The Future We Want - Rio+20
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Oceans chapter (paragraphs 158-177)
158. We recognize that oceans, seas and coastal areas form an integrated and essential component of the Earth's ecosystem and are critical to sustaining it, and that international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and their resources.
We stress the importance of the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and seas and of their resources for sustainable development, including through their contributions to poverty eradication, sustained economic growth, food security and creation of sustainable livelihoods and decent work, while at the same time protecting biodiversity and the marine environment and addressing the impacts of climate change.
We therefore commit to protect, and restore, the health, productivity and resilience of oceans and marine ecosystems, and to maintain their biodiversity, enabling their conservation and sustainable use for present and future generations, and to effectively apply an ecosystem approach and the precautionary approach in the management, in accordance with international law, of activities having an impact on the marine environment, to deliver on all three dimensions of sustainable development.
159. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
160. Capacity-building, cooperation in marine scientific research and technology transfer
161. Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects
162. Conservation and sustainable use of marine biodiversity beyond areas of national jurisdiction
163. Marine pollution, including marine debris, especially plastic, persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals and nitrogen-based compounds, from a number of marine and land-based sources, including shipping and land run-off.
164. Alien invasive species
165. Sea-level rise and coastal erosion
166. Ocean acidification and the impacts of climate change on marine and coastal ecosystems and resources
167. Potential environmental impacts of ocean fertilization
168. Meet 2015 JPoI target to maintain or restore stocks to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield on an urgent basis - urgently maintain or restore all stocks at least to levels that can produce the maximum sustainable yield, in the shortest time feasible, as determined by their biological characteristics.
169. 1995 Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks, Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and the FAO international plans of action and technical guidelines
170. Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing
171. FAO Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing
172. Transparency and accountability in fisheries management by regional fisheries management organizations
173. Subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and overcapacity
174. Identification and mainstreaming of strategies by 2014 that further assist developing countries
175. Access to fisheries and the importance of access to markets, by subsistence, small-scale and artisanal fisherfolk and women fish workers, as well as indigenous peoples and their communities
176. Coral reefs and mangroves
177. Area-based conservation measures, including marine protected areas, as a tool for conservation of biological diversity and sustainable use of its components.