Promoting Sustainable Production and Consumption: Five Policy Studies
UNDESA, 1999
DESA Discussion Paper No. 7


Policy development for promoting sustainable production and consumption has focused in recent years on economic instruments, such as environmental taxes and emission trading systems, often integrated into regulatory regimes. Regulations can ensure that policy objectives are met, while economic incentives can reduce the costs of meeting objectives, generate revenues to facilitate cleaner production and social development, and build political support for the policies. The policy studies include:
- Acid rain reduction (United States);
- Leaded gasoline phase-out (Slovakia, United States);
- Palm oil effluent reduction (Malaysia);
- Tradable carbon offset instruments (Costa Rica);
- Tradable water rights (Chile).

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