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Peru
Input to Questionnaire related to the development of Sustainable Development Goals

    In Peru’s preliminary perspectives, Sustainable Development Goals are integrated sets of voluntary, universally applicable global goal statements organized by thematic areas, with time-bound, quantitative targets and a suite of indicators to be adapted at national level, that aim to catalyze sound pathways to sustainable development and to balance economic, social and environmental dimensions and reflect the interconnections between them.




    Equality: Poverty eradication; decent work and social protection; Education, Gender equality
    Water: water ecosystem conservation, sustainable water management, reduction of water pollution
    Oceans and sea health: Reduction in marine pollution and acidification, Sustainable management of marine and coastal ecosystems
    Health ecosystems: ecosystem conservation and restoration, sustainable ecosystem management, reduction of ecosystem pollution; Access to genetic resources and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilization, assure the financing for the Implementation of Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020.
    Food security: reduction of the land degradation, reduction of pollution with agrochemical products
    Sustainable agriculture: reduction of pollution with agrochemical products





    2. How might the SDGs strive to balance the economic, social and environmental pillars of sustainable development?
    Reflect social, economic and environmental dimensions within each SDG,
    possibly through the associated targets
    b. Integrate the MDGs, suitably modified/updated for post-2015, into a larger
    sustainable development framework
    c. Expand MDG7 (‘environmental sustainability’) into a number of goals with a
    natural/environmental resource dimension (water, food, energy, etc.)
    d. Other (please describe)



    To achieve balance demands to prioritize people´s quality of life, because these include health and wellbeing. In order to achieve this the economic tools are needed so that each person could have and assured basic shopping basket and also be able to archive social objectives that allow the development of the assured personal, equality and social wellbeing, finally, the life standard is only achieved by having as a central point the environmental health which reflexes on the health of the people and the planet. Not without guarantee the wellbeing of future generations, this objective and, to achieve a long timing sustainable life standard will only be possible if one of the targets is to assure superior education for every individual. As a result of the education most of the objectives will be solved automatically, such as reducing environmental risks and guarantee health.





    To achieve the objectives of sustainable development, the process has to start improving the economic indicators, a process that in Peru has taken place for an estimate of already 10 years. This process must now focus on the suppression of basic social problems as citizenship insecurity, social and gender equality, health to finally be united to the development of the aspects of the preservation of environmental health.





    Environmental objectives: for Peru, the main environmental objective is the conservation of forest resources, including within them the preservation of Amazonian rain forests, dry forests and Andean forests. It´s necessary to work in the restoration of dry and Andean forests, this will allow to prevent disasters caused by the consequences of deglatiation and weather changes. The preservation and restoration of dry forests and mangrove swamps is primordial for facing the problems caused by the changes on the sea level and raining regimes.




    The preservation of this environment will allow to set a difference between Peru and other countries presenting a comparative advantage correctly managed, with either ecosystem services, eco-touristic concessions or charcoal bonuses it could become advantage, social and economical of the country allowing also the conservation of the cultural diversity of it´s people.




    3. Based on your experience with MDGs or other existing goals, what would be the key use of SDGs for your country (select at most two)?



    a. Defining national policies
    b. Reviewing the impact of national policies
    c. Addressing key pressure leading to unsustainability
    d. Helping to balance economic, social and environmental pillars in policy making
    e. Guiding development cooperation
    f. Other (please describe)
    a. Defining national policies
    d. Focus in the pressures that lead to an unsustainable condition as the economic pressure without considering it´s effects on the environment. Including also the illegal pressure over the wood resources, deforestation for the growing of coca and illegal mining industry which gives serious negative outcomes over all environments.



    4. How can “universally applicable” SDGs be made practically relevant for countries at
    different levels of development? (Please refer to your country’s situation as appropriate.)




    For Peru one of the main issues to prioritize is the sustainability of the natural resources that, although they are still preserved, demand a kind of politics that allows to ensure their preservation keeping the balance between the three pillars of sustainability and offering an equal possibility to access and use this resources in a sustainable way, through economical tools, so that the map of poverty and inequality of gender does not look the same any more as the map of resource preservation.
    5. The SDGs are supposed to be “global in nature”. Should targets associated with those
    goals be:




    c. common but differentiated depending on country characteristics and level of development.




    All though in all countries the three pillars of sustainability must develop themselves further, not in all of them the three pillars are in the same conditions, that´s why, depending on the priorities of each country, more emphasis will be given to one of the three pillars, being also each country different in it´s initial conditions of development as in it´s potentials. Peru specific characterizes itself for a great biological diversity. That´s why one of the priorities is to unite the sustainable development to the preservation of biodiversity. So that this biodiversity will not be an obstacle, but a potential good to achieve sustainable development.





    6. Which existing goals and targets (e.g., MDGs, goals/targets in Agenda 21, JPOI) do you think should be incorporated – perhaps in updated form – in a proposal for sustainable development goals?






    From the general goal of the Millennium Ecosystems Assessment (United Nations Organization), Peru has made an important progress towards equality, tolerance, poverty eradication and access to primary education. However, there are only small steps towards the achievement of the goal “respect the nature”. At the present time, the basic problems in Peru are in the process of being solved; this is why this is the perfect time to start working around this goal. Fulfill this goal, will mean to fight against the inequity of the population that depends on nature through primary activities.






    According to this, it is necessary to be aware that preserving natural areas can be a way of achieving sustainable development with equity and social inclusion. In relation with this statement, Peru has a comparative advantage in comparison with other countries, for which the Peruvian government is working in developing a reliable statistical data base that allows calculating the value of natural resources. This, at the same time, will support the improvement of the economy of people who depend directly on natural resources. This will promote the respect of cultural diversity, and the adequate governance of the natural resources.






    In that sense, the main axes of environmental sustainability choose by the national government are: the stabilization of climate, to stop the acidification of oceans, the prevention of soil’s degradation, sustainable use of water, sustainable use of resources, and protection of natural resources, including biodiversity.






    7. What specific steps can be taken to ensure that the SDGs are coherent with and integrated into the UN development Agenda beyond 2015?




    The “development agenda” must encompass all the parallel tracks that right now are addressing development issues in an isolated manner.





    The MDG track must converge in the end with the launching of the SDG process in one single track.





    An adequate reform of the international framework for sustainable development, in particular of the UN main bodies dealing with sustainable development issues: ECOSOC, General Assembly; as well as relevant implementation bodies such as UNEP.





    To achieve an integrated Agenda, a fluent discussion between different countries must take place. This will depend on each country’s priorities, particular characteristics and available resources. Each country must have the freedom to choose and build their individual specific goals.





    8. How should assessments of progress toward the achievement of the SDGs be carried out at the global level?





    To measure the advances of the SDG, it is necessary to ensure the following instruments:
    Clear and concise goals, measurable in percentage terms or in a comparative value with previous years (this objective cannot be fulfilled in every country).



    A Time table with precise goals, activities and state of progress must be developed.



    Shared goals and specific country goals alongside with time tables must be developed for each country.




    9. What measures should be taken to make the process of developing a proposal for SDGs inclusive and participatory? How should civil society and other relevant stakeholders be engaged?




    Organization of Workshops, before and after the work group meeting, to present the results of the discussion to the different stakeholders.





    Dissemination and discussion of the group achievements through meetings with different stakeholders: university, NGOs, minority groups, assembly groups, Government, etc. The work with the different groups should take place in different cities from each country.
    Web pages, internet and other massive media will be important instruments to disseminate the work progress, depending on the country.





    10. What principles should underpin the development of the SDGs? (the UN TT report, for example, recommended adding (i) reducing inequalities and (ii) promoting human rights (iii) ensuring sustainability);





    Ensuring sustainability
    Human dignity.
    Common but differentiated responsabilities.
    Equity
    Education in the ethics of sustainability




    11. How should a new Global Partnership for Development be constructed within or around the SDGs?




    Work groups should be established at the world level (UNO countries), regional level (country groups with similar characteristic), and at the local level (in each country including different stakeholders (Universities, Institutes, ONGs and State). The most important thing is not the composition of the group but the definition of responsibilities for each group, in order to achieve the objective on time.




    12. Do you have any other observations, ideas or inputs you would like to offer to inform the initial work of the open working group on sustainable development goals?





    Of great importance is to measure the progress (in quantifiable terms) of the SDG objectives so that they can be compared between countries and along different years. A countable monitoring system must be put in place to measure this progress.
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