sector investment, entrepreneurship and job-creation, including the following:
(i) Incorporating employment and enterprise development policies into national planning and slum prevention and upgrading programmes;
(ii) Facilitating the development of the microfinance sector;
(iii) Enhancing capacity in managerial, environmental and technical skills of small and medium-sized enterprises, including in the informal economy, to improve their access to finance and marketing opportunities;
(iv) Providing education and vocational training to women and youth, particularly the urban poor, to improve their access to decent jobs, combining provision of financial services with mentoring, business training and
counselling;


Reference
E/CN.17/2005/12
[Arabic] [Chinese] [English] [French] [Russian] [Spanish] 13th session of the Commission on Sustainable Development
E/CN.17/2005/12 - Interlinkages and cross-cutting issues

(t) Address water, sanitation and human settlements in an integrated manner, taking into account economic, social and environmental aspects, related sectoral policies and cross-cutting issues as identified at the eleventh session of the Commission, as well as national, subregional and regional specificities, circumstances and legal frameworks, with particular attention given to the requirements of women, youth and workers, through a range of measures and approaches such as:
(i) Interlinking measures on water, sanitation and human settlements to increase their synergy, efficiency and impact by developing integrated and inclusive policies of planning and management in water, sanitation and human settlements;
(ii) Improving national coordination efforts to address water and sanitation, to manage the competing demands for water, including those for agricultural production;
(iii) Enhancing inter-ministerial and cross-sectoral coordination and planning mechanisms, as well as mechanisms for coordination between different levels of administration;
(iv) In accordance with paragraph 14 of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, promoting sustainable consumption and production patterns in all countries, with developed countries taking the lead and with all countries benefiting from the process, including through the Marrakech Process, in the areas of water, sanitation and human settlements;

(u) Devise water, sanitation and human settlements policies and actions taking account of the need to address the impacts of rapid urbanization, desertification, climate change and climate variability and natural disasters, including by:
(i) Assessing the impact of natural disasters, climate change and climate variability on water resources, water supply, sanitation and human settlements;
(ii) Supporting the implementation of monitoring and early warning systems and of relevant mitigation and adaptation technologies;

(v) Noting that the water and sanitation targets are to halve the proportion of people who lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015, and that the target for slum-dwellers is to improve the lives of at least 100 million slum-dwellers by 2020, support countries, including through the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), in their ability to provide data and information on existing slums with a projection on new slum formation by 2020, and thereafter to adopt and implement plans to achieve these targets, linked to poverty reduction strategies, national sustainable development strategies or other relevant policy plans;

(w) Resolve to take further effective measures to remove obstacles to the full realization of the rights of people living under colonial and foreign occupation, which are incompatible with the dignity and worth of human persons and must be combated and eliminated;

(x) Concerning the means of implementation, mobilize adequate resources to meet the water, sanitation and human settlements goals and targets, tapping both domestic and international sources through a range of financing approaches, such as:
(i) Increasing donor financial support, upon request, to water, sanitation and human settlements initiatives in developing countries;
(ii) Identifying and promoting innovative and sustainable means of financing;
(iii) Enhancing the sustainability of ecosystems that provide essential resources and services for human well-being and economic activity and developing innovative means of financing for their protection;
(iv) Encouraging the Bretton Woods institutions, the Global Environment Facility within its mandate and the regional banks to enhance their assistance to the water, sanitation and human settlements sectors;

(v) Establishing and promoting public-private and public-public partnerships;
(vi) Increasing allocations from national and subnational budgets;
(vii) Developing and supporting local financial institutions and markets, including pooled financial facilities, revolving funds, loan guarantees and microcredit facilities;
(viii) Providing support to regional and subregional initiatives such as the African Ministerial Conference on Housing and Urban Development and the Meeting of Ministers of Housing and Urban Development of Latin America and the Caribbean;
(ix) Providing support for capacity-building in developing countries;
(x) Providing environmentally sound technology to developing countries in accordance with paragraph 105 of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation;


Reference
E/CN.17/2005/12
[Arabic] [Chinese] [English] [French] [Russian] [Spanish] 13th session of the Commission on Sustainable Development
E/CN.17/2005/12 - Human settlements, water and SIDS

(y) Reaffirm that the Commission for Sustainable Development should continue to be the high-level commission responsible for sustainable development within the United Nations system;

(z) Also reaffirm the mandate of the Commission as stipulated in Agenda 21, General Assembly resolution 47/191 of 22 December 1992 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation as well as Economic and Social Council resolution 2003/61 of 25 July 2003 on the future programme, organization and methods of work of the Commission;
(aa) Support, strengthen and implement voluntary monitoring, reporting and assessment of the thematic areas of water, sanitation and human settlements at the national and regional levels and through existing mechanisms at the global level to keep track of progress in achieving sustainable development, bearing in mind the specific needs of developing countries, by the following measures:
(i) Improving data collection at all levels;
(ii) Enhancing the comparability of data at the regional and global levels;
(iii) Facilitating the contribution of major groups to national reporting activities;
(iv) Requesting the Commission secretariat to update the policy options and practical measures contained in the Chairman?s summary of the interactive discussions held at the Intergovernmental Preparatory Meeting, on a regular basis, so as to make it a living document, and to develop web-based tools to disseminate information on implementation and best practices;
(bb) Encourage Member States to continue to work on the development and application of indicators for sustainable development at the national level, including integration of gender aspects, on a voluntary basis, in line with their national conditions and priorities, and in this regard invites the international community to support the efforts of developing countries;

Follow-up on water and sanitation

(cc) Requests UN-Water to give equal consideration to the thematic issues for the Commission?s thirteenth session of sanitation and water in its terms of reference, and to promote, within its mandate, system-wide inter-agency cooperation and coordination among relevant United Nations organizations, funds and programmes on these issues, and requests the Secretary-General to include in his report to the Commission the activities of UN-Water as they relate to the aforementioned thematic areas, including the roles and responsibilities of relevant United Nations organizations, funds and programmes in implementing and monitoring the water and sanitation agenda, including identifying duplication, overlap and gaps;
4. Decides to devote, in 2008 and 2012, without prejudice to the programme, organization and methods of work of the Commission adopted at its eleventh session, a separate segment at the end of its review sessions, for a duration to be determined by the Bureau in advance, using one to two days as a benchmark, to monitor and follow up the implementation of decisions on water and sanitation, and their interlinkages, taken at the Commission?s thirteenth session;

Follow-up on human settlements

5. Requests UN-Habitat as the focal agency for human settlements, to facilitate, in close collaboration with relevant United Nations organizations and programmes as well as other partners, effective global monitoring of progress in the implementation of human settlements goals and targets, as well as measures agreed at the thirteenth session of the Commission concerning human settlements;
6. Calls upon Member States to strengthen the capacities of UN-Habitat to provide, within its mandate, increased assistance to developing countries, and countries with economies in transition, including through the current pilot phase of the Slum Upgrading Facility;

Follow-up on small island developing States

7. Decides, recalling the decision taken by the Commission at its eleventh session that small island developing States-related issues were to be both considered cross-cutting issues at each session of the Commission and included in the thematic cluster for the Commission in 2014/2015, to devote one day of the review sessions of the Commission to the review of the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States11 focusing on that year?s thematic cluster, as well as on any new developments regarding the sustainable development efforts of small island developing States using existing modalities. In this regard, the Secretary-General is requested to submit a report to the Commission at its review session concerning progress and obstacles in respect of sustainable development in small island developing States and making recommendations on enhancing its implementation.


Reference
E/CN.17/1994/20
[Arabic] [Chinese] [English] [French] [Russian] [Spanish] 2nd session of the Commission on Sustainable Development
E/CN.17/1994/20 - Human settlements

2. Human settlements

116. The Commission takes note, with appreciation, of the Secretary-General?s
report (E/CN.17/1994/5) and the background paper prepared by the United Nations
Centre for Human Settlements (Habitat) on promoting sustainable human
settlements development.

117. The Commission recognizes, in the context of human settlements development,
the importance of achieving sustainability and the goals of Agenda 21,
particularly in view of the high rate of urbanization and the consequent
challenge to the local and global environment, and also in view of the lack of
shelter and sanitation for a large segment of the population in developing
countries. While the urban development patterns in a number of countries,
particularly in the developed countries, provide for a satisfactory standard of
living for sizeable parts of the population, they also place an extraordinary
strain on the world?s ecological resources and systems.

118. The Commission suggests that Governments take a balanced approach to all
programme areas of chapter 7 and chapter 21 of Agenda 21. Land-resource
management, urban transportation, access to adequate shelter, and the management
of solid wastes, especially in developing countries, are areas requiring greater
attention. The Commission notes the close linkage between human settlements and
the issues of water supply, sanitation and health.

119. The Commission draws special attention to the potential contributions of
the second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), to be
held in Istanbul in June 1996, and to the crucial role of the United Nations
Centre for Human Settlements. That would be a key Conference, which was
expected to support and further advance the objectives of Agenda 21.

120. The Commission draws attention to the linkages between unsatisfactory
shelter and environmental conditions and the lack of access to land and security
of tenure, on the one hand, and social divisions, violence and the degradation
of personal safety, on the other. Governments at all levels should recognize
that insecure and inhuman conditions for living and working both violate human
rights and are a primary cause of social conflict and violent disruptions of
civil society.

121. The Commission recognizes that human settlements development need to take a
comprehensive approach that treats urban and rural problems as integral parts of
the overall human settlements equation, since developing countries, in
particular, face rapid urban population growth due, inter alia, to increasing
migration from rural to urban areas.

122. The Commission recommends that Governments and the international community
give priority attention to human settlements programmes and policies to reduce
urban pollution and to improve and expand urban services and infrastructure,
particularly in low-income communities. Those efforts are necessary to
safeguarding human health, preserving the integrity of the natural environment
and ensuring economic productivity. The "brown agenda" (a concept that
addresses urban pollution resulting from inadequate water supply, sanitation and
drainage, poor industrial and solid-waste management, and air pollution) is also
highlighted as an umbrella approach to urban pollution issues that can be used
to link and better implement Agenda 21 in the urban context.

123. The Commission welcomes the relevant provisions of the Programme of Action
for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.

124. The Commission underscores the crucial importance of action at the local
level and confirms the importance of the local Agenda 21 process, as specified
in chapter 28 of Agenda 21. The participation of people at the local level,
including major group representatives, to facilitate effective local action and
efficient management of human settlements, is indispensable. Local authorities
and their national and international associations are important partners for the
decentralized implementation of appropriate human settlements programmes.

125. The Commission notes the financial and technical requirements needed to
implement the human settlement activities set out in Agenda 21 and emphasizes
the substantial resource and technology gap faced by developing countries and
economies in transition in addressing human settlements problems.

126. The Commission also notes the great potential that exists within the human
settlements context for increased economic activity, job creation and related
revenues, inter alia, as a result of building construction programmes. Such
positive potentials can be realized through appropriate sustainable human
settlements policies that emphasize greater use of local materials and human
resources, encouraging and supporting design efficiency and energy-saving
methods, among other initiatives. In that context, the work-place and the role
of workers can be an important focus for the implementation of policies and
programmes.

127. The integral role of the private sector in the development and
dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable building materials, increased
energy and materials efficiency, and sustainable waste management is underlined.
In that context, the Commission particularly highlights the need to encourage
local, small and micro-enterprises.

128. The Commission emphasizes the need to strengthen human settlements
management capacity, where appropriate, as a necessary prerequisite for the
successful implementation of all human settlements-related components of
Agenda 21. Particular emphasis is also placed on building the capacity of
relevant major groups to encourage and enhance their contributions to local,
regional and international human settlements development efforts.

129. The Commission notes, in regard to solid-waste management, that the
promotion of waste recycling and reuse provides a unique opportunity in waste
management; it helps to solve the problem of environmental degradation and has
the potential to alleviate urban poverty and generate income among the urban
poor. However, that requires supply-side policies aimed at promoting and
supporting resource recovery, and demand-side policies aimed at stimulating
markets for recovered materials and products.

130. The Commission recognizes that many developing countries are dependent on
imported technologies for infrastructure development and improvements, including
for solid-waste management, and notes that the international community has an
important role to play in facilitating the transfer of environmentally sound
technology. At the same time, full use should be made of locally available
technologies that can be adapted to existing needs.

131. The Commission, therefore:
(a) Calls upon Governments to strengthen the networks of small- and
medium-sized settlements in rural regions in order to provide attractive
settlement opportunities and ease migratory pressure on large metropolises, and
recommends that Governments implement programmes of rural development by
expanding employment opportunities, providing educational and health facilities,
strengthening technical infrastructure, and encouraging rural enterprises and
sustainable agriculture, and further calls upon the international community to
support those rural development programmes;
(b) Recommends that Governments and the private sector, particularly in
the developed countries, increase their efforts to develop new and
environmentally sound technologies for urban transportation, other
infrastructure and buildings, as well as environmentally sound products, in
order to reduce demands on natural resources. Those technologies and products,
as well as the information related to them should, where appropriate, be made
accessible to urban and environmental authorities in all countries;
(c) Calls upon Governments to strengthen the economic, political and
social institutions of civil society so as to enhance, especially at the
municipal level, the capacity of local authorities, training institutions,
community groups and non-governmental organizations to act as effective partners
and organizers of sustainable development activities at the local level. The
Commission further invites local authorities and their associations to exchange
know-how on the effective management of human settlements, including
satisfactory coordination and burden-sharing among central city and suburban
local authorities in urban agglomerations, and, as appropriate, in rural areas.

132. The Commission, further:
(a) Requests Governments, the international community, the United Nations
Centre for Human Settlements, the private sector and non-governmental
organizations to fully support the preparatory process for the Second United
Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II), including at the regional
level;
(b) Urges appropriate United Nations agencies, through the Inter-Agency
Committee on Sustainable Development (IACSD), to mobilize legal, economic and
environmental expertise for the development of equitable and sustainable land
use planning and management strategies for human settlements of all sizes;
(c) Calls upon Governments and international organizations to emphasize
"best practice" in delivery mechanisms, including demand-driven systems,
increased networking, bottom-up capacity-building, demonstration/replication
strategies, regional coordination and decentralized local management and, in
that context, called for a review of "best practice" applications to provide a
basis for the systematic dissemination of effective models;
(d) Invites the appropriate United Nations agencies and organizations,
through IACSD, to launch a demonstration initiative for environmentally friendly
urban transport. That initiative should draw together the best available
expertise on urban infrastructure management and should facilitate the exchange
of knowledge on "best practices" between developed and developing countries.
The Secretary-General is invited to report to the Commission on progress in that
area by 1997;
(e) Invites appropriate United Nations agencies and international
organizations, through IACSD, to consider the feasibility of preparing and
implementing integrated environment-upgrading demonstration projects for human
settlements in three mega-cities: one each in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, and
Latin America and the Caribbean. The Secretary-General is invited to report to
the Commission on progress in that area by 1997;
(f) Calls upon Governments and international agencies, in particular the
United Nations Centre for Human Settlements and UNIDO to support and encourage
local, small and micro-enterprises, which, particularly in the context of local
development, develop and offer environmentally sustainable building material
components and related products, as well as environmentally sound energy
systems;
(g) Urges Governments and international organizations to give more
concerted attention to the management of solid wastes. That should include
promoting greater awareness of the environmental and health risks from solid
waste and the impact of changes in production and consumption patterns on the
volume and type of such waste, as well as utilizing the resources and potential
of the private sector, including the formal and informal sectors, and using
indigenous technologies and techniques;
(h) Calls upon appropriate United Nations agencies and international
organizations, through IACSD, to establish joint programming mechanisms in the
area of human settlements that are specifically focused on urban services and
urban poverty and their linkages with health and the environment and urges donor
organizations to support those joint programming initiatives;
(i) Urges United Nations agencies and other international bodies to
include in their urban monitoring and reporting activities appropriate
indicators for the environmental performance of cities;
(j) Urges the international community, in carrying out its assistance
activities, to explore, through appropriate authorities, the full range of joint
programming options and new alliances with, inter alia, local authorities and
associations of local authorities, national and international non-governmental
organizations, the private sector and women?s and community groups;
(k) Requests the Secretary-General, in the context of reporting on
section III of Agenda 21, to give special attention to the role of local
authorities and to the progress they are making in the implementation of the
human settlements objectives of Agenda 21;
(l) Invites the task manager to continue to monitor progress made by the
United Nations and other international agencies in implementing chapter 7 of
Agenda 21 and to inform the Commission periodically of such progress through
IACSD;
(m) Calls upon Governments and international organizations to focus
greater attention on meeting the capital investment requirements of human
settlements through enhanced resource-mobilization strategies and policies that
facilitate greater flows of private investment in infrastructure and services
and all forms of public and private sector partnership in human settlements
development;
(n) Urges Governments to mobilize financial and technological resources,
as agreed in chapters 33 and 34 of Agenda 21 and in the relevant decisions of
the Commission, and to respond to the priorities contained in the present
decision.


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