Goal n.12 of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development aims to ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns.
Paragraph 28 of the 2030 Agenda reads: “We (Countries) commit to making fundamental changes in the way that our societies produce and consume goods and services. Governments, international organizations, the business sector and other non-state actors and individuals must contribute to changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns, including through the mobilization, from all sources, of financial and technical assistance to strengthen developing countries’ scientific, technological and innovative capacities to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production. We encourage the implementation of the 10-Year Framework of Programmes on Sustainable Consumption and Production. All countries take action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries”
As defined by the Oslo Symposium in 1994, sustainable consumption and production (SCP) is about "the use of services and related products, which respond to basic needs and bring a better quality of life while minimizing the use of natural resources and toxic materials as well as the emissions of waste and pollutants over the life cycle of the service or product so as not to jeopardize the needs of further generations”
The concept of sustainable consumption and production was later recognized in the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, adopted in 2002 at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD). On that occasion, sustainable consumption and production was identified as one of the three overarching objectives of, and essential requirements for, sustainable development, together with poverty eradication and the management of natural resources in order to foster economic and social development. It was acknowledged that fundamental changes in the way societies produce and consume are indispensable for achieving global sustainable development.
The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation also called for all countries to promote sustainable consumption and production patterns, with the developed countries taking the lead and with all countries benefiting from the process, taking into account the Rio principles, including, inter alia, the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities as set out in Principle 7 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development.
Furthermore, the Plan called in its Chapter 3 “Changing unsustainable patterns of consumption and production” for governments, relevant international organizations, the private sector and all major groups to play an active role in changing unsustainable consumption and production patterns and more specifically,through its Paragraph 15, to "Encourage and promote the development of a 10-year framework of programmes (10YFP) in support of regional and national initiatives to accelerate the shift towards sustainable consumption and production to promote social and economic development within the carrying capacity of ecosystems"
The 10- year framework of programme (10YFP) on sustainable consumption and production patterns was adopted at the Rio+20 Conference, through Paragraph 226.
UNEP has been requested to serve as the 10YFP Secretariat and to establish and administer a Trust Fund to support SCP implementation in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. (A/C.2/67/L.45).
The Inter-Agency Coordination Group (IACG) of the 10YFP was established in May 2013, with the participation of 19 United Nations bodies. It is permanently chaired by UNEP and co-chaired for the period 2013-2015 by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs. The Coordination Group has been providing inputs for the development of the 10-year framework programmes and prepared a document on “SCP in the SDG [Sustainable Development Goals] Focus Areas”, which was issued in June 2014. The main areas of actions of the Inter-Agency Coordination Group include enhancing visibility within the UN and the raising awareness outside the UN, enhancing coherent inter-agency support for the implementation of the programmes, conducting joint research as well as promoting information exchange and responding to the 10YFP Board.