This study is part of the Sustainable Development in the 21st century (SD21) project. The project is
implemented by the Division for Sustainable Development of the United Nations Department of
Economic and Social Affairs and funded by the European Commission - Directorate-General for
Environment - Thematic Programme for Environment and sustainable management of Natural Resources,
including energy (ENRTP).
Acknowledgements: The study was carried out by Ephraim Nkonya (IFPRI), who coordinated inputs
from a team of authors that comprised Alain Karsenty (CIRAD), Siwa Msangi (IFPRI), Carlos Souza Jr
(IMAZON), Mahendra Shah (IIASA), Joachim von Braun (ZEF, University of Bonn), Gillian Galford
(Woods Hole Research Center), and SooJin Park (Seoul National University). Supervision of the study
was done by David Le Blanc (UN-DESA). The study relied on a team of peer reviewers that comprised
Iddo Wernick (Rockefeller University), Ken Chomitz (World Bank), Arild Angelsen (University of
Norway), Gerald Nelson (IFPRI), and Timothy Thomas (IFPRI).
Disclaimer: This publication was produced with the assistance of the European Union. The contents of
this publication are the sole responsibility of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union. Similarly, the views
expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the United
Nations or its senior management.