132. We note that transportation and mobility are central to sustainable development. Sustainable transportation can enhance economic growth and improve accessibility. Sustainable transport achieves better integration of the economy while respecting the environment. We recognize the importance of the efficient movement of people and goods, and access to environmentally sound, safe and affordable transportation as a means to improve social equity, health, resilience of cities, urban-rural linkages and productivity of rural areas. In this regard, we take into account road safety as part of our efforts to achieve sustainable development.
133. We support the development of sustainable transport systems, including energy efficient multi-modal transport systems, notably public mass transportation systems, clean fuels and vehicles, as well as improved transportation systems in rural areas. We recognize the need to promote an integrated approach to policymaking at the national, regional and local levels for transport services and systems to promote sustainable development. We also recognize that the special development needs of landlocked and transit developing countries need to be taken into account while establishing sustainable transit transport systems. We acknowledge the need for international support to developing countries in this regard.
1. The Commission reiterates the continuing relevance and importance of all the principles agreed in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, in particular the principle that, in view of the different contributions to global environmental degradation, States have common but differentiated responsibilities, as set out in principle 7, and emphasizes that:
(a) Financial resources and mechanisms play a key role in the implementation of Agenda 21. In general, the financing for the implementation of Agenda 21 will come from a country?s own public and private sectors. For developing countries, official development assistance is a main source of external funding, and substantial new and additional funding for sustainable development and the implementation of Agenda 21 will be required. Hence, all financial commitments of Agenda 21, particularly those contained in chapter 33, and the provisions with regard to new and additional resources that are both adequate and predictable need to be urgently fulfilled. Renewed efforts are essential to ensure that all sources of funding contribute to economic growth, social development and environmental protection in the context of sustainable development and the implementation of Agenda 21;
(b) There is a need for favourable access to and transfer of environmentally sound technologies, in particular to developing countries, through supportive measures that promote technology cooperation and that should enable transfer of necessary technological know-how as well as building up of economic, technical and managerial capabilities for the efficient use and further development of transferred technology. Technology cooperation involves joint efforts by enterprises and Governments, both suppliers of technology and its recipients. Therefore, such cooperation entails an iterative process, involving government, the private sector and research and development facilities, to ensure the best possible results from transfer of technology. Successful long-term partnerships in technology cooperation necessarily require continuing systematic training and capacity-building at all levels over an extended period of time.
2. Decisions concerning transport issues should reflect the fact that economic development, social development and environmental protection are interdependent and mutually reinforcing components of sustainable development.
3. To contribute to sustainable development, transport should, inter alia, be affordable, safe and ensure mobility, should provide access to all sectors of society on an equitable basis, and should be efficient and environmentally sound.
4. The challenges of policy-making in the transport sector are complex and multidimensional. Transport-related activities affect economic growth, social development and the environment in many diverse ways. They pose particular problems in the context of urbanization and a separate set of challenges in rural and remote areas, including in mountainous areas. Land, maritime and aviation transport present different issues for resolution but also need to be considered. The social dimensions of transport include affordability and the impact on, inter alia, community health and safety of transport services, infrastructure, gender and age aspects, employment and labour conditions and providing for those with special needs.
5. There are many facets to the impact on the environment of transport-related activities and infrastructure. Accidents, noise and air pollution are adverse impacts associated with the transport sector. Emissions from vehicles and other modes of transport are harmful to human health and the environment. The demand for transport services is significant and likely to rise. Transport systems affect human settlements in various ways, including urban conditions and land use.
6. A further challenge facing policy makers is the wide variety of stakeholders whose input is relevant in formulating policies and whose assistance is often essential in implementing them effectively. Within and between Governments, coordination and consultation are essential in moving towards sustainable development. Dialogue with major groups is encouraged.
7. Lack of access to transport significantly impacts women?s health and limits their having access to markets and other income-generating activities. Transport should be made available and accessible to women in order to facilitate social and economic progress.
8. The Commission notes that there is a strong need for adequate and efficient, economically viable, socially acceptable and environmentally sound transport systems, especially in developing countries, where accessibility and affordability are important for the eradication of poverty, improving access to social services and access to employment opportunities. Prospects for achieving sustainable development depend on taking transport into account in urban and rural planning, public infrastructure decisions, and policies and measures to eradicate poverty and promote gender equality.
9. The Commission emphasizes that progress towards achieving sustainable development can be facilitated by technical innovations, and encourages research, development and the transfer of cleaner technologies.
10. Aware of the risk to human health, safety and the environment from transboundary movements of hazardous substances, States should act in a manner consistent with their respective obligations under relevant international instruments.
11. The Commission emphasizes the importance of international cooperation within the framework of Agenda 21 in ensuring that transport is considered within the general framework of sustainable development. Recognizing that achieving sustainable development will be strengthened by international cooperation and actions specific to national circumstances and emphasizing the need to and the importance of providing assistance to developing countries as well as countries with economies in transition in order to achieve sustainable development, the Commission recommends that the international community cooperate to:
(a) Facilitate the transfer of cleaner technologies, promotion of energy efficiency and improvement of transport systems for passengers and goods, particularly mass transit, using all relevant financial institutions and mechanisms, and taking fully into account paragraph 1 (a) above;
(b) Encourage international financial institutions and other donors to make transport for sustainable development a priority;
(c) Assist capacity-building, including through human resource development and institutional strengthening, as well as through programmes for developing countries based on training programmes to expand technical and planning skills;
(d) Support partnerships between public and private sectors to promote investment in the transport sector that will facilitate the introduction of environmentally sound technologies and infrastructure consistent with sustainable development goals based on national priorities and tailored to the needs of both women and men;
(e) Assist the development of endogenous capacity for both development and utilization of environmentally sound technologies;
(f) Improve the compilation, assessment and analysis of transport-related information in policy-making and planning at the national, regional and international levels, and encourage the use of the latest technologies to facilitate the sharing of information and databases;
(g) Promote efforts to raise public awareness on transport for sustainable development;
(h) Promote transport policies aimed at improving the safety of transport services;
(i) Promote projects for the construction, modernization and maintenance of public transport and communication infrastructure in rural and remote mountainous areas;
(j) Assist with the implementation of the recommendations of the General Assembly at its nineteenth special session on the progressive phasing out of the use of lead in gasoline and consider reducing the levels of sulphur and benzene in fuel as well as particulates in vehicle exhaust by making available information, technical assistance, capacity-building, and funding to developing countries, including time-bound transfer of technology;
(k) Encourage the use and technology transfer of cleaner fuels;
(l) Promote further international cooperation between Governments, business, research organizations and NGOs to share knowledge of developments in policy-making, planning and technology, and help ensure that the potential benefits of such developments are made widely available.
12. The Commission encourages international organizations, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), as well as Governments, in fostering transport systems that are affordable and do improve safety and reduce pollution and other negative impacts on the environment.
13. The Commission encourages member States of the International Maritime Organization to consider ratifying annex VI to the Marpol International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships.
14. The Commission also advocates closer cooperation and coordination among existing organizations involved in transport activities with the goal of enhancing complementarity and minimizing duplication.
15. The Commission encourages regional cooperation through the better utilization of the regional commissions, existing regional development banks and existing regional organizations and mechanisms, by:
(a) Considering the exchange of successful experience and the sharing and collection of data as possible areas of cooperation at the regional level, both between and within regions;
(b) Examining the possibility of strengthening existing transboundary agreements for reducing pollution and its implications for health and environment, in accordance with the needs and characteristics of each region;
(c) Financing transport projects that contribute to sustainable development, as appropriate, at the regional level;
(d) Emphasizing the potential of a coordinated approach to integrated land-use planning and infrastructure planning within regions for influencing travel demand and for promoting more sustainable transport patterns.
Recommendations at the national level
16. In integrating economic, social and environmental objectives, it is important that a broad package of policy instruments, including regulation, economic instruments, internalization of environmental cost in market prices, environmental and social impact analysis and information, be worked out in the light of country specific conditions to ensure that approaches are effective and cost-efficient, taking fully into account the economic, social and environmental conditions of all countries, in particular developing countries.
17. At the national level, Governments, taking into account their respective national priorities and circumstances, are encouraged, with the support of the international community, to consider, as appropriate:
(a) Promoting sustainability by integrating economic, social and environmental considerations in decision-making in the transport sector;
(b) Developing transportation systems which are responsive to development needs and, where affordable, reduce negative environmental impacts, including through measures to rationalize traffic flows and road structures, to manage transportation demand and facilitate the flow of and access to goods;
(c) Taking further steps to reduce noise from transport and make use of better vehicle technology, inspection and maintenance schemes for vehicles and cleaner conventional fuels, as well as the development and promotion of alternative fuels;
(d) Encouraging the involvement of the private sector in improvements in efficiency and emission control of each mode of vehicle, including the design of cleaner vehicles;
(e) Promoting capacity-building and appropriate use of information technology, including efforts to improve local institutional capacity and coordination on transport issues and issues that have an impact on transport;
(f) Facilitating, wherever possible, an environment conducive to research, development and technological innovation in the transport sector;
(g) Promoting links between different modes of transport with a view to making more efficient use of existing infrastructure and increasing use of more efficient modes of transportation including intermodal transport systems;
(h) Promoting access to efficient, safe, affordable and environmentally sound public transport systems, including for rural, remote, urban and inter-urban transport services;
(i) Undertaking further measures aimed at promoting road safety;
(j) Maintaining and promoting access to affordable transport systems, and examining the potential for increasing reliance on low-cost, readily available modes of transport, including safe non-motorized transport;
(k) Taking an integrated approach to policy-making on affordable transport services and systems which recognize the potential that integrated land use and infrastructure planning, public transport and goods delivery networks and road planning have as tools for managing demand for transport services and creating more environmentally sound patterns;
(l) Promoting gender-sensitive planning and planning for the aged and disabled for transport services and systems, and increasing participatory, inclusive transport planning approaches which address social needs;
(m) Promoting public participation in transport decision-making involving all stakeholders and access to information, inter alia, to enable consumers to make informed choices;
(n) Encouraging the planning for and provision of safe infrastructure for cycling transport.