Strategic Framework 2030
15 May 2019
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Strategic Framework
Czech Republic 2030
Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, Department of Sustainable Development
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
Editor: Anna Kárníková
Chapter editors: Jiří Bendl (KA3), Aneta Haimannová (Annex 1), Václav Klusák (KA1), Aleš
Kuták (KA3), Milan Maděra (KA1), Zbyněk Machát (KA2), Jan Mareš (KA4), Martin Polášek
(KA6), Jakub Rudý (KA5), Václav Šebek (KA2)
Cover: Ondřej Holub
Edition: Michaela Valentová
Printed by Polygrafie of the Office of the Government of the Czech Republic in Prague in
2017
Number of pages: 116 + 274 pages of annexes
Electronic version: www.cr2030.cz
ISBN 978-80-7440-181-7 (printed version)
ISBN (online)
The Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030 was established as part of the project
System of Long-term Priorities for Sustainable Development in the State
Administration, reg. No.: CZ.03.4.74/0.0/0.0/15_019/0002185.
Dear readers,
Dear fellow citizens,
Ladies and gentlemen,
We are pleased to present the Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030; the result of two
years of hard work contributed by many people, institutions and organisations. The wide
scope of cooperation makes it a document which goes beyond government departments, but
also, I believe, it is a well-presented document that works across political parties. Its strength
and ability to convince stem from the fact that it captures a consensual view of strengths and
weaknesses of our country, and that it formulates goals crucial for long-term development of
the Czech Republic. Thanks to this approach, the Czech Republic proves it belongs to the
family of well-developed countries which are responsible not only for themselves but also for
global development.
Sustainable development represents respect for the world that we have inherited from our
ancestors. It stands for respect for the limits of nature and our planet as well as for the
provision of the same opportunities for development for generations to come. Quality water,
available water, quality soil and diverse landscape are not to be taken for granted and they
represent our common interests. A sustainable world appreciates their complexity and
mutual context. It is respectful towards humans and their society; it excludes no one.
However, efforts for a sustainable world do not seek to preserve it; they seek to improve it.
These efforts strive to create fundamentals for a life of quality and dignity for all of us.
Functional families and communities, public service that is of high quality and available,
dignified work; these are the foundation stones for a cohesive society. A green and
blossoming economy stands upon them, contributing to the stabilisation of economic
institutions while at the same time developing people’s creative abilities. I am glad to see that
today we are already able to find innovative and progressive industrial solutions and
implement them into our lives. I hope we will see them soon, for example in the responsible
use of land, dignified living and adapting our cities to the impacts of climate change as well.
Wherever we live, whether in cities or in the countryside, they are essential to our satisfaction
and if we look after these places properly then it will improve our quality of life. We are only
able to handle the challenges if the state administration adjusts its workings to suit the needs
of its citizens, increases its effectiveness and includes the citizens in the process of policy
preparation at all levels. We are only able to tackle the problems we are facing once all of us
feel that our efforts and engagement are meaningful. It is therefore necessary to create and
expand opportunities to include citizens, since building a civil society is an inherently neverending
process.
Obviously, we share many problems, regardless of our convictions. It is in the interest of all
of us to preserve the world as a place to live and to hand it over to future generations in a
better shape than we received it, if possible. However, we have not been successful in
achieving this for some time. Czech Republic 2030 was created as a set of instructions for
the public administration to change this situation. Transitioning to the sustainable way of life
places demands on each of us. That is why Czech Republic 2030 mainly represents a
challenge to go through with this transition, a hand reaching out to all who do not view the
future with indifference.
Czech Republic 2030 is our shared future.
Let us shape it together.
Bohuslav Sobotka

Contents
Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 8
Vision: How should the Czech Republic look in 2030? .........................................................11
Executive summary ..............................................................................................................12
Principles of sustainable development ..................................................................................16
Summary of analysis of the Czech Republic development ...................................................18
1 People and society .......................................................................................................29
2 Economic model ...........................................................................................................53
3 Resilient ecosystems ....................................................................................................69
4 Municipalities and regions.............................................................................................77
5 Global development ......................................................................................................94
6 Good governance ....................................................................................................... 103
Strategic framework implementation................................................................................... 112
List of abbreviations ........................................................................................................... 116
Bibliography ....................................................................................................................... 119
Appendices: ....................................................................................................................... 124
7
Dear readers,
We are pleased to present the Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030 called Czech
Republic 2030. It is a result of an update to the Strategic Framework of Sustainable
Development accepted by the government in 2010. The update commission has been
approved through the Government Resolution of 29 July 2015 No. 622 on the Sustainable
Development Agenda. The Strategic Framework is a result of an extensive participative
process that has been taking place since September 2015; firstly, it was coordinated by the
Department and then by the Division for Sustainable Development of the Office of the
Government of the Czech Republic. Learn more about the whole update process on the
website www.vlada.cz (bookmark ‘Advisory and working bodies’, The Government Council
for Sustainable Development).
Since it is a document covering a wide range of topics, we made its navigation and utilisation
as straightforward as possible. The first three sections (Introduction, Vision, and Principles of
Sustainable Development) define the basic development approach, introduce the process of
the document creation and describe the general vision of development up to the year 2030.
This is followed by a summary of the Development Analysis in the form of six SWOT
analyses (overviews of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats), one for each
key topic area. These SWOT analyses state the main conclusions of analytical works that
preceded the creation of draft sections of the individual key areas and their goals. The
complete Analysis of Development forms the entire Annex No. 2 of the Strategic Framework.
Visions extended for each area have been formulated in the key areas and a desirable
direction of development in the corresponding topic areas have been presented. Each key
area is concluded by a list of strategic goals and their specifications in the form of specific
objectives. Indicators in Annex No. 1 are designed to measure fulfilment of these specific
objectives. At the beginning of each key area, there is a graphic overview of sustainable
development goals set by the United Nations, with highlighted goals related to the given key
area.
For ease of readibility, the paragraphs of key areas are numbered (each of the key areas has
its own numerical series which always begins with 101, 201, etc.). Furthermore, the
paragraphs include summary descriptions in the left column. The footnotes include brief
bibliographic information that allows the reader to easily find the source in the bibliography
listed at the end. Departments’ strategic and conceptual documents stated are usually
available in the Strategy Database (www.databaze-strategie.cz).
8
Introduction
1. Czech Republic 2030 is a strategic framework that indicates the direction the
development of our country and society should take in the decades to come. Fulfilling it
should improve the quality of life in the Czech Republic and point our country towards
development sustainable in terms of social, economic and environmental aspects.
2. The document forms a basic framework for other strategic documents on national,
regional and local levels. It cannot replace sector documents and it does not aspire to do so.
With regards to links with these documents, it indicates areas that are decisive in terms of
long-term development of the Czech Republic. Specific steps leading to fulfilment of its
objectives fall under the corresponding Ministries and the Office of the Government of the
Czech Republic. It is desirable that fulfilling the objectives set out in Czech Republic 2030 is
also reflected in regional and local policies and everyday life of all citizens. The strategic
framework is not only designed for public administration; all citizens, companies, social
partners and not-for-profit organisations are invited and encouraged to actively participate to
fulfil its objectives.
3. Czech Republic 2030 replaces the Strategic Framework of Sustainable Development
accepted by the Government in 2010. It constitutes part of our common effort for sustainable
development in the European Union and at the same time it is a contribution of the Czech
Republic to fulfil the global Sustainable Development Objectives adopted by the United
Nations in 2015. These global objectives are common for all; however, each state decides on
the specific contents of the objectives depending on its own specifics as well as on the
specific ways to meet them.
4. By restoring the activity of the Government Council for Sustainable Development in
2014 and especially by creating the capacity to provide the sustainable development agenda
at the Office of the Government of the Czech Republic (Division of Sustainable
Development), the Czech Republic is continuing its long-term operations in the sustainable
development agenda both on a domestic and international level. Transferring the
responsibility to the Office of the Government has emphasised the strategic and crosssectional
importance of this agenda.
5. Czech Republic 2030 stems from two main approaches – quality of life and
sustainability. The quality of life perspective reminds us that the progress in society cannot
be evaluated solely using economic indicators. For example, GNP increases even when we
are stuck in a traffic jam and consuming fuel – the contribution made to the quality of life is at
least debatable. Apart from a macroeconomic perspective, we also need to take into account
individuals, families and societies and various aspects of their mutual interactions. Quality of
life presumes investments into human potential as a basis for development. Organisation for
economic cooperation and development therefore recommends monitoring various
parameters of quality of life, e.g. health, balance between work life and personal life,
education and skills, interpersonal relationships, civic engagement, environment quality,
personal safety and subjectively perceived life happiness.1 Naturally, these attributes are
predominantly (but not completely) determined by material conditions, i.e. income, wealth,
employment and profits.
1 OECD (2015) Measuring Well-being and Progress.
Introduction
9
6. Principles of sustainability remind us that society’s development is influenced by the
physical limits of our planet and landscape. Most natural resources are finite; by consuming
them excessively, we may damage our society, burdening our development with natural
debts. Czech Republic 2030 accepts that humans are part of nature; however, it
concentrates on people and their needs. The Act No. 17/1992 Col. on the environment states
that “sustainable development is such a development that meets the needs of the present
generations without compromising the ability to fulfil them to future generations while not
reducing the diversity of nature and preserving the natural functions of ecosystems.” The
sustainable development perspective has tended in recent years to become the main subject
of political debates in Europe and around the world. It tackles the contemporary world’s hot
issues such as climate change, demographic changes, loss of fertile soil and increasing
inequality. It also concerns increasing the way we all connect with the present world which
forces us to look at the world in context and take into account the responsibility of each state
to the global community.
7. Czech Republic 2030 was being formed at the time when the global community
formulated its vision of the future world at the United Nations in 17 Objectives of Sustainable
Development. The idea of development as a matter for developing countries has changed.
Each country has a responsibility to its citizens and the environment, and the responsibility
and development are never-ending processes.
8. During preparations of the strategic document, the international community also
adopted a new Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change, with ambitious goals. The Agreement is also complemented by the Global
Plan of Action on Disaster Risk Reduction. The awareness that climate change needs to be
prevented and prepared for, and that we need to identify and manage risk related to it, has
also been growing in the Czech society – mainly because of visible negative impacts, e.g.
torrential rains, droughts and other extreme weather conditions.
9. The Czech Republic has to think its future through, bearing in mind the complexity and
interrelationships of the present world. That is why Czech Republic 2030 puts the
development of our country in the context of global development. It uses the concept of socalled
global megatrends. These are development tendencies on a global level; we presume
they will significantly influence the ability to fulfil the development objectives set in Czech
Republic 2030 in the future. One of the keys to sustainable development is the ability to
make decisions in the long-term perspective, being aware of tremendous uncertainty and
taking into account various impacts of the solution selected. That is why this strategic
framework is now also thoroughly concerned with the issue of governance.
10. Czech Republic 2030 understands the topic of security as part of a more general
problem of resilience of societal and ecological systems. Maintaining security in the narrower
sense of the word – handling issues of defence and international security or issues such as
spreading weapons of mass destruction, organised crime and criminality in general, terrorism
or extremism – is conceptually covered sufficiently by existing strategic materials on the
basis of which necessary measures are taken. However, the resilience is two-part in terms of
sustainable development. The first part is resilience against various unexpected hazards, or
more specifically the capacity to foresee and manage crisis situations, whether of natural or
man-made origin. This capacity universally complements identified security threats; existing
activities in the field of security reflect it, and Czech Republic 2030 therefore only puts it into
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
10
the context of sustainable development. The other part is resilience in the form of wide-range
prevention on one hand and tools of adaptation to change on the other hand. This dimension
of resilience is emphasised in Czech Republic 2030 (in comparison to current strategic
materials from the field of security).
11. Czech Republic 2030 sums up the progress made by the Czech Republic, what risks it
is facing and what opportunities lie ahead in six key areas. The document formulates
strategic and specific objectives for each of these areas. Apart from three traditional pillars of
development (social, environmental, and economic), the key areas also concern the life in
regions and municipalities, the Czech contribution to development on a global level as well
as good governance. The division of the strategic document into six areas stems from expert
assessment of these in response to the appeal by the Prime Minister and the Chairman of
the Government Council for Sustainable Development which addressed all advisory bodies
of the government and not-for-profit organisation networks.
12. Czech Republic 2030 is the result of more than a one-year participative process taking
place within the Government Council for Sustainable Development and led by the
Department and subsequently the Division for Sustainable Development of the Office of
Government of the Czech Republic. Hundreds of participants from various sectors of society
were involved, including committees and task forces of the Government Council for
Sustainable Development.2 The preparation followed the assessment that verified the extent
of fulfilment of the Strategic Framework for Sustainable Development in the years 2010
to 2015.3
13. The adoption of Czech Republic 2030 will be followed by an implementation document
that shall provide its link to further documents and indicate specific measures to ensure its
fulfilment. The Office of the Government of the Czech Republic shall coordinate this
implementation: The Government Council for Sustainable Development and its committees
shall have the supporting role of an expert network. The implementation shall also include
monitoring of accordance with specific programmes and measures. The set of indicators in
Czech Republic 2030 serves to measure the progress in meeting specific objectives and also
as a foundation for regular assessment reports processing (see Strategic framework
implementation).
2 For more information on this process, see http://www.vlada.cz/cz/ppov/udrzitelny-rozvoj/aktuality/-informace-opriprave-
strategickeho-dokumentu-ceska-republika-2030-142957/.
3 The assessment is available here: http://www.vlada.cz/assets/ppov/udrzitelny-rozvoj/CR-2030/Vyhodnoceni-
SRUR_2016.pdf.
11
Vision: How should the Czech Republic look in 2030?
In 2030, the Czech Republic is a democratic legal state based on respect to civic, political,
economic and social rights of its citizens and has developed its identity based on its culture.
It provides a good quality of life for its population and at the same time respects natural and
territorial limits and protects biological diversity. It also purposefully helps to meet these
values elsewhere in the world. Sustainable development of the Czech Republic is measured
through improvements in the quality of life for each individual as well as in society as a
whole. It fulfils the needs of present generations without compromising the ability of future
generations to fulfil theirs. The Czech Republic is a cohesive, active and energetic society of
equal opportunities; it minimises structural and social inequality. Society and its decisionmaking
structures are resilient and flexible, able to recognise possible development risks in
time and respond rationally to unexpected changes and to the ever-changing dynamic of
global development. Resilience of societal relations and structures and factual problemsolving
are strengthened with discussion and agreement.
12
Executive summary
14. Czech Republic 2030 is a strategic framework for long-term development of Czech
society, the objective of which is to improve the quality of life of all inhabitants of the Czech
Republic while respecting natural limits. Based on the structural analysis of the contemporary
condition and trends, the document formulates strategic and specific objectives the Czech
Republic should fulfil by the year 2030. Their fulfilment will be the responsibility of relevant
central bodies of the state administration. At the same time, the Strategic Framework shall
also serve as a guide for development of regions and municipalities.
15. Czech Republic 2030 connects two major concepts – quality of life and sustainable
development. Quality of life cannot be measured exclusively by economic indicators such as
GNP; on the contrary, evaluating it requires monitoring of other aspects of human life as well,
such as health, balance between work life and personal life, education and skills,
interpersonal relationships, civic engagement, environment quality, personal safety and
subjectively perceived life happiness. We must monitor sustainability and evaluate it also in
terms of resource and energy intensity.
16. Czech Republic 2030 is the result of a process taking place within the Government
Council for Sustainable Development and led by the Department and subsequently the
Division for Sustainable Development of the Office of Government of the Czech Republic.
The Division was created in 2014 as a coordinating body for the sustainable development
agenda that was now the responsibility of the Prime Minister. This significantly contributes to
perceiving its importance and facilitates solving problems and topics beyond Ministries;
abroad, this structure is considered to be a paragon of good practice. The document
preparation began in 2015 and hundreds of experts were involved. The document has been
consulted with more than 100 organisations and institutions from the civic, private and
academic sectors. Nine expert committees of the Government Council for Sustainable
Development provided major support in this process.
17. Czech Republic 2030 replaces the Strategic Framework for Sustainable Development
from 2010 and other conceptual documents in this field. Its preparation has been influenced
by the adoption of Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development and its 17 Sustainable
Development Objectives created by the United Nations in September 2015 as well as the
adoption of the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change. Czech Republic 2030 serves as a foundation for the assessment of
development of the Czech Republic and its global responsibility. The government will report
regularly on the fulfilment of the Sustainable Development Objectives in the United Nations;
the first report is due in July 2017.
18. In its Introduction, the document formulates six cross-sectional principles of sustainable
development and indicates how to apply them in the creation of public policies. Czech
Republic 2030 formulates its objectives across a total of six key areas. People and society,
Economic model, Resilient ecosystems, Municipalities and regions, Global development and
Good governance. The key areas have been appointed on the basis of theses prepared on
the development acquired from key participants. Compared to the Strategic Framework for
Sustainable Development of the Czech Republic, the topic of governance proved to be an
important topic and it has recently been recognised as an autonomous key area. The
document also takes into account the external context of development of the Czech Republic
Executive Summary
13
and concerns so-called global megatrends and their impact on strategic objectives for the
development of the Czech Republic.
People and society
19. In terms of society, the Czech Republic has a range of structural advantages. It has a
universal system of social protection that successfully performs the function of a
contemporary “safety net”; in international comparison, the Czech Republic shows low
general income inequality, has a stable public education system, a good level of education
and quality healthcare available. In recent years, the general unemployment rate has been
decreasing; however, the rate of long-term unemployed within the total unemployment rate is
growing. Despite that, there are some crucial challenges identified in terms of long-term
development: The danger of poverty is above-average in certain population groups (the
elderly, single-parent families), there are gender inequalities in society, the social-economic
background of students significantly determines the results of their education. People are
living longer, but they end their days suffering from diseases and general health is
significantly influenced by social-economic conditions. Trends of demographic ageing,
progressive robotisation and job market digitalisation will continue to significantly influence
the development of society. Dealing with these trends in favour of quality of life will constitute
a major task of public policies. By 2030, the strategic document suggests increasing
investments into prevention and health literacy, strengthening system support for educators
as bearers of change in the education system, maintaining the employment rate via
development of the green and silver economy and increased involvement of
underrepresented groups on the job market.
Economic model
20. The economy of the Czech Republic must find new sources of growth after depleting
the growth model based on an influx of direct investments from abroad. The key aspect is
support of innovative initiatives in small and medium enterprises which have the biggest
growth potential as well as in large companies which form the largest part of the economy.
However, the economy must grow without increasing consumption of resources and energy
at the same pace. Therefore, the objective is to cancel the dependence of economic growth
on the growth of material and energetic consumption (so-called decoupling) by the year
2030. Another technological opportunity and at the same time a contribution to the
international efforts to mitigate climate change is gradual decarbonisation of the economy.
Economic development depends on adaptation and maintenance of the infrastructure which
is also a security element bringing the desirable resilience. In the future, sustainable public
finance must be able to cope with changes in income structure, new requirements for
expenses and also to provide optimally efficient distribution of public resources.
Resilient ecosystems
21. Ecosystems of the Czech Republic are under significant pressure from intensive
agriculture and forestry which contribute to soil degradation and decrease its ability to retain
water. There is more landscape fragmentation and less biological diversity. A significant part
of the surface water is contaminated by discharge from fields and by waste water. We need
to reverse those trends by 2030 and achieve a gradual improvement of the contemporary
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
14
conditions. We can use synergy between improvement in soil fertility, carbon capture and
storage in the form of organic matter, and retaining water in the landscape. The restoration of
ecosystem services may be provided by suitably adjusted conditions of farming; distribution
of subsidies will depend on fulfilment of these conditions. Synergy between the necessary
landscape restoration and creation of jobs in the country in landscape maintenance and
tourism will also contribute to balanced regional development.
Municipalities and regions
22. Inequalities between municipalities and regions are growing; they manifest mainly
through the occurrence of internal peripheries and poor availability of public services and
amenities, as well as a result of the outflow of the younger and more educated population to
cities. At the same time, municipalities and regions have been dealing with the
consequences of gradual suburbanisation that has also gradually been affecting smaller
settlements. The gradual urban sprawl also leads to poorer availability of public services,
increases forced mobility and related negative phenomena, for example, health-threatening
factors induced by an increase in traffic. Cities and municipalities will also have to start
accepting measures for adaptation to climate change and prevent its impact by 2030.
Climate change is the typical example that by its cross-sectional nature imposes complex
demands on municipalities, their representatives and expert bodies. However, some cities
and municipalities have yet to face those demands, because they are still struggling with
various problems such as an unclear situation in terms of competence between the national
administration and municipal administration, shortcomings in governance effectiveness,
quality and legitimacy, including involvement of the public. By 2030, it is therefore necessary
to support municipalities and regions in planning in spaces smaller than regions and
transcending territory of a single municipality that will take into account functional relations.
We will also need to develop a network of services in the territory and cooperation among
municipalities, support emission-free transport, provide new uses for brownfield sites and
reurbanise city centres, reduce greenhouse gas emissions and take adaptation measures,
such as better care for greenery in cities, or mitigation measures, e.g. in the form of passiveenergy
civil engineering.
Global development
23. The Czech Republic accepts its global responsibility and it will continue to cooperate
on the development of the global environment suitable for sustainable development
affirmation by 2030. The impact of domestic policies on development in other countries will
be assessed regularly and the Czech Republic will strengthen the coordination of its
representation within international organisations.
Good governance
24. Good governance is the basic prerequisite for long-term development. In this area,
Czech Republic 2030 identifies several crucial challenges such as decreasing the extent of
political participation via traditional channels (political parties and elections), weak ability of
horizontal coordination of the public administration, limited ability to work when making
decisions with long-term perspective, poor involvement with contemporary international
debate and severely limited ability to innovate the governance. It is therefore necessary to
Executive Summary
15
strengthen all mechanisms by 2030 that provide policy coherence, develop an innovative
environment in public administration, improve representative and strengthen participative and
deliberative elements of democracy, strengthen data, knowledge and skill capacity of the
public administration and develop a system for sharing data and information both inside the
public administration as well as with citizens. These principles should be adopted at all levels
of public administration.
25. In order to provide implementation of the strategic document Czech Republic 2030, an
autonomous implementation document will be adopted that will assess fulfilment of
contemporary specific objectives and identify the space for adjustment of existing policies or
potential for adoption of new policies or measures. The objectives of the strategic framework
Czech Republic 2030 will be fulfilled via measures on a national and regional level. The
Division for Sustainable Development of the Government Office will prepare an analytical
Report on the Quality of Life and Its Sustainability every two years. This report will assess
the condition and trends in quality of life and its sustainability in the Czech Republic on the
basis of indicators. Representatives of other sectors will be invited to prepare and challenge
it. The report will also include recommendations on a possible update of the strategic
framework.
26. Czech Republic 2030 represents a vision of long-term development to which non-state
participants must also contribute. That is why it will be possible to apply to fulfil its objectives
via so-called voluntary commitments. The implementation will also include strengthened
sustainability in the internal workings of government and administration offices on a national,
regional and municipal level, and methodical support of the Office of Government in the
application of sustainable development principles in the decision-making of central bodies of
state administration.
16
Principles of sustainable development
27. Czech Republic 2030 sets out the principles specified below that are reflected in all key
areas, and presents possible practical ways to fulfil them in specific policies.
Let us keep in mind that sustainable development is a complex and dynamic
system
28. The human world is one whole. Each division into environmental, social and economic
interests is secondary. All these areas are interconnected. That is why it is necessary to
approach them in an integrated manner and respect the need to maintain a complex and
dynamic balance in time and space. That can be achieved by striving for balance between
the three pillars of sustainable development via strategic planning and management. The
result should be coherent/interconnected policies for sustainable development that
communicate with the whole society (including all sectors), stemming from objective division
of the decision-making power which are to be implemented throughout all decision-making
levels, from the top down (subsidiarity). Their contribution is not only to be measured by
expense, but also by their external manifestations and impact.
Let us support and maintain diversity
29. Stable complex systems are usually in a condition of dynamic balance. Higher diversity
lowers the risk of collapse of entire ecosystems. However, diversity is crucially important not
only in natural ecosystems, but also in social, cultural, political and economic spheres.
Sustainable development includes diversity of perspectives and tolerance for difference.
These manifest practically, for example, in the following principles – the principles of
partnership, equal opportunities, inclusion, preventative caution, cohesion and global
responsibility. Diversity also entails acknowledging that environmental protection is a
necessary part of the development process and it has to be assessed alongside other
aspects.
Let us respect basic human rights
30. Sustainable development is not possible without respecting the principle of equality,
freedom and rights of all people, their mutual solidarity, responsibility and tolerance in terms
of achieving the highest quality of life of individuals as well as society. That is why
sustainable development respects basic values of human society, both individual (the right to
life, freedom, security, education, equality, equal opportunities, etc.) and collective (global
and intergenerational responsibility, security, solidarity, social cohesion).
Let us participate, discuss, be transparent and seek non-violent conflict
resolution
31. Another necessary prerequisite of sustainable development is transparency understood
not only as sufficient information on the decision-making processes of the state and
institutions, but also the quality and comprehensibility of the background. Policies must be
based not only on the results of quality scientific knowledge, but also on participation, i.e.
involvement of the public having access to sufficient quality and comprehensible information.
At the same time, the political principle of subsidiarity, i.e. decision-making at the lowest
Principles of Sustainable Development
17
possible level, must respect the attitudes of various social groups. Decisions asserted by
force are not sustainable in the long-term perspective.
Let us learn
32. Another one of the fundamental sustainable development principles is the increasing
rate of knowledge across all areas. However, this also includes the ability to put such
knowledge to use, pass it on in education and hone the skill of learning from experience.
Cooperation between the public administration and science institutions is therefore essential
as well as the application of its results in strategic planning. With deeper knowledge, the
respect for cultural heritage grows; the knowledge of sustainable patterns of production and
consumption leads to more provident processes and knowledge of natural sciences
contribute to a greater understanding of ecosystems. A quality system of education,
parenting and enlightenment is important for a sustainable society which allows various
spheres of society to use the knowledge they receive.
Let us think globally and long term, but act locally
33. Life is not simply about the here and now. Many forms of impact only become evident
over time; we notice them only when taking a long-term perspective. That is why we must
think all our decisions through very carefully. We should abide by the following principles –
the principle of intergenerational solidarity, responsibility and transparency, international
responsibility, preventative caution and preventing negative phenomena, adaptation to longterm
trends, building an infrastructure with respect to critical elements which could seriously
impact national security if disrupted, the principle of securing basic life needs of the state
population, health and the state economy. We should also keep in mind risk reduction,
ecosystem preservation, reasonable expense, deviation from unsustainable patterns of
production and consumption, growth of the range of the circular economy, transforming the
economy to one that is less demanding in terms of energy and resources, and other issues
such as waste management, recycling, etc.
18
Summary of analysis of the Czech Republic development
34. Strategic and specific goals of Czech Republic 2030 stem from a detailed analysis
capturing contemporary structural challenges and opportunities as well as significant trends
that influence the development of our society in the future. The complete Analysis of
Development forms the entire Annex No. 2 of the Strategic Framework. The following part
outlines conclusions of the Development Analysis for each key area in the form of a SWOT
chart that describes Strengths (S), Weaknesses (W), Opportunities (O) and Threats (T).
People and society
S W
 increasing life happiness thanks to the contemporary
favourable macroeconomic situation
 historical experience and tradition of Czechoslovakia and
the Czech Republic in the field of family policy and
support for families with children
 in recent years, the general total unemployment rate has
been decreasing; it is low even by international
comparisons
 a universal system of social protection serving as a
temporary “safety net”
 low income inequality as a whole by international
comparisons
 a stable public education system and good education
levels
 quality healthcare
 growth in public expenditure for culture
 weakened society family model due to impact of external
pressures
 fulfilling the family function without relevant material and
financial appraisal – when losing direct benefits for
children, families with children are significantly
disadvantaged compared to rest of population
 insufficient range of suitable employment options for
greater involvement of some groups on the job market,
little connection of these groups with the job market
(women with small children, disabled people)
 growing proportion of long-term unemployed within the
total unemployment rate
 prevailing discrimination based on age and ethnicity
 prevailing gender inequality in society and significantly
higher sexual discrimination in the Czech Republic than
in other states of EU28
 the social system is not helping to improve the situation
of the most at-risk population groups
 the results of education are significantly determined by
students’ social-economic background
 significant deviations from the median lifespan in some
population groups
 high health-risk impact on people (air pollution above set
limits, smoking, alcohol, etc.)
 healthy lifespan together with median lifespan are
increasing gradually
Summary of Analysis of the Czech Republic
Development
19
O T
 opportunity to strengthen the ability of the state to provide
public services by cooperating with other participants
(non-profit sector, local administrations, communities)
 efficient family policy and social acknowledgement of the
goal of a functioning stable family and providing homebased
care in the family
 balancing social-economic transfers between the family
and society
 efficient policy of balancing family life and work life
 preventing the potential financial losses to a family
following the arrival of a new child
 balancing the decrease in number of jobs in the
secondary sector caused by digitalisation and
robotisation not only by downsizing the workforce due to
demographic development, but also by expanding
employment rates in ICT, so-called green economy and
so-called silver economy and in services in general
 the possibility of making the job market far more
accessible to population groups who have so far been
alienated due to the growth of unprecarised and flexible
forms of employment
 using advancing digitalisation and robotisation to improve
quality of life
 increasing availability of public services in peripheral
areas leading to prevention of their depopulation
 allowing greater use of human potential and preparing
people for contemporary and future challenges by
educating them, including life-long education
 supporting the increasing lifespan in health by reducing
the impact of hazardous substances and noise, by
increasing health literacy and creating an environment
and services supporting health
 the possibility of a more precise focus of health policies
towards greater transparency of (aggregated) health data
 cultural attractiveness of the Czech Republic
 using the increasing tendency of immigration into the
Czech Republic to obtain an optimum number of
foreigners via a well-adjusted immigration and integration
policy
 underestimating preparations for demographic ageing of
the population
 impact on demographic development of insufficient
support for families
 increasing income inequality, fragmentation and
atomisation of society that prevents its cohesion and
cooperation
 changes in employment rates in the secondary sector –
digitalisation and robotisation and general transformation
of society
 deepening the existing social inequalities by unbalanced
division of both negative and positive impacts (profit
distribution) of digitalisation, robotisation and
technological changes in general
 increasing job market polarisation in terms of incomes
and working conditions influenced by current trends
 not everyone will profit equally from increased work
productivity
 further weakening of traditional types of employment and
pressure on its more flexible forms, weakening labour
relations and work precarisation with consequential
spread of uncertain and underpaid forms of employment
unprotected by the social system
 increase in work precarisation within the framework of
advancing digitalisation
 gentrification of some cities and consequential growing
suburbanisation
 significantly lower level of risk of poverty in some social
groups (depending on education, age, family status)
 high risk of social exclusion of some population groups
 depopulation of the country with consequential population
concentration in several settlement centres and
population ageing in peripheral areas
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
20
Economic model
S W
 Czech Republic is a successful European economy with
an economic level that is close to the average of EU28
over the last 25 years, mainly thanks to absorption of a
significant volume of foreign direct investments
 geographic location
 increase in expenses for R&D and their effectiveness,
strong tradition mainly in industrial and ICT fields
 qualified workforce
 increase in resource productivity in absolute terms (from
EUR 0.5 to 1 between the years 2004 and 2014)
 high quality and reliability of energy supply systems
 low import dependence in electricity production thanks to
the consumption of lignite, the only fossil fuel with
significant deposits in the Czech Republic
 independent currency policy
 prospects of sustainability of the Czech fiscal system
assessed as low- or medium-risk; a relatively low public
debt of the Czech Republic in European terms
 macroeconomic stability
 foreign direct investments will no longer be the main
source of economic growth (unlike in the last 25 years)
 low work productivity, comparatively low value added of
economic activities
 a weak level of production of applied research results,
transfer of knowledge from public research into
applications and cooperation of research organisation
and companies
 high exigency of products in terms of energy and material
consumption and greenhouse gas emissions
 weak transportation connectivity to economic population
transport centres, mainly in Germany
 unbalanced quality of transportation infrastructure in
individual parts of the Czech Republic
 insufficient effectiveness assessment of public
expenditure
 generally high administrative burden (not only in terms of
taxes)
 high rate of financing of public budgets from ESIF
O T
 increasing quality of FDI, attracting higher functions of
foreign enterprises (regional central headquarters,
research centres)
 improving the position of Czech enterprises in global
value chains and asserting their capacity in preproduction
and post-production processes
 increasing the state helpfulness towards entrepreneurs
 removing obstacles to establishing and developing SME
 improving institutional foundation of applied research
 decreasing the risk of dependence on imports and at the
same time improving the Czech Republic economy’s
environmental trace as well as its competitiveness in
terms of strategies for decreasing unit consumption of
resources and energies while preserving economic
growth at the same time, so-called decoupling
 developing the circular economy and increasing the rate
of recycled materials and secondary resources in
resource flows
 gradual decarbonisation of economy as an opportunity
for technological development and innovations, including
development of intelligent networks
 use of domestic secondary and renewable energy
resources
 use of strategic advantage of geographic vicinity to the
main population centres of the European region, also
through high-speed connection
 modernisation of the railway system comparable with
Western Europe, including the possibility of connecting
the high-speed railways
 improving information and communication infrastructure
in regions
 maintaining fiscal discipline
 the possibility of clamping the ability to finance public
policies by increasing the difference between GDP and
GNI
 stopping the convergence towards Western Europe
(remaining in the medium income trap)
 slowing economic growth because of ceased growth of
FDI
 losing competitiveness because of the inability to keep up
with innovations abroad
 discrepancy between qualifications of graduates and
employer requirements (skills gap)
 specialisation and creation, and comparative advantage
in low-tech or only in high-tech assembly
 missing the imminent technological leap (digitalisation,
biotechnologies, etc.)
 failure to meet international commitments made by the
Czech Republic by transitioning to the low-carbon
economy
 postponing full connection to the European transportation
network and occurrence of stable transit routes
bypassing the Czech Republic territory
 the risk of degradation of water management services
following occurrence and effects of long-term
hydrological drought
 limiting income for public budgets from ESIF (a third of
expenses for R&D, investment into infrastructure) and the
necessity to replace these resources in public budgets
Summary of Analysis of the Czech Republic
Development
21
 improving the ability to assess effectiveness of public
expenditure
 a simple, transparent and predictable tax system
 using the potential of Czech enterprises in perspective
fields, e.g. IT security
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
22
Resilient ecosystems
S W
 high and increasing rate of forested areas in the total
area of the Czech Republic
 a growing rate of permanent grasslands in the total area
of the Czech Republic
 an established system of institutional environmental care
 high diversity in landscape types due to diversity of
natural conditions and historical ways of agriculture
 a still high rate of arable land prone to erosion in the total
area of the Czech Republic
 Deteriorating landscape connectivity due to
fragmentation with linear structures, suburbanization and
large-scale agriculture
 Bad condition of many natural habitats and low vitalityof
populations of many biological species
 Low quality of a significant part of surface waters and
their excessive enrichment with nutrients – by discharge
from soil and furthermore with phosphorus from waste
water
 Fast water discharge from contemporary landscape
 Deteriorating quality of agricultural and forest soil due to
unsustainable forms of agriculture and forestry
 Significant rate of damage to forest stands
 Unsatisfactory forest structure
O T
 synergy between restoration of ecosystem services and
creation of jobs in the countryside to maintain the
landscape and in the field of tourism
 the possibility of application of subsidy policy for
improvement of the landscape condition and country
development
 synergy between increasing soil fertility, carbon capture
and storage in the soil in the form of organic matter, and
retaining water in the landscape
 advancing landscape fragmentation
 ongoing decrease in biodiversity
 increasing frequency of extreme hydrometeorological
phenomena caused by climate change
 insufficient amount of water available throughout the
whole year
 deteriorating soil structure, especially further decrease in
the amount of organic matter
Summary of Analysis of the Czech Republic
Development
23
Municipalities and regions
S W
 structure of urban settlements contributing to stabilisation of
the settlement structure of the Czech Republic
 since 2007, regional inequalities have only grown slightly,
especially between Prague (the capital) and other regions,
but not between individual regions
 rapid decrease in certain types of air pollution
 decrease in inequality in education achieved or accessibility
to services
 increasing diversity in national urban population structure
without establishment of ghettos
 increasing significance of civil society and its interest in
development of its environment, municipality and region
 gradual occurrence of mediating platforms on various levels
that try to encourage participation from all sectors involved
 ninety-two percent of the Czech Republic territory is covered
in the spatial-planning records of municipalities
 established tools for sustainable development in
municipalities
 participation of 90 % of municipalities on some form of
intermunicipal cooperation
 occurrence of internal peripheries with poorer availability of
public services and service functions; these areas lose in
particular younger and more educated inhabitants
 low extent of international cooperation
 increasing inequality between the regions in terms of
income, air quality and security
 idle brownfield sites contributing to extensive development
of cities and municipalities
 increased number of socially secluded locations
 harmful influence of externalities from traffic in the form of
noise and air pollution on human health
 regional public administration has problems handling
pressures from the private sector
 municipalities coping with lacking governance effectiveness,
quality and legitimacy, including public involvement
 unclear agenda division between the state, regions and
municipalities
 Some inefficient decision-making without planning and
coordination across administration borders
 importance of greenery in municipalities is frequently
underestimated
 lacking complex preparation of cities and municipalities for
negative impact of climate change
O T
 support of polycentric settlement structure, balanced
regional development and encouraging international
cooperation
 planning on a level lower than regional and going beyond
the area of a single municipality and considering functional
relations
 making suburbs sustainable and functional parts of the area
 supporting qualified job opportunities in places where they
lack
 new uses for brownfield sites, support of reurbanisation
 limiting forced mobility
 urban development connecting integrated solutions,
technological innovations and preservation of cultural
identity
 providing available and dignified housing for all inhabitants
 adjusting public spaces and buildings to make them
accessible and friendly to everybody
 making cities greener, renovating buildings and new
structures in passive or positive energy standards
 supporting emission-free and low-emission transportation
 integrating foreigners in all types of areas, preventing ethnic
or other ghettos
 involving stakeholders and the public in planning and
decision-making on all levels
 methodical support for regions, intermunicipal cooperation
and information sharing among all levels of governance
 developing local communities, strengthening trust and
reciprocity
 regular evaluations of local policies in terms of sustainable
development and fulfilment of national policies
 improving the competence of public administration by
 growth in regional disparities, depopulation and ageing of
peripheral areas and country
 suburbanisation endangering ecosystems and public
services and budgets (disintegrating investment and
operational resources, even in smaller cities)
 concentration of commercial facilities of civic amenities into
larger centres and complexes on the outskirts of cities
 “shrinking cities” with new pressure on making changes in
terms of planning and governance
 improvement mainly in automobile transportation as a
consequence to digitalisation and related changes on the
job market
 increasing number of socially secluded areas supporting
increase in regional disparities
 limiting incomes from public budgets from ESIF
 continuing the previous practice of selective involvement of
participants or leaving the public out of the decision-making
process
 not asserting the subsidiarity principle
 significant negative impact of climate change on cities and
municipalities, more frequent extreme meteorological
phenomena
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
24
strengthening knowledge and skills of clerks and officials
 improving quality and interrelationships of strategic planning
and management as well as spatial planning
Global development
S W
 the good world reputation of the Czech Republic thanks
to its successful results in the field of developmental and
transformational cooperation, cooperation on a bilateral
level and involvement in activities of international
organisations
 new experience with transformation and access to EU
 formal existence of an institutional framework for
cohesion of policies for development, or more specifically
for sustainable development
 a good system of foreign developmental cooperation
 compared with countries of EU15, the Czech Republic
has a low budget for foreign developmental cooperation
not corresponding to international commitments
 limited implementation of policy cohesion principles for
sustainable development on a practical level, because
there are problems in igniting relevant interest mainly in
key participants of executive political power
 limited capacities and abilities of the Czech Republic to
influence the external environment
O T
 the existing medium-term perspective of improve in
developmental help volume
 momentary wide and internationally discussed political
support of the field of sustainable development usable for
direction of important structural changes
 active participation and representation of the Czech
Republic in international organisations concentrating on
co-creation of a common agenda and its principles on a
global and regional level
 low awareness of sustainable development mainly in the
private sector, although it continues to improve alongside
the willingness for activities supporting sustainability
 low trustworthiness in areas of sustainable development
in which the Czech Republic itself falls behind (high
exclusion rate in education, sustainable production and
consumption, high CO2 emissions per inhabitant)
 prevalence of other topics in the political life in the Czech
Republic that frequently go against the principles of
sustainable development
 not using opportunities stemming from efficient
cooperation with developing countries
 lack of necessary willingness, communication and
administrative culture and capacity of Ministries for
coordination within the ministries and across them
Summary of Analysis of the Czech Republic
Development
25
Good governance
S W
 experience of using various democratic forms
(representative, participative and deliberative)
 relatively successful mitigation of certain social or
structural-social inequalities (e.g. total rate of poverty
threat)
 some public administration problems have already been
identified, included into strategic intentions of the public
administration and are now being solved
 low or decreasing rate of political participation via
traditional representation channels (political parties and
elections) and weakened trust in these tools
 increasing influence of social or structural-social
inequalities on the extent of political participation and
representation
 low ability of horizontal coordination of the public
administration, and consequentially a problem with policy
coherence (mainly in cross-sectional topics)
 weak emphasis on long-term perspective and impact
assesments in medium- or long-term time horizons
 low connection between the current international and
expert debate on policy-making process and functioning
of the public administration (constructivism, development
beyond the New Public Management – synthesis of
approaches, systems thinking, resilience), and
consequentially leading to conceptual backwardness
 general problem with innovations in policy-making
process
O T
 many previously existing tools for problem solving – it is
necessary to apply them more actively and consistently
(both in the field of democracy and in the field of longterm
governance effectiveness)
 prerequisites for long-term system solutions in the Act
No. 234/2014 Coll., on Civil Service
 e-Government – a basis for synergic approach in many
directions
 decrease in support of democratic political order in
general
 a possibility of weakened democratic governance in
another area or weakening the long-term governance
effectiveness by making short-sighted changes in the
field of democratic governance
 using approaches that have not proven reliable or, on the
contrary, not using approaches that could be beneficial if
considering the Czech context carefully; consequently,
there is a threat of long-term low policy effectiveness



29
1 People and society
Vision
The Czech Republic is a cohesive society of educated, responsible
and active inhabitants. The society is cohesive thanks to functional
families and participating communities, dignified labour, accessible
healthcare and social care, an equal approach to culture and an
effective education system that allows everyone to reach their
individual maximum level of education and that supports
development of transferable competences. People living in this
society prefer a healthy lifestyle, to live in a healthy environment and
prefer purposeful consumption. Both material and non-material needs
of individuals are met while environmental impacts and social
exclusion are minimised.
Introduction
101. Narrowing the issue of development exclusively to its economic and
technical aspects would lead to losing its actual contents that concerns
human dignity. The primary objective of public policies is to improve the
quality of life of all inhabitants while simultaneously respecting
development’s natural limits.
102. In the future, the quality of life will be significantly improved by trends
such as population ageing and related demands for provision of sufficient
manpower for the job market, increased needs of personal care and
healthcare. Material prerequisites for quality of life will also be influenced
significantly by transformation of the job market related to accelerated
development of technologies – advancing automation (digitalisation and
robotisation).
103. It is therefore obvious that risks for an individual’s quality of life are of
a wider nature, sometimes even of a global nature, and one cannot face
them solely with individual activity in the long-term perspective (e.g. by a
personal decision about a change in lifestyle), within small local
communities or solely by voluntary charity. Economic and technological
development must not compromise human dignity. State-guaranteed public
services will remain crucial in the future as well; they must be able to
respond adequately not only to the aforementioned trends, but also to risks
Public policies aiming to
improve quality of life
Impact of demographic
ageing and digitalisation
change in the job market
The state must continuously
guarantee quality public
services
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
30
that are difficult to predict or foresee even today (e.g. natural catastrophes,
terrorism or economic crises).4 Systems of public health and social
insurance (including pensions) constitute the basic pillar of public services.
The state will continue to develop further systems of public health and
social insurance in order to provide an improving quality of public services.
104. Public services have a key task – they have to be available to all
inhabitants of the Czech Republic at a standard that is sufficient now and in
the future based on long-term population growth in order to improve their
quality of life. With respect to specific problems of communities and rapid
dynamics of change, it is necessary for the state to cooperate with
institutions of other kinds with respect to the subsidiarity principle and on all
levels – from supranational institutions and neighbouring countries, across
local administrations, to various forms of partnership with not-for-profit
organisations, entrepreneurs, labour unions, churches and last but not
least, with communities on a local level (Municipalities and regions; Good
governance).
105. As consumers purchasing products and services, people do not only
satisfy their immediate needs, but they also improve their quality of life
which is facilitated by the range of goods and services on the domestic
market as well as foreign markets, including online shops, which also
brings its pitfalls. Therefore, the state will contribute mainly to consumer
protection against the possibility of purchase of dangerous products and
services, protect their rightful economic interest and support consumer
education with a primary focus on children and young people (up to 18
years of age), on the elderly and people with health impairments.
Furthermore, it will improve the effectiveness of market supervision
performed by the existing state bodies and strengthen law enforceability,
among other things, due to the development of the newly introduced
system of out-of-court solutions to consumer litigations. The Czech
Republic will also contribute to the change of lifestyle leading to a
preference of sustainable consumption in order to protect the environment,
and it will also support social cohesion by making efforts to achieve
environmental sustainability and economic transformation towards reduced
resource exigency.
1.1 Family and community
106. A family is the basic social unit and the first place of socialisation
necessary for development of both individuals and society. A stable and
functioning family helps overall social cohesion and it is able to teach and
to share and pass on cultural, ethical, social and spiritual values in a unique
4 In accordance with the principle of resilience understood here as “the ability of households,
societies and nations to absorb unexpected hazards and recover from them, and at the
same time to adapt in a positive way and transform our structures and ways of life face-toface
with long-term tension, change and uncertainty.” MITCHELL, A. (2013) Risk and
Resilience, pp. 4.
Cooperation between the
state and the communities
Meaningful rational
sustainable consumer policy
The institute of family fulfils
important social functions
1. People and society
31
way; these values are entirely crucial not only to create and share the
identity and development of its own members, but also for development of
wider communities, the entire society and for the wellbeing of all.
Development of human personality and value formation begin in a family.
Although making a family is a personal decision of a private nature, it also
has a social dimension since it fulfils basic social functions. With respect to
all irreplaceable functions of the family within society, appraisal and support
for families is insufficient which has a decisive impact on the demographic
ageing of the population.
107. Family policy is an inherent part of the entire social and economic
system and within it, it may play a significant pro-growth role. Family policy
is complex to understand – mainly as a pro-growth programme of long-term
investments into “human capital”, furthermore as support for families
dealing with standard life situations, but also as prevention against new
social risks stemming from demographic ageing, changes in family
structure, etc. Efficient policy supporting families in all its basic functions
(pro-family policy) is founded on an acknowledgement of family autonomy;
a family as a unit, when working properly, proves beneficial for the entire
society. A major element of the successful development of a society is
children’s upbringing in their family. With that in mind, we need to create
conditions in which people may implement their ideas of the number of
children – arrival of another child may not bring potential risk of poverty (a
risk of poverty is considered to be income lower than the standard
established limit on the level of 60 % of median balanced disposable
income per consumption unit5).
108. One of the important factors when people decide whether to have
children or how many children is the material position of families with
children. That represents the standard of living of families with children,
both in the sense of an absolute standard (average income per
consumption unit) and a relative standard, expressed by a comparison of
their material situation to childless people on the same gross income level.
Expenditure for fulfilling family functions do not have adequate economic
compensation. That is why the state will consider more closely everincreasing
expenditure and the value of missed opportunities related to
childcare and parenting.
109. Another measure of the pro-family policy concerns public services for
families, housing support and support of flexible unprecarised forms of
employment (working from home, part-time employment, flexible working
hours, etc.) as well as financial and local availability of preschool and early
years childcare. That will allow for better work-life balance on the basis of
needs and free choice of parents. The work-life balance must also allow
families to support their elderly members. Its goal should be to provide an
5 According to the EU, that is defined as follows: The first adult in the household = 1.0; each
additional adult in the household (a person over 13 years of age) = 0.5; each child (up to 13
years of age, incl.) = 0.3.
Comprehensively focused
and intergenerational family
policy
Material position of families
with children
Balancing personal life and
work life
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
32
improved quality of life thanks to sufficient leisure time outside of work as
well as sufficient manpower for the job market. It is necessary to operate
systematically to induce change in stereotypes with certain employers who
do not appreciate the significance of parenthood and family background for
personal growth of their employees and they disadvantage their employees
who take care of children or elderly members of the family.
110. It is also necessary to pay particular attention to families in special
situations – mainly to single-parent families, families with members who
have special needs, families with three or more children and other families
with special needs who are simultaneously mostly affected by both relative
and absolute poverty. It is necessary to take specific measures that
contribute to members of such families having equal access to education,
the role they play on the job market and in society, and therefore not being
at risk of social exclusion.6 The state will help single-parent families to
make sure they have maintenance for their children.
111. Strengthening local communities is one of the pillars of development.
The basic prerequisite for community development in municipalities and
regions is a developed infrastructure (transportation, social care,
healthcare, education). The public administration and local municipal
councils link with central support from the state and must create tools to
help communities operate sustainable water management, energy
production and distribution and waste management (via collectives, local
companies, not-for-profit organisations, etc.). Development of small and
medium enterprises, collectives and communal businesses stabilise the
economy in communities. Financial support tools for these activities will be
created. Building and organising communities (community work) enhance
internal capacities and resources of the communities; it helps with solutions
that stem from the needs of target groups. That consequently leads to
improved effectiveness of social intervention, cost reduction, and
furthermore it also provides feedback to central structures.
1.2 Work
112. Work plays a key role in our lives and not only as a way for us to
make money; it is also important in terms of personal identity, personal
happiness, personal development and human socialisation. It represents a
significant way of participating in society's development. Work is essential
for quality of life; work that is not harmful to human health but that also
provides a suitable work-life balance. The problem in this context is a
6 Households defined as resource-deprived are households without a sufficient or
satisfactory situation in at least four or more areas out of a total of nine areas – ownership of
durable goods such as a colour television, a washing machine, a car or a phone,
furthermore are not able to make regular payments – rent, loans, mortgage, energy bills or
to pay an unexpected expense amounting to several thousands CZK, afford at least a weeklong
family vacation away from home, afford sufficient heating, purchasing meat or its
vegetarian equivalent at least every other day. MINISTRY OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF CR
(2014) Social Integration Strategy 2014–2020.
Attention paid to families with
special needs
The state shall support
functioning communities
Work not only provides a
source of income, it also
helps to define a person's
identity
1. People and society
33
decrease in traditional jobs and an increase in flexible and more precarised
forms of employment as well as an increase in demand for them in terms of
location, time and job function. Such “shattered” forms of employment
reduce the potential of work helping to define human identity and allowing
socialisation.
113. Digitalisation of the economy and society brings essential changes in
the nature of work. Digitalisation and robotisation may free people from a
wide range of routine activities and improve work safety. At the same time,
many job roles may simply disappear, e.g. in the secondary sector (which is
a very significant employer in the Czech Republic; in the first half of 2015,
38.1 % of employees worked in that sector, according to MRD CR data),
but also in certain sectors with a high degree of labour intensity.7 However,
digitalisation and robotisation may also lead to negative quantitative
changes in work life, e.g. an increase in precarised forms of employment, a
feeling of insignificance and alienation at work in a virtual environment as
well as overloading workers due to the 24/7 availability of communication
technologies and improved performance monitoring options.8
114. Work as a source of income must not be precarised. We define job
precarisation as involuntary flexibility and work uncertainty; it is a condition
when people are forced to accept insecure employment. People with
precarised work do not enjoy a sense of professional identity due to the
absence of a career path.9 According to the ILO, precarious work is defined
through both objective and subjective uncertainty, especially regarding
employment duration, unclear job role, lack of access to social insurance
and other typical benefits associated with employment. It is also defined by
low wages and obstacles to labour union organisation and collective
negotiation.10
115. Work precarisation is not a phenomenon necessarily related to
digitalisation. However, digitalisation does lead to the creation of atypical
forms of work opportunities that may provide some income possibilities for
individuals through various platforms, but these platforms do not fall within
the traditional paradigm related to the term employment. A greater extent of
individualisation and increased popularity in remote working may lead to
weakened labour union organisation and weakened collective negotiation.
Therefore, the state must protect employees efficiently and
comprehensively, not specific job roles.
116. The purpose of digitalisation and robotisation potential should always
be used to improve quality of life for all inhabitants. Employment policy
must ensure it benefits all different age groups. Life-long professional
7 OG CR (2015) Dopady digitalizace na trh práce v ČR a EU.
8 EP (2015) Employment and Skills Aspects of the Digital Single Market Strategy, pp. 24; EP
(2016) Industry 4.0., pp. 47-49; BUNDESMINISTERIUM FÜR ARBEIT UND SOZIALES, BRD (2015)
(2015) Green Paper Work 4.0.
9 According to STANDING, G. (2016) The Precariat, pp. 28.
10 ILO (2012) From Precarious Work to Decent Work, pp. 27.
Digitalisation as a major
social transformation brings
risks and opportunities
What is work precarisation?
Digitalisation opportunities
bring risk of precarisation
Life-long professional
education as support of
frequent profession changes
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
34
education allows greater professional mobility and various types of career
counselling may help people navigate the changing job market upon reentry.
The way traditional work activities are carried out will change quickly;
some jobs will disappear and new jobs will appear. People accept many job
roles during their working life.
117. Economy of platforms (frequently also called sharing economy,
collaborative economy) intermediating jobs (on-demand economy, gigeconomy),
a sector that also emerged thanks to the digitalisation process
and development in the field of ICT brings new possibilities for all parties.
At the same time, it erases boundaries between actual service providers,
consumers, workers and the self-employed, and potentially leads to an
increase in atypical forms of employment. Precarisation should not impact
on these new types of employment either. The state must lead this new
type of economic activity into the formal economy. Furthermore, it must
provide a declaration and compliance of labour laws, including work safety
rules even in activities performed in the platform economy and other new
atypical forms of employment in an effort to fulfil the principle of work with
dignity. Work with dignity is defined as productive work enjoying the
conditions of freedom, equality, safety and human dignity, during which the
rights of workers are respected and the worker is paid an appropriate
reward along with social security.11 The state will also turn its attention to
the issue of consumer protection in this sector.
118. The state will enforce its contemporary rules consistently, since
economic activity performed through certain platforms (at least the local
platforms) is within their legal competence.12 The activity carried out
through them will be considered as employment if it is performed in a
subordinate relationship, its content is considered as work and if it provides
a salary.13 The state will generally attempt to penalise bogus selfemployment.
The Czech Republic will, however, distinguish between
professional services and peer-to-peer services (without any inferiority or
superiority), taking into account the potential benefits of the so-called
sharing economy, by setting so-called limit values (depending on the level
of income or regularity of service provision) to reimburse the costs to
service providers and are not motivated by the gain of financial
compensation.
119. Digitalisation will be an asymmetrical phenomenon, both in terms of
regions and professions, on both a national and global level. Digitalisation
will also bring changes into other areas beyond the job market; work is not
only a source of income. Digitalisation will not only bring about quantitative
change (it will deepen or inhibit some of the current problems), but also a
qualitative change as it will also bring new types of problems. Although it is
11 Definition according to ILO (2009) Partnership for decent work.
12 DRAHOKOUPIL, J.; FABO, B. (2016) The platform economy and the disruption of the
employment relationship.
13 EC (2016) Evropský program pro ekonomiku sdílení.
Employment in a platform
economy should still be
dignified
Commercially-provided
services and sharing will be
managed separately
Preparation is key for
digitalisation’s transformation
of society
1. People and society
35
difficult to estimate the timescale of individual changes, the Czech Republic
is likely to be a digitised society within the next 15 years and as such must
be preparing for such a concept.
120. In the future, we are facing living in a society in which most of today's
human work activity will be performed by programmes and machines. Only
a small part of the population will have employment and existing work
activity in its current form (e.g. in the field of creativity, innovations and top
management, and in the nursing sector). It is appropriate to consider this
when looking at the social discussion on the development of social security
systems.
121. In the event of significant technological development throughout the
Czech economy, it is possible to lead an all-society debate on shortening
working hours (while maintaining the level of wages and salaries).
Shortened working hours may also stimulate an increase in demand in
other economy sectors (e.g. tourism and services in general).
122. However, we first need to expand our definition of work by including
activities that are beneficial for society and are frequently unrewarded. It is,
for example, taking care of a dependent person,14 environmental care,
some forms of civic involvement, etc.
123. Tax and social policies must be able to respond to the risk of job
market polarisation between high- and low-qualified segments due to
robotisation of routine activities. That may reflect in significant salary
polarisation with a growing representation of so-called working poverty and
with a negative impact on the growth of inequalities in society.15 From the
state's point of view, steps must be taken to develop the positive effects of
digitalisation (e.g. reduction of working hours as a step towards increasing
leisure time, and not as a step towards precarisation for dismissed
employees). However, digitalisation of the economy and society will also
bring new jobs.16 Rapid adaptation and further development of digitalisation
and robotisation technology may have a positive influence on the position
of the Czech Republic in the European and worldwide division of labour.
124. Demographic ageing of the population will not only lead to a decrease
in the number of people in the population who will be working, but it will
also require an increased number of workers in healthcare, social services
and nursing and in the silver economy in general (i.e. in economic
opportunities related to increased expenditure due to population ageing and
with people over the age of 50 with special needs)17. The need for life-long
education may require a higher number of workers in the education system.
14 We may support caring for a dependent person, e.g. via a so-called carer’s leave financed
from public systems.
15 AUTOR, D. H.; DORN, D. (2013) The Growth of Low-Skill Service Jobs and the Polarization
of the U.S. Labor Market. American Economic Review 103(5).
16 FREY, C. B.; OSBORNE, M. A. (2013) The Future of Employment. BRYNJOLFSSON, E.;
MCAFEE, A. (2014) The Second Machine Age.
17 EC (2015) Growing the European Silver Economy.
In the future, work may
cease to be the main life
activity
Debate on shortening
working hours
Even activities outside
employment should be paid
work
The need to prevent increase
of social-economic
inequalities via regulation
and redistribution
Growth in silver and green
economy
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
36
Climate change, pressure on more efficient use of resources and a
decrease in pollution production and environmental protection will require
measures of environmental and economic contributions within the so-called
green economy (i.e. economy built on a mutually enhancing relationship
between economic growth and responsibility of the environment; this
economy focuses on decreasing the risks and impact of human production
on the environment and strives for sustainable development)18. Among
other things, it will also require increasing the number of workers by
implementing, for example, landscape water retention, and energy savings
that may produce a significant effect in the Czech economy.
125. One of the options for how the make-up of the workforce meets the
changing demands and strengthens the diversity of experience, knowledge
and contacts is to encourage Czechs living abroad to return to their
homeland in the spirit of the NÁVRAT (RETURN) programme to support
research, experimental development and innovations.19 Tools for this may
include salary offers comparable to salaries for a given position in Western
Europe; it is also possible to introduce a preferential tax zone or at least a
tax credit for a limited period for experts from abroad.20 Aside from the
incentives of a salary or advantageous tax rates, the non-economic aspects
of life quality may also help to encourage individuals to return, for example,
creating greater potential for self-fulfilment.
126. Another option is to involve elderly citizens and to encourage their
return to the job market. It is necessary that the state is able to use the
potential of the elderly to share their experience with younger workers,
among other things, for example, via various forms of intergenerational
tandems. This seems desirable also because elderly citizens living alone
(mainly female elderly citizens) are an economically inactive part of the
population and they fall within groups currently most at risk of poverty.
International comparisons show that the employment rate of pensioners
could actually be increased by more than 20 %.21
127. The Czech Republic will support gainful employment of groups that
have traditionally been disadvantaged on the job market, i.e. mothers;
people up to the age of 24 years, including students; people older than 50;
elderly female citizens and handicapped people. The state will enable
18 KAHLE, L.; GUREL-ATAY, E. (ed.) (2014) Communicating Sustainability for the Green
Economy.
19For more information on the NÁVRAT programme, see Ministry of Education, Youth and
Sports, CR. NÁVRAT (LK) Ministerstvo školství, mládeže a tělovýchovy [online].
20 E.g. Slovakia provides a subsidy to university graduates and experts for returning from
abroad. Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport of the Slovak Republic. O
schéme Návraty. Centrálný informační portál pre výskum, vývoj a inovácie [online].
Denmark offers income tax, reduced by 40 %, for a period of three years to highly-qualified
and high-income groups of workers from abroad. The number of highly educated foreigners
and Danes who came back from abroad after implementing this tax relief has increased by
23 %.
KLEVEN, H. J.; LANDAIS, C.; SAEZ, E.; SCHULTZ, E. (2014) Migration and Wage Effects of
Taxing Top Earners. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 129(1).
21 ŠATAVA, J. (2015) Pracovní aktivita po dosažení důchodového věku.
To attract Czechs to return to
their homeland, to their
domestic job market
Support for working elderly
citizens
Support for disadvantaged
groups and people from
abroad to gain employment
1. People and society
37
mothers to make a smooth transfer back to work from their maternity leave
and to adjust their work-life balance. The state will do so via using flexible
working conditions with respect to minimising precarisation and improving
the availability of quality preschool childcare which meets their needs. The
state will also encourage a higher representation of women in leading
positions in public institutions and companies and it will decrease the
gender pay gap.
128. The Czech Republic will create its immigration policy in an optimal
way in order to use immigration to bring educated and qualified workers
who will support diversity in society, and with it also creativity, innovation
and competitiveness of companies and institutions in terms of their highly
qualified (white-collar) and managerial work positions. A well-prepared
immigration policy will also help improve economic performance and
strengthen public budgets financially.
129. The Czech Republic will prepare a suitable environment for the
integration of qualified foreigners into the job market and society in order to
be able to use their experience and diversity as a competitive advantage.
The state will strive to increase tolerance and positive attitude amongst the
majority population towards foreigners. It will work on promoting our country
abroad and improving our reputation amongst foreigners who are highly
skilled and qualified workers. The state will also provide equal access to
education and public healthcare for citizens and their families. It will simplify
the system of foreign education recognition so that the recognition
procedure does not become an unnecessary obstacle. The state will
support Czech language courses for foreigners and the establishment of
international foreign-language schools.
1.3 Inequalities
130. The state will provide a sufficiently comprehensive network of public
services throughout the territory of the Czech Republic.22 The development
of peripheral areas can be enhanced by support for the local economy,
affordable high-quality healthcare, improved public transport service,
greater coverage by high-speed Internet, energy self-sufficiency built on
renewable energy sources, environmentally friendly (and, among other
things, organic)23 agriculture and tourism.
131. Discrimination prevents optimal use of human potential, causing
economic losses; it is therefore not only a problem of values, but of
society's economy. The Czech Republic will therefore strive to eliminate
discrimination both systematically and as a long-term objective, by drafting
efficient legislative solutions that will penalise the given phenomenon, but
also in the form of targeted support for groups considered at risk.
22 According to MINISTRY OF INTERIOR, CR (2004) Strategie podpory dostupnosti a kvality
veřejných služeb.
23 For definition, see Ministry of AGRICULTURE, CR. Green agriculture. eAGRI [online].
Optimum immigration policy
Successful integration as a
competitive advantage
Quality public services
accessible locally
Systematic discrimination
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
38
132. The Czech Republic will focus on a functional system of criminal
prevention, fight against criminal recidivism and improve the position of the
victims of crimes. It is further necessary to work towards humanisation and
overall modernisation of the Czech penal system and to focus our attention
on the necessity for efficient and tailored penal care (special care for
incarcerated people) in addition to keeping society safe and secure from
criminal offenders. It is also necessary to acknowledge the need for an
interconnected systematic approach with active post-penal care (special
care for persons released after incarceration).24 The penal part is important,
but it must not be perceived as an isolated approach. Efforts will be made
to increase the protection of society against the consequences of criminal
conduct by developing probation activities (among other things: supervision
of the accused person, defendant or convicted person; supervision of
sentences not involving incarceration; monitoring the behaviour of the
offender during a probationary period of conditional release from
imprisonment) and in particular by supporting the resocialisation function of
the penal aspect, including introducing modern methods of working with
offenders in a suitable and safe penitentiary environment for the purpose of
reintegration of prisoners into society, to reduce the rate of recidivism as
one of the causes of social inequality with the consequence of
discrimination. Developing international cooperation and research activities
in the field of sanction policy will be a necessary prerequisite for the
formation of an efficient, balanced and rational sanction policy.
133. The Czech Republic aims to reduce gender inequalities which prevail
in various parts of society, mainly in terms of low participation in the job
market of mothers with small children (up to 15 years of age)25 and a large
gender pay gap and gender pension gap. The state will also focus on the
low representation of women in politics and decision-making positions, and
on the high proportion of vertical and horizontal gender segregation in the
job market.26 The state will impose severe penalties for violence towards
women (domestic violence, rape, sexual harassment or cyber-violence) as
well as the existing regular sexual discrimination that is experienced by
women much more frequently than by men.27 In this matter, we also need
to take into account the negative role of gender stereotypes that support
the preservation and replication of gender inequalities.
24 For more details, see MINISTRY OF JUSTICE, CR (2016) Koncepce vězeňství do roku 2025.
25 Employment of Czech mothers with children under 15 years of age is only 57 %, which is
one of the lowest values in the EU, see HAŠKOVÁ, H.; KŘÍŽKOVÁ, A.; DUDOVÁ, R. (2015)
Ekonomické náklady mateřství, pp. 1.
26 Measures are further discussed in OG CR (2014) Vládní strategie pro rovnost žen a mužů
v ČR na léta 2014–2020, that the government approved in November 2014 and that aims to
achieve a 40 % representation of both sexes in decision-making positions in both the public
and private sector by the year 2020.
27 According to the Ombudsman's research, 13 % of women and 9 % of men report a
personal experience with discrimination. They are discriminated most frequently when
searching for paid work and during work, see PA (2016) Diskriminace v ČR, pp. 12.
Prevention of criminality and
recidivism as a way of
reducing inequality and
protecting society
Gender inequalities prevail
across various areas of
social life
1. People and society
39
134. Reversing negative trends in the development of the situation
regarding the Roma population in the Czech Republic will require an
equitable approach to inclusive education starting at preschool age, a nondiscriminatory
environment in the areas of employment, housing and
health.28 In the social arena, it is necessary to enhance exclusion
prevention and to support community approaches.29 In the integration
process, the issue of whether it is possible for an individual or a group to be
integrated into society that generally does not accept them and that shows
a predominantly negative and judgemental approach towards them,
according to public opinion surveys, is gaining more importance. That is
why it is crucial to create opportunities for a mutual dialogue and tolerance.
It is equally as important for other minorities as it would help eliminate
differences among a significant part of the minority and the majority
population.
135. Managing homelessness as an extreme form of social exclusion
requires efficient coordination of a wide range of activities that may
influence the individual causes of homelessness and ongoing homeless
situations (using social work and social services, healthcare, support of
housing via social transfers, etc.).30 In order to reverse negative trends, it is
necessary to complement existing public services with a functional social
housing system which, in combination with existing instruments, will provide
decent housing conditions for the vulnerable and reduce the likelihood of
them falling into poverty.31
1.4 Education
136. The globalised world will bring multiple challenges and the people in it
will need a wider range of skills and the ability to navigate it. In a fastchanging
world, the composition of knowledge and skills necessary
continues to transform and evolve, and the need for transferable
competences continues to rise. On the one hand, for example, the need for
digital literacy development arises (the ability to handle digital technologies
that have been rapidly changing societies all over the world), and on the
other hand, the urgency to develop the weakening levels of literacy related
to the real world is dropping (natural sciences, environmental,
polytechnical, language and financial fields).32 That is why the educational
system must adopt critical thinking and preparation for the changes that lie
ahead of us, but also to strengthen the ability to influence and direct these
changes (participate in planning and decision-making). The educational
system of the Czech Republic will develop cognitive abilities as well as
practical competences for dealing with the real world, but also provide a
28 For more details, see OG CR (2015) Strategie romské integrace do roku 2020.
29 For more details, see OG CR (2015) Strategie romské integrace do roku 2020 and OG CR
(2015) Strategie boje se sociálním vyloučením do roku 2020.
30 MLSA (2013) Koncepce prevence a řešení problematiky bezdomovectví v ČR do roku
2020.
31 MLSA (2015) Koncepce sociálního bydlení České republiky 2015–2025.
32 EC (2008) Zlepšování schopností pro 21. století.
The key to a successful
process of integration of the
Roma population is mutual
understanding and an
equitable approach
We need to manage the
problem of homelessness
through public services
Education must be prepared
for a change
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
40
robust foundation of general education and develop skills to work with this
knowledge (ethic, logic, systematic and critical thinking) so that people
could specialize in later life, including the ability of critical work with
resources – mainly with the new ones (e.g. Internet). Major emphasis will
also concern language competences, i.e. mastering international foreign
languages, mainly those used the most in Europe (especially English at
present, but of others as well), both in terms of quality and quantity. We
need to view language competences not only as a work mobility tool, but
also as a part of general education and practical skills that represent a prerequisite
to gaining orientation in our dynamically changing globalized
world. It is also necessary to emphasize understanding and adoption of
European cultural values stemming from the traditions of humanism and
enlightenment. All these aspects must be affirmed in planned revisions of
curricular document contents.
137. The meaning of education must not be narrowed to preparation of the
workforce for the job market,33 or more specifically for the needs of
employers which are evident at the time. The objective of education in the
21st century must be to develop competences for the whole active civil,
professional and personal life (such as, for example, civic participation,
initiative, creativity, communication, cooperation during conflict resolution,
behaviour in a crisis and other “soft” skills). Education must focus on the
development of life-long competences necessary for taking the path of
sustainable development. The content of education must emphasise the
aspect of transdisciplinarity,34 i.e. the interconnection of various fields and
areas of human activity – understanding the mutual interconnectedness of
processes both social and natural, local and global, past and future, with
the objective of accepting responsibility for creating the world we live in. In
order to achieve that, we need to cultivate diversity of active and
participative educational approaches and methods. On the contrary, it is
necessary to reduce the large amount of facts which we learn but which
prevent creativity and deeper knowledge of topics taught. That is the only
way to achieve the lifestyle transformation towards preference of
sustainable consumption which is crucial for environmental sustainability
and transformation of the economic system towards lower material
demand; it is the only way to support environmental protection and social
cohesion35 so that we are all able to be involved and live with dignity.
138. By international comparison, Czech children show36 little interest in
school (they are a group that is one of the least motivated to study, “they do
not like going to school” and “they get bored at school”). So far, our
education system has been dividing children at a fairly early age into
talented and non- talented and directs them to various types of schools.
33 OECD (2016) Trends Shaping Education 2016.
34 According to MOE CR (2014) Rámec rozvoje vysokých škol do roku 2020.
35 For more details, see MOE CR (2015) Dlouhodobý záměr rozvoje vzdělávání.
36 According to research conducted by PISA and TIMSS, seeFEDERIČOVÁ, M.; MÜNICH, D.
(2014) Srovnání obliby školy a matematiky pohledem mezinárodních šetření.
Education must represent
the development of general
competences
Pupils should not be subject
to selections at an early age
1. People and society
41
The society is therefore unable to appreciate the diverse strengths of each
pupil, limiting their life chances and weakening society itself. The goal
should be a shift towards so-called Human-Centred Design, i.e. to primarily
consider the needs of individual pupils. Various educational methods must
enable mutual permeability.37 The state shall provide that the education
system continues to fulfil its socialisation function, supporting social
cohesion. This should be achieved by creating conditions in education,
including personal and spatial capacity, in which every student is able to
equally access mainstream education. That is also important because
education should go on to provide a place of socialisation (aside from
family), because with respect to the weakening socialisation role of work,
education will become the key socialisation system and an all-society
outreach guaranteeing social cohesion.
139. Universities should continue to fulfil their irreplaceable role in society
by developing their four basic and equally significant functions. Firstly, their
importance as autonomous and independent centres of new knowledge
and innovations that bring benefits to the whole of society in the form of
new information, products and services. Secondly, their importance as
centres of education where knowledge, wisdom and type of thinking are
passed on to people and enable personal development. Thirdly, as
institutions preparing highly qualified experts for the world of work. And
finally, they are important as spaces for the development of active
citizenship considered necessary for the further functioning of democratic
society. The role of university education continues to expand by society
becoming increasingly complex and interwoven and by the growing role of
modern technologies as well as the necessity to manage very complex
learning. Universities must be able to respond to major changes in society;
however, they must not do so at the expense of autonomy and academic
freedom. It is utterly crucial that universities are accessible to anyone,
regardless of their social or economic position, and remain a public asset
and public responsibility, including the corresponding level of financing.
140. Science (research and development) provides the basic means to the
long-term achievement of innovations and to the management of economic,
social, environmental and other changes. Quality research and scientific
activity is also a foundation for quality education at a university level. In
order for scientific and research activities to be truly beneficial for the whole
of society in the long-term perspective, it is necessary to preserve the major
role of basic research that is crucial, for example, for the long-term support
of applied R&D, among other things. It is simply impossible to subordinate
R&D to market logic and to perceive expenditure on basic research as
ineffective. It is necessary to support cooperation among universities,
research institutions and the private sector; however, not at the expense of
research. This will be provided mainly through adequate financing of basic
37 For more details, see MOE CR (2014) Strategie vzdělávací politiky ČR do roku 2020,
priority 1. decreasing inequality in education.
Universities as autonomous
centres of education
Science and research as a
path to knowledge and
innovations
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
42
and applied research and through support for scientific centres,
universities, applied research facilities and companies, based on the
principle of equal conditions and transparency.
141. Supporting life-long learning across the entire population is also
important, both civic and professional, including the involvement of age
groups 55+ (including 65+) in education and competence improvement
related to functioning in the changing world. The system of life-long learning
should be based on the possibility of options of various interconnected
education pathways. Regular education of people working with socially
excluded persons, including public guardians, is also desirable, with the
aim of preventing an increase in social exclusion and possible
discrimination. Similarly, as in the area of culture, independent public
service media will continue to be important for the fulfilment of education
needs of society. In this matter, we may use distance forms of education,
including online education.
142. A crucial prerequisite for the implementation of the aforementioned
objectives is support for educators to provide quality teaching.38 The public
education system must be provided with sufficient resources similar to
those of developed countries.39 However, system changes are also
important to ensure full training and development of our educators across
all levels of education is integrated into the systematic support in terms of
quality improvement in order for them to become heralds of change and
take over the role of guides through education in a changing world. Total
education democratisation and participative approaches in education
should be supported as well.
143. Educational institutions must be open to cooperation; all initiatives
must be supported from lower levels, networking, involving nongovernmental
participants in education, connecting various forms of
education and various educational institutions (both formal and informal,
curricular and extracurricular, early and further education).40 Basic
cooperation between families and schools and higher parental participation
in their children’s education are necessary. It is also necessary to reevaluate
the “positivist” approach to education and to nurture diversity of
active and participative educational procedures and methods, with respect
to the future involvement of the individual in society in all aspects.41
Supported approaches should particularly include the constructivist
38 For more details, see MoE CR (2014) Strategie vzdělávací politiky ČR do roku 2020,
priority 2. We need to support quality teaching and teachers as its key prerequisite.
39 According to ME, average education expenditure amounted to 11.6 % of total public
expenditure in OECD countries in 2012; in the Czech Republic, it was 8.9 % of public
expenditure, see MoE CR (2015) České školství v mezinárodním srovnání 2015, pp. 18.
40 For more details, see MOE CR (2014) Strategie vzdělávací politiky ČR do roku 2020.
41
For more details, see e.g. ASPEN INSTITUT PRAGUE (2016) Česko, pp. 87-103.
Life-long learning for all
The support of educators'
role is crucial
Openness towards education
1. People and society
43
approach to teaching,42 system thinking and nurturing the ability to adapt to
change, including resilience.
144. Education is an important area that significantly conditions the
direction of the Czech Republic towards sustainable development.43 The
form and content of education must be such that it supports achievement of
objectives and measures in other areas of the Czech Republic 2030
strategic framework, whether it is access to work, digitalisation, inequality,
health, or culture. In this context, curricular documents will be revised and
development of competences for sustainable development will be included
in them (active civic, professional and personal life – managing and
influencing changes and understanding mutual interconnectedness of
social and natural, local and global, past and future processes) and
activating participative methods focused on students' own initiative. It is
necessary to increase teachers' participation in the further involvement of
pedagogic workers focused on the coordination of education for sustainable
development in schools.44
1.5 Health
145. In terms of population health status, there are noticeable inequalities
among population groups in the Czech Republic (e.g. in areas with high
emission load or median lifespan according to education achieved). We
must improve the health of all inhabitants and reduce inequalities in the
field of health.45 The role of social health determinants is crucial,46 as well
as the significant influence of environment quality and work environment
quality on human health.
146. The healthcare policy of the Czech Republic will be based on
supporting health throughout life, i.e. a long-term regular systematic
approach to health protection and support of healthy lifestyle, with primary
prevention of illness. The healthcare system should not only work as a
safety net for people who are already sick; on the contrary, it should also
have a preventative function and strive for people to avoid becoming ill, or
work to minimise the number of sick people.
147. Tools supporting health and disease prevention also include support
for the more intense application of preventive check-ups, including
42 KORCOVÁ, K. (2013) Konstruktivismus v inovativních vzdělávacích programech v české
škole. Studia Paedagogica 54(11).
43 UNESCO (2016) Global Education Monitoring Report Summary, pp. 8.
44 CSI (2016) Vzdělávání v globálních a rozvojových tématech v základních a středních
školách.
45 For more details, see MH CR (2014) Zdraví 2020 which defines the strategic objective 1 –
To improve population health and reduce inequalities in the field of health.
46 “Dealing with social inequalities significantly contributes to health and life happiness. (…)
Disadvantaged people and their vulnerability usually increases throughout their life and it is
conditioned by behaviour that significantly influences their health, e.g. hazardous and
harmful alcohol abuse, smoking, poor eating habits, insufficient physical activity and mental
problems. To a large extent, the aforementioned behaviour is a result of further life
problems.” MH CR (2014) Zdraví 2020, pp. 19.
Education as a catalyst for
comprehension of
sustainable development
principles
It is necessary to reduce
health inequalities of
individual social groups
Healthcare should not only
be for the sick
We need to create health
support centres
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
44
screenings (to recognise the early stages of possible diseases before the
patients experience any obvious problems or symptoms). It is also
important to consider evaluations of public administration strategic
documents in terms of public health protection and support (Health Impact
Assessment). Priorities include the creation and operation of a network of
centres for support of health and primary disease prevention. These
centres then need sustainability and institutional support.
148. In order to operate effective health protection and disease
prevention, we need the provision of sufficient finance, both from the state
budget as well as from general health insurance and other resources. It is
necessary to use the resources from health insurance (mainly from socalled
prevention funds of health insurance companies) efficiently to
support health and prevent diseases.
149. The state shall invest more into disease prevention, support of health
and development of so-called health literacy of the population. Health
literacy is the ability to expand knowledge and skills so that people become
able to decide for their own health as well as for health in their environment,
and the ability to navigate through the complex system of healthcare and
social care. However, the approach of individuals to fulfilment of their own
healthy lifestyles and their responsibility for their own health is also
important.
150. In order to further improve our health, we need to significantly reduce
the amount of harmful substances and noise. Hazardous emissions of
pollutant from home solid-fuel heaters (coal and wood), hazardous
emissions of pollutants from diesel and petrol-powered motors mainly in
traffic (PAH, B(a)P, PM2,5) and other harmful hazardous substances in the
air, in water, in soil and building interiors, foods, drinks and other objects
represent the most urgent issue in this area. The state will support
important positive lifestyle changes in terms of quality of life, such as
limiting hazardous behaviour – prevention of tobacco use and transition to
a non-smoking society, alcohol abuse prevention, abuse of other addictive
substances and addiction behaviour. Moreover, the state shall consistently
support physical activities, improve eating habits and nutrition of the
population. The state will also contribute to changing social circumstances
and improve opportunities for life in a healthy environment, support health
within communities, access to quality foods, access to quality water,
decrease in air pollution – smog or tobacco smoke in workplaces and
outside of them.
151. With respect to the demographic ageing of the population, it is
necessary to provide healthy workplaces for all age groups. The state will
focus its support on sustainable work and healthy ageing. It is necessary to
consider the future needs of patients, working people and workplaces. In
the context of lifespan increase, quality of life (healthy lifespan expectancy)
will improve via improving the development of geriatric medicine (i.e.
clinical gerontology that deals with health and functioning in old age, taking
Effective health protection
supported by public budget
resources
Health literacy is an efficient
tool
Adopt a healthy lifestyle in a
healthy environment,
including a good diet
Growing significance of
gerontology and the spa
industry
1. People and society
45
into account diseases predominantly affecting this age group and their
treatment) and the spa industry, including wider use of spa treatments in
the context of post-operative care and prevention.47 The spa industry will
therefore have to be perceived as an interdisciplinary field going beyond
the Czech Republic and the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic, since
it also provides protection of natural healing sources and protection of spa
locations, including the adjacent landscape used for treatments.
152. In order to minimise the impact of social differences on the
population’s health, it is crucial to maintain publicly accessible healthcare in
sufficient quality and capacity (especially in terms of personnel and number
of beds in healthcare facilities) throughout the territory of the Czech
Republic. The essential challenge is sustainability and institutional support
of a system for public health protection and support and disease
prevention. The state shall provide mainly overall and stable institutional
support because weakening this system could lead to its ineffectiveness
causing major impacts not only on the health of citizens but also on total
public expenditure for healthcare and the economy of the Czech Republic.
In order to improve the quality of life, the state wants to gradually increase
resources allocated to the healthcare system to the level of advanced
states. Investments into healthcare personnel stabilisation and
development, including making up for local (regional) shortcomings in
specific specialisations, are the key. In order to have quality healthcare, it is
necessary to provide a sufficient number of doctors and nurses and other
healthcare personnel, with consideration given to their ageing and shortage
in some areas. That is why the state shall strive to increase the number of
medical students and motivate them to stay in the Czech Republic to work
after they finish their studies. This will be facilitated by keeping the students
sufficiently informed throughout their studies and also by a more
straightforward system of certifications necessary to practice medicine. The
state shall also strive to increase the number of university teachers, mainly
in theoretical fields. Regarding the length of medical studies, we can only
expect to see improvement of the current situation after 2025.
153. The healthcare system must be prepared to face new problems, e.g.
risks of new infectious diseases, increase in resistance to antibiotics or
increase in mental illness in society.
154. Other possibilities can also be found in significant improvement of
quality and provision of healthcare data and statistics, including individual
health indicators, both as international comparison as well as on national,
regional and municipal levels.48 Procedures are established for the
introduction of new technologies into healthcare, which provide screening
47 Although the spa industry may be related to tourism and hiking, it is primarily a form of
subsequent treatment, not a general field of services such as the hotel industry.
48 In the fields where short-term trends do not influence “hard data”, hard data is more
conclusive in the long-term perspective, e.g. some disease prevention and health support
fields. In such fields, it is desirable to also look for so-called process indicators, use them for
assessment and then respond appropriately with political measures.
Healthcare that is generally
accessible, quality, public
and sufficiently financed
Adapting the healthcare
system to cope with
hazardous trends
Statistical analysis and
innovation process setting in
the healthcare system
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
46
of key aspects of application (clinical adequacy, treatment benefit, use
effectiveness, ethical and socio-cultural impact). The state shall therefore
develop the aforementioned procedures for impact assessment (e.g. Health
Technology Assessment) operatively.
155. Healthcare goes beyond the Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic
and requires participation of all institutions on all levels of public
administration, not-for-profit and private sectors, scientific and educational
institutions, communities and individuals themselves. All elements of
society, social groups and individuals must be invited to manage it and
make decisions. The Czech Republic shall strengthen public healthcare,
mainly bodies and institutions of public health protection and support.
1.6 Culture
156. We can perceive culture as a sphere of development of creativity and
active formation and reflections of society’s values. It includes social
heritage and arts as well as the way of life, value systems, traditions and
beliefs. Its importance keeps growing in the modern secular democratic
state where it becomes a crucial part of national identity formation and
preservation. That is why the policy of culture is a part of the democracy we
live in.
157. Culture and media policies are responsible for the formation,
strengthening and preservation of national identity that is based on culture,
which is a key element of social cohesion and sustainable development.
Culture and arts play an important role in intensifying social resilience
against anti-democratic tendencies. In this context, media policy also
deserves our attention, as independent media of public services play an
irreplaceable role in it, serving as a point of reference for the population and
significantly supporting cultural diversity. We also need to pay special
attention to support for culture of all national minorities.
158. Knowledge of our own culture and awareness of its value together
with respect for diversity of cultural expression and positive cultural values
of foreign cultures and minorities allow us to protect society against
negative events, e.g. against the spread of uniformity, loss of cultural
identity, xenophobia or spread of the consumerist society around the world,
including its negative environmental consequences. The state will therefore
support development of cultural knowledge and competences across the
entire population and reduce inequalities in accessibility to culture (using
the potential of the Internet, among other things) across society, mainly in
disadvantaged groups, including ethnic minorities. Ignorance of majority
cultural values is one of the obstacles of successful integration of these
disadvantaged groups.
159. Culture contributes to our quality of life; it transforms cities and
municipalities into pleasant places for life, work and travel, stimulates
education and contributes to life-long personal development. However, it is
Creating policies for the field
of healthcare
Culture as a source of
national identity
Identity based on culture
guarantees social cohesion
Supporting equal access to
culture
Development of culture
requires sufficient resources
1. People and society
47
the main element of identity policy and creativity development. We
therefore need sufficient public resources to develop it, mainly for the
purposes of systematic and financial support and decent employee rewards
in public, private and not-for-profit institutions in the culture sector.
160. The objective of a culture policy must be to support all current and
historical culture that, although not necessarily commercially viable, is still
considered as high-quality art. Art also brings about innovation that can be
applied outside of its own cultural sector. Art, cultural heritage and its care
also represent significant generators of jobs. Cultural heritage restoration
and support for art that requires skilled expertise boosts the employment
rate and opportunities for small and medium businesses and creates space
for the preservation and restoration of unique procedures and techniques.
Cultural and creative sectors are sources of technological and nontechnological
innovation and they bring value added to the development of
other economic sectors. Their interdisciplinary range also positively
influences sustainable development, creation and strengthening of social
capital, development of tourism and an increase in the values of products
and services generated in other industries. The state's task is also to
consider new disciplines from the digital economy and cultural and creative
industries in its support of balanced and efficient innovation management,
since their results go beyond the borders of culture and contribute to the
social and economic development of the Czech Republic.49
161. Creativity as a central value of European identity is a part of a fully
developed human life, and therefore the opportunity to develop it must be
open to all regardless of social status. At the same time, it is vital as a
source of solutions to the challenge of world change that is ahead of us.
162. Making cultural and artistic values accessible to the public must take
priority over generating financial resources. With respect to historical
development, many cultural institutions in the Czech Republic remain public
property. The desirable goal is then to provide and actively make cultural
values in the public sphere accessible and free of charge, wherever
possible.
163. The main criterion in the field of culture is always its effective
production. Applying the principle of a public creative competition facilitates
such effective production. We must establish an environment that provides
cooperation between the state, local administration and the private sector
which is beneficial for all parties.
164. The state's cultural policy must be interconnected at all public
administration levels. It is necessary to actively support local
administrations in their ability to efficiently link the state cultural policy with
49 See e.g. OG CR (2016) Národní výzkumná a inovační strategie pro inteligentní
specializaci České republiky. Or MC CR (2015) Státní kulturní politika ČR 2015–2020
s výhledem do roku 2025.
State support for culture as a
source of innovation and
employment
Equal access to creativity as
a prerequisite for adaptability
towards change
Culture and art accessibility
take priority over commercial
gain
Public creative competitions
as a tool for quality
improvement
Cultural policy must also be
supported on a local level
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
48
local conditions to enable the resources and focus to adequately distribute
for the purpose of quality cultural production on a local level.
165. We must continue to pay special attention to cultural heritage
(monuments and collections of art). Surveys show a positive impact of
cultural heritage on quality of life and the state's economy.50 Material
cultural heritage brought to the public has an undeniable positive economic
impact in the locality where it contributes to the development of a wide
range of services. Cultural heritage and cultural and creative sectors
represent significant job creators, boosting local businesses that employ
people from the locality.
166. Tourism in general raises awareness of a country. Many tourists head
to the country for its monuments and live culture. We can use our unique
cultural identity to build sustainable cultural tourism. Promotion of the state
abroad will intensify by participation in European, internationally respected
statuses of cultural heritage, such as participation in the UNESCO World
Heritage List, the Representative list of UNESCO's non-material cultural
heritage, UNESCO's International Registry of World Heritage and in other
European, internationally respected tools for cultural heritage support, for
example, European Cultural Route, European Heritage Label or in
European Routes of Industrial Heritage.
167. Cultural landscape is a specific cultural value. We need to ensure its
protection is in accordance with requirements for climate change adaptation
with responsible regard to the balance between the two needs.
1.7 Strategic objectives
1. Social climate is universally favourable to families; barriers and
social pressures have been minimised. Family, parenthood and
marriage are covered by special legal protection and are highly
valued in society.
1.1 Suitable social-economic conditions are important for the good
functioning of families. They focus on the financial wellbeing of
families, good work-life balance and services of care for children
and the elderly. Therefore, these conditions allow people sufficient
leisure time to improve their family relationships.
1.2 Families with specific needs require special attention. Targeted
measures are taken, contributing to equal access to education and
affirmation of members of these families on the labour market and
in society.
50 A survey within an EU project ‘Cultural Heritage Counts for Europe’ which aimed to
analyse all quantitative and qualitative data available related to economic, social,
environmental and cultural impacts of our cultural heritage, see CHCFE CONSORTIUM (2015)
Cultural Heritage Counts for Europe.
Cultural heritage contributes
to our regional development
Promotion of cultural
heritage will support tourism
Cultural landscape for
climate change management
1. People and society
49
2. Technological and social development extend the approach to
dignified work.
2.1 The labour market shows lower structural imbalances at national
and regional levels; the polarisation of the labour market and its
social impacts are mitigated.
2.2 Access to dignified work is also extended to groups that remain
disadvantaged on the labour market, i.e. parents on parental
leave, people with disabilities and people over 50 years of age.
2.3 The general unemployment rate decreases along with the
proportion of long-term unemployed in the total unemployment
rate.
2.4 The degree of precarisation and involuntary flexibility of work is
minimised, including activities carried out through the platform
economy and other new atypical forms of work.
2.5 Immigration and integration policies emphasise the attraction of
qualified foreigners and intensify the diversity of the workforce
which is vital for innovation. Public policies also support the return
of Czech citizens from abroad.
3. Structural inequalities in society are low.
3.1 In the long-term perspective, the proportion of people at risk of
poverty and social exclusion is decreasing.
3.2 Income inequality is decreasing and emphasis is placed on
maintaining a strong middle layer.
3.3 Gender inequality is decreasing.
3.4 Equal approach to persons at risk of discrimination based on sex,
age, dependency, disability, ethnicity, nationality, sexual
orientation, religion or worldview is ensured. Multiple discrimination
prevention is particularly emphasised.
4. Education develops individuals' unique potential and ability to
manage and influence change, and promotes a cohesive,
sustainable society oriented towards sustainable development.
4.1 The education system is inclusive and mutually permeable; it does
not divide pupils at a young age into gifted and not gifted and limits
the dependence of educational paths and results on students'
socio-economic background.
4.2 The education system encourages teachers and other educators to
bring about the necessary changes in education and to assume
the role of guides for education participants in a changing world.
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
50
The system is very open to contact with the real world and involves
all participants in education.
4.3 Education provides everyone with access to the development of
transferable competencies needed for active civic, professional
and personal life. The system provides an adequate general
foundation necessary for further education, engagement in society,
and for understanding the interdependence of the contemporary
world.
4.4 The system of life-long education is publicly guaranteed and widely
available. It focuses on both vocational education and training in
transferable skills.
5. The health of all population groups is improving.
5.1 The lifespan and health of all Czech population groups is improving.
5.2 Influences causing inequalities in the field of healthcare are
decreasing.
5.3 The public health system is stable, generally available in terms of
both quality and capacity, while developing a corresponding
professional structure. The average age of both medical and nonmedical
personnel is decreasing and the rewards for all healthcare
workers are improving.
5.4 A healthy lifestyle is supported by higher public expenditure, with an
emphasis on primary disease prevention and health promotion
throughout life.
5.5 Consumption of addictive substances as well as the load of
hazardous harmful substances and noise are reduced by
improving the quality of the environment. Specified limits of
harmful substances and noise are not exceeded.
6. Greater public investment supports key cultural functions and
equal access to culture and creativity.
6.1 Increased public spending is directed towards culture, and the
possibilities for long-term financial planning of cultural
organisations are improved.
6.2 Depending on the needs of the changing society, the development
and establishment of new cultural organisations is systematically
supported.
6.3 Cultural and creative industries are being promoted as an
opportunity for economic development.
6.4 Culture workers are supported both systematically and financially to
increase their significance and improve the conditions needed for
their creative and motivational role towards other groups in society.


53
2 Economic model
Vision
The economy of the Czech Republic is purposefully reducing its
material and energy intensity. Economic institutions deliver long-term
growth in the economy, built on entrepreneurship, innovation,
people's creativity and abilities, higher value added industries, the
circular economy, low-carbon technologies, robotics and digitisation,
and rely on a robust and quality infrastructure. It is based on the
principles of the social-market economy, the core of which is
cooperation and coordination between the public, business and nonprofit
sectors. Public finances ensure that the resources for the
implementation of public policies are spent adequately and efficiently.
Introduction
201. The economy is a sum of creative (productive) activities that satisfy
people's material and non-material needs. A sustainable economic model
ensures the economy's ability to increase the scope and quality of services
and goods provided in the most efficient way in the long-term perspective,
while at the same time managing to sustain natural resource requirements
within the acceptable limits of the long-term production capacity of the
country (decoupling). Promoting an efficient and environmentally-friendly
economic model is the main general objective of this chapter.
202. Economic success is measured by the material wealth of the
economy. Several indicators can be used to measure it. GDP is the volume
of a national economy’s final production. GDP per capita is the measure of
country economic level. There is a correlation between the growth of
economic levels per capita and improving quality of life. For a small open
economy such as the Czech Republic, gross national income (GNI) is also
an important indicator. This is the volume of income of residents – domestic
economic entities. The difference between GDP and GNI shows what
proportion of the income created within the economy will remain in it (and
can therefore serve to further the economy, finance public policies,
consumption, investments, etc.).
203. Economic cycles and fluctuations in economic performance can affect
success in meeting sustainable development objectives. Therefore the
achievement of this strategic framework’ objectives must always be
assessed considering eventual phase of economic cycle, whether the
Efficient and eco-friendly
economy is the goal
There is more to measure
success than GDP
Macroeconomic stability is a
prerequisite of economic
success
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
54
economy is in recession or boom, but also macroeconomic stability. For
this reason, GDP, GNI, real household consumption, inflation rate and
external balance (current balance of payments ratio to GDP) will always be
taken into account when evaluating the success of the CR 2030.
204. These indicators have limited reporting value; there are a number of
alternatives such as the Human Development Index or the Index of
Sustainable Economic Welfare. However, quantitative indicators series, in
particular GDP and GNI, are very similar to other “softer” indicators of
quality of life and the level of wellbeing as perceived by Czech households
in their everyday lives. Therefore, we use this standard economic metric.
The material wealth thus expressed is also an integral part of a broader
quality of life assessment within the OECD Wellbeing Framework.
205. The Czech Republic is close to the average EU economic level.
Converging to the original EU15’ GDP per capita, which is above the entire
EU average, within 15 years is very ambitious. The prerequisite for
achieving it would be a qualitative jump of the economy to a higher
performance level. This is only possible if there are significant structural
changes accompanied by growth in productivity and value added. The
necessary structural reforms must link to the five areas specified in detail in
the five numbered sections of this chapter.
2.1 Economic institutions
206. The growth of the Czech economy has been largely based on
external sources, on a massive inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI).
However, this external source of growth is depleting, with FDI opportunities
apparently largely saturated. This trend illustrates, for example, the ceased
growth of FDI (see Chart 2.3 of the Development Analysis). The goal for the
next 15 years is to maintain and increase the benefits of FDI, and to find
and activate FDI-independent internal sources of growth.
207. Should Czech economy generate sufficient output over a long period,
it is necessary to focus on three tasks: (1) support for entrepreneurship, (2)
direct implementation of pro-growth measures focusing on education (see
Subchapter 1.4), research, development and innovation, including
infrastructures, and (3) emphasising resource efficiency and reducing the
damage caused by the consumption of natural resources. These three
tasks are addressed further. Business support must include all business
sectors, but particularly small and medium enterprises (SME) as the least
developed sector with the highest growth potential. The most important
thing is to focus on FDI quality growth. In the large business sector which
forms the backbone of the economy, it is necessary to promote quality and
international competitiveness of their products. The second and third tasks
are discussed in sections 2.2 to 2.4.
208. The Czech Republic will strive to improve the quality of FDI of foreign
companies operating in our country. The goal is to achieve the most
GDP has limitations as an
indicator
Convergence to the EU15
requires a major
transformation of the
economy
Foreign investments as a
growth engine are history
The three pillars of economic
policy
Improve the quality of foreign
investment
2. Economic model
55
sophisticated upper levels of international value chains, i.e. those with the
highest value added. The FDI quality score ex post is represented by labor
productivity and wages, the ex ante indicator can be the technological
intensity of the investment.
209. The Czech Republic will support the development of business with
the highest value added in domestic companies, which is partly related to
the improvement in the quality of FDI, but also to investments in research,
development and innovation. Exacting demand for subcontractors by
foreign companies operating in the Czech Republic may be an appropriate
impetus and opportunity for domestic enterprises. The second part,
supported more in the long-term perspective, is the shift from the position of
a subcontractor to an independent producer able to apply their own product
to the final production market.
210. Large businesses form the backbone of the economy. Their 45 %
portion of GVA is dominant. Increasing the share of this sector in the
production of GVA is therefore not so important. It is much more important
to improve its quality, as is the case with FDI. The support of large
businesses should therefore focus on the ability of large businesses to step
up and keep abreast of technical, organisational and business
developments around the world, which requires a significant investment in
their own infrastructure and in research, development and innovation.
211. SMEs have the greatest potential to contribute to economic growth
because as a sector in the Czech Republic they are less developed than
the large and micro enterprises. Although they have approximately the
same proportion of workers as the other average EU countries, they have a
lower share of GVA. The greatest obstacles to the development of SMEs
need to be removed, particularly access to capital should be facilitated and
relatively high administrative barriers should be reduced.
212. One of the elements of support for SMEs is also the support of a
participatory economy, which includes social entrepreneurship and
entrepreneurship through employee participation or cooperatives. This type
of business can effectively combine profitability with social inclusion and
democratic decision-making systems. It also facilitates the financing of
start-ups or the transfer of ownership of pre-existing businesses, so-called
succession.
213. The shape and performance of the Czech economy in the next 15
years are closely related to whether we will adopt the euro or not. Adopting
the euro will have both economic and political consequences. From the
economic point of view, the euro brings advantages, in particular lower
transaction costs, as well as disadvantages, in particular the loss of our
own monetary policy which allows for coping with economic shocks through
our own currency instruments, including the floating exchange rate. In
addition to fulfilling the relevant formal criteria in the Czech Republic and
the consent of the Eurozone countries, any decision on admission includes
Take advantage of the
subcontractor position and
advance to independence
Large businesses
competitive abroad
Small and medium
enterprises have the greatest
growth potential
Support for SMEs through
social entrepreneurship
The adoption or nonadoption
of the euro will
affect the performance and
shape of the Czech economy
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
56
a prerequisite of the admission being economically viable in the long-term
perspective, so that its benefits outweigh its costs. In addition, the
Eurozone itself, which is currently facing a number of internal problems,
should be internally consolidated and its long-term functioning clarified. On
the other hand, the Czech Republic should reach a reasonable level of
competitiveness in the EU internal market before adopting the euro, which
will lose its ability to be strengthened by exchange rate depreciation once it
is adopted.
214. Most indicators show the economic model of the Czech Republic
stands between the liberal Anglo-Saxon model and the coordinated
continental model. However, it does not take full advantage of either.51 In
order to improve the growth and convergence potential of the Czech
Republic's economy, financing the R&D, education and training system and
management and industrial relations must be changed to avoid the
necessity for long-term, systematic and unilateral transfers (e.g. know-how
or capital) from abroad. The structure and advantages of the Central
European region and the tradition of large industrial enterprises in Bohemia
and Moravia correspond rather to the coordinated model of the economy,
which developed most in Germany. Changing domestic economic
institutions towards this model should not be mechanical, but should take
into account domestic specificities and current trends.
2.2 Research, development and innovation
215. Innovation is an improvement in a product or service. It is often result
of R&D. A precondition for a greater degree of innovation is the effective
link between research organisations, high-quality education and
businesses. It is necessary to restore and support the institutional base of
applied research and to streamline dissemination and sharing of knowledge
originated in research organisations with an emphasis on their subsequent
application in practice.
216. The ability to innovate on the basis of R&D is a necessary condition
for raising the standard of living. Our ability to respond to society's expected
needs and global challenges also depends on mastering innovation. An
integral part of this process is to support education for innovation and to
support the development of an environment where intellectual property and
know-how have their social and economic value. Actually, for example,
there is a need to implement a range of climate change-related measures,
such as the transition to a low-carbon circular economy and the reduction
of energy intensity (mitigation) and the restraint of its negative effects on
society and the environment (adaptation). Only an innovating economy is
able to absorb and acquire new technologies and ways of corporate
organisation and capitalise on them.
51 For more details, see OG CR (2016) Analýza odlivu zisků.
Follow the continental model
of the economy
Link research, education and
business together
The ability to innovate is the
key to achieving a long-term
efficient economy
2. Economic model
57
217. The Czech economy can absorb new technologies and processes
which have been developed elsewhere. Similarly, with the overall strong
position of foreign companies operating in the Czech Republic, it is actually
both foreign and large enterprises which push applied R&D forward. The
segment of research and technology-oriented small and medium
enterprises is relatively undeveloped.52 There is a need to encourage
companies that do not yet invest and do not do any R&D or buy their
results to start their own R&D activities, or to encourage them to cooperate
with research organisations, including universities. The aim is to ensure the
shift of SMEs’ towards value chain positions with higher value added (the
ability to sell their products and services at a higher price). Supporting
SMEs' research and innovation activities, with the help of appropriate yet
minimally-expanded support tools responding quickly to market demands,
is another step in supporting this segment. Entry to new markets is also
often the impetus for innovation. However, the rate of internationalisation of
SMEs is low in the Czech Republic in the long-term perspective, and
should therefore be more pronounced in the future, as well as increasing
SME participation in international programmes. In the context of a frequent
enterprise strategy for adopting and adapting technologies from abroad, it
is also important to place an emphasis on introducing higher-order
innovations (the higher the order of innovation, the more significant the
change of process or product).
218. The challenge for the future, in addition to innovation itself, is the
ability of businesses to capitalise on innovation and to create a whole value
chain on its base. Businesses need to discover, but also use and sell the
new solution discovered in our country, so that most of the value added
remains in the domestic economy. The key task of the state is to support
the establishment of interconnections between research organisationsand
SME sector and to streamline and accelerate the commercialisation of
research results, thus strengthening the inadequate institutional basis for
applied research.
2.3 Resources management
219. Sustainability, productivity and ultimately the very sophistication of the
economy is reflected in the ability to manage resources, especially
effectiveness of reusing and recycling. The most important resources for
the Czech economy are fuels and other mineral resources, soil, water and
clean air. Another important parameter of resource consumption is
greenhouse gas emissions, especially carbon dioxide, pollutants and waste
production.
220. Use of resources is linked to externalities, or external costs and
benefits. Externalities are only partially included in the price of resources.
52 OG CR (2016) Národní politika výzkumu, vývoje a inovací České republiky na léta 2016–
2020.
Strengthen the innovation
potential of domestic
enterprises
Promote business use of
domestic innovations
Efficiency of resource
consumption is desirable
feature of the economy
It is beneficial to take
externalities into account
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
58
Therefore, the society uses resources more, or conversely less, than what
is their corresponding social value. Both Czech and European legislation is
trying to remedy this, in varying degrees and via various instruments. A
balanced combination of different approaches should enable taking
externalities into account, e.g. expressing the value and compensation of
ecosystem services (see Section 3.1 and the specific objective 12.6), i.e.
compensation to suppliers of these services, or taxes or limits on resource
consumption, which harms the environment, public health or overloads the
infrastructure.
221. The Czech Republic, as a European state, is part of the geopolitical
space that consumes more raw materials than it produces. More than three
quarters of metal ores, two thirds of fossil fuels and practically all
phosphorus consumed in the EU come from non-EU countries53, and our
own (i.e. EU) fossil fuel production is declining rapidly. It does not
necessarily have to be negative in itself; manufacturing creates higher
value added than the mining industry and is more sophisticated. Despite
this, rising resource consumption in emerging economies can put Europe in
a weaker strategic position. The state will therefore work with other EU
members on legislation, tax incentives and other rules to ensure increased
circulation of raw materials in the economy. It focuses on reducing raw
materials, extending product life, and decreasing wasteful behaviour.
222. An important part of such a solution is better use of domestic
resources – replacing natural materials with recycling waste and secondary
raw materials. The state supports the waste management hierarchy where
waste prevention is preferred over recycling, recycling over energy
recovery, and energy recovery of waste over waste disposal. In summary,
such an approach is referred to as a circular economy. A necessary
condition and part of the support of the circular economy is also building a
relevant environmental service infrastructure.
223. The Czech economy will have to respond at all levels to the ongoing
changes and associated extreme meteorological phenomena, particularly
drought and water scarcity, floods, torrential rains and heatwaves.54
Another serious problem is the inability of landscape to retain water (see
Section 3.3). Czech agriculture, forestry and water management await a
fundamental change facing the need for adaptation to the expected
changes in the landscape water regime. It is also necessary to prepare
conditions for recycling, collection and utilisation of rainwater and to control
run-off from paved areas in urban water management systems.
53 EUROSTAT. Dataset Material flow accounts. Eurostat. [online].
54 FOR MORE INFORMATION, SEE MOE CR (2015) Strategie přizpůsobení se změně klimatu v
podmínkách ČR, Chapter 3.3 Water regime in the landscape and water management.
The Czech Republic and its
surroundings are not selfsufficient
The circular economy is one
of the solutions to the limited
availability of resources
Water becomes a strategic
resource
2. Economic model
59
224. Most of the Czech land is used by agricultural and forestry
businesses. Especially in agriculture, there is an imbalance between shortterm
market incentives and long-term economic prospects. Enterprises
adapt their production to market conditions and subsidies. The state will
gradually change the incentives and rules to encourage agriculture and
forestry to make better use of the land. Another dimension of efficient land
use is food production. It is desirable that consumption of foods that we can
produce in our country is adequately covered by domestic sources. That is
to say, it is desirable that the Czech Republic is reasonably self-sufficient
by 2030. This will not only help to maintain the know-how and the level of
equipment, but it will also improve the condition of agricultural land (see
Section 3.4), encourage employment in the countryside and reduce the
negative external costs of over-importing food.
225. The Czech Republic will systematically strive for an economically
viable improvement in energy efficiency. At the same time, it will
systematically reduce greenhouse gas emissions (absolute and relative to
the volume of production) in line with international, European and national
economic strategies. To achieve both, a combination of different resources
will be needed. This will include a more effective setting of the emissions
trading system starting in 2021, an analysis of the options for introducing
environmental elements in consumer and energy tax rates for fuels
consumed in non-ETS installations, building insulation support, use of
secondary energy sources, wider deployment of emission-free and lowemission
vehicles, etc. In the energy industry, this will induce a demand for
reducing fossil fuel consumption. This can be achieved in several ways,
including increasing the share of renewable or nuclear energy production or
from waste and by improving energy efficiency. Even in the case of new
sources, account must be taken of the externalities they cause, by means
such as the departure from first-generation biofuels, etc. Coal reserves – as
the only significant source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic – should
remain a reserve source.
226. Any solution to the transformation of energy resource supply in the
Czech Republic must meet the following conditions: (1) resilience, i.e.
security of supply both in normal operation and with sudden changes of
external conditions; (2) competitiveness, i.e. energy prices for businesses
comparable to those of foreign countries, and households without the threat
of energy poverty; (3) long-term sustainability in the sense that the structure
and function of energy does not compromise the emphasis on
environmental and climate protection. The sector is financially and
economically stable, so businesses can secure the necessary investment in
restoration and development; and last but not least, sufficient primary
resources are provided.
Soil is an integral part of
ecosystem services and an
irreplaceable source of food
production
More efficient use of energy
and reduction of greenhouse
gas emissions
The mix of energy resources
must be resilient, competitive
and sustainable in the longterm
perspective
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
60
2.4 Infrastructure
227. Infrastructure allows people, goods, services and information to
travel. Infrastructure, the “disruption or malfunctioning of which would have
a serious impact on state security, on security of the population’s basic
living needs, on the health of the people or on the state economy” is called
critical infrastructure.55 This concept emphasizes the safety. It relates to
technical and organisational parameters of infrastructure, which then affect
its resilience and flexibility. Both of these properties are important. The
safety of the population depends on them. In cooperation with operators of
critical infrastructure elements, a critical infrastructure protection system is
being developed to address prevention, a state of readiness and resolving
consequences and impacts of failures of critical infrastructure elements on
the lives and health of the population, securing their basic living needs, and
also impacts on the economy. Sustainability of critical infrastructure is
determined by the costs of its maintenance and improvement of resilience
(both public and /or private policy-induced expenses), a comprehensive
definition of obligations (of operators and crisis management bodies) in the
event of crisis and the extent and structure of threats (natural,
anthropogenic, foreign, etc.).
228. However, the way infrastructure contributes to the performance of the
economy in the long-term perspective is important for us. The main types of
so-called strategic infrastructures are: energy (electricity system and heat
supply system, gas pipelines, oil pipelines and product pipelines); transport
(road and rail network, air transport infrastructure, waterways and
combined transport); water management (supply of drinking water,
drainage and waste water treatment); telecommunication and digital
network. Strategic infrastructure is sustainable provided by the ability to
deliver services of general economic interest in a sufficient way, at an
affordable price using economically efficient systems (with full cost
coverage by users, including some positive externalities in revenues). Its
sustainability also depends on the structure and interaction of network
industries operating the infrastructure, public and induced private costs for
its recovery, changes in terms of demand and technological innovations in
the field of network services.
229. The condition of a resilient economy, business and quality of life is
based on a well-designed, high-quality and reliable infrastructure in good
condition that is designed with sufficient reserves. It contributes to the
smooth functioning of other industries. In addition, it provides resilience
against crises caused by humans or nature. The success of building and
managing an infrastructure relates to the quality of services it provides.
Therefore, the state wants to support the continuous improvement of the
quality of infrastructure services. Further development and strengthening of
the infrastructure must ensure that it produces as little damage as possible,
55 Act No. 240/2000 Coll., On Crisis Management and on Amendments to Certain Acts, § 2,
letter g).
Securing critical
infrastructure is the first
condition for infrastructure
development
Strategic infrastructure is
important for the economic
model
Infrastructure is measured by
the quality of its services
2. Economic model
61
such as fragmentation of land or soil occupation. The standard of
sustainable infrastructure network services relates to their accessibility,
continuity, security and accessibility, including an acceptable, non-inhibiting
price. Local conditions, user income, consumer standards, and an
alternative and individual share of service provision therefore affect
Maximum benefit.
230. High-quality infrastructure is strategically important to the state.
Without systematic and long-term investments (with a significant public
share) there may be risk of water, energy or transport services being
compromised, thus disrupting the basic functioning of the state.
Infrastructure management, operation and maintenance cannot usually be
left to short-term decision-making based on a market mechanism. The
focus of possible disparities shifts from security and qualitative factors to
economic and social factors. The state should therefore set, maintain and
improve the regulatory framework in a consistent manner to ensure the
long-term functionality and resilience of the infrastructure as well as the
high standard and the social effectiveness of its services.
231. An electricity network is an important part of the energy infrastructure.
In this subchapter, we are referring to its transmission and distribution
aspects, not the source. Its concept is based on the traditional
centralisation of production into large power plants. The emergence of
small, decentralised energy sources, such as solar panels on roofs,
municipal wind farms or biogas stations, will primarily require a qualitative
adaptation of this network. The state is planning a gradual investment into
infrastructure.56
232. Thermal energy supply systems represent the energy infrastructure
that is essential for the efficient use of heat from renewable and secondary
sources of energy that are difficult or impossible to obtain efficiently and
used separately at the level of individual buildings (less valuable biomass,
biogas derived from biowaste, geothermal energy, waste heat from
industrial processes, etc.). The use of locally available heat sources
contributes to the decentralisation of energy, reduces dependence on fossil
fuel imports and strengthens the local economy. The Czech Republic has a
developed heating system that needs to be gradually transformed for the
use of low-carbon energy sources, including energy from secondary
sources and waste heat, and their transportation to consumers, especially
in urban agglomerations.
233. The Czech Republic must not become the inner periphery of Europe.
It is therefore necessary to ensure quality and efficient transport
connections between all regions of the Czech Republic within the trans-
European transport networks to all neighbouring states, so that transport is
not a limiting factor of import and export preventing the economic
development of all regions of the Czech Republic. However, steps should
56 MIT CR (2015) Národní akční plán pro chytré sítě.
Infrastructure operation
needs regulation
The electricity network must
be ready for decentralisation
Heat supply systems will
contribute to the
decentralisation and
localisation of production,
especially in agglomerations
A good connection with the
economic core of Europe is a
prerequisite for the success
of the Czech economy
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
62
be taken not to increase the volume of transit road freight transport
significantly, given the high externalities associated with its operation. In the
area of rail transport, on the other hand, the role of railway infrastructure in
terms of transit should be intensified, both by modernising rail freight
corridors and by building high-speed railways. It is also necessary to
reduce the administrative burden created by the construction and
technology approval process.
234. Another part of the transport infrastructure is regional communication.
All regions of the Czech Republic show great deficiencies in the quality of
transport infrastructure, which limits the economic potential of the regions
and, as a result, the ability to reduce regional inequalities (see Section 4.2).
This is also a weakness in view of the expected increase in mobility
requirements of the population (see Section 4.1). It is therefore important to
reduce the differences in transport infrastructure quality across regions.
235. Technological changes in the global world increase economic
differences. Rich and innovative parts of the world – states, urban
agglomerations – are able to adapt to these transformations better than
middle income areas and peripheries. Therefore, the state wants to invest
in the information infrastructure in the peripheral parts of the Czech
Republic, where jobs disappear, public services are deteriorating and
people are leaving (see Municipalities and regions).
236. The water industry infrastructure must supply municipalities and
towns reliably with drinking water and effectively drain and clean waste
water, despite the long-term deterioration of hydrological conditions. This is
pre-conditioned by improving resistance of water sources against
contamination and at the same time to substantially improve the quality of
discharged cleaned water into watercourses to ensure a lasting opportunity
for life of aquatic fauna and flora in a natural environment (for more
information, see Resistant ecosystems). Another supporting step is the
improvement of the technical parameters of the water management
infrastructure, in particular the improvement of the hydraulic effectiveness
of the drinking water distribution systems and their systematic restoration
ensuring long-term sustainability and the construction of new multipurpose
water reservoirs, as a minimum.
237. Owners must provide sufficient investment to ensure that the water
management infrastructure continues to deliver its services to the highest
standard. It must be able to mitigate the consequences of drought related
to climate change. Upon expiration of lease contracts with foreign partners,
the state should consider taking steps to regain responsibility for the
operation of the water supply infrastructure at all levels in the Czech
Republic's competence and administration, or identifying possible tools for
regulating the integration of owners. This measure can achieve a significant
increase in investment in the coming decades.
Deficiencies in transport
infrastructure must not
restrict the development of
the regions
Support lagging regions by
developing information
infrastructure
The emphasis on water
management is related to
water becoming a strategic
resource
Consider increasing state
influence on water
infrastructure to ensure
sufficient investment
2. Economic model
63
2.5 Public finance system
238. Fiscal policy is one of the instruments of economic policy, primarily
carried out by the government. It uses the budgets of public institutions (in
particular, the state budget and state funds) that affect the monetary
relations between the state and other economic entities. In particular, the
state uses fiscal policy to implement its plans – to promote economic
growth, reduce social disparities, reallocate budget funds optimally or as
incentives to reduce unnecessary consumption (e.g. tobacco or alcohol) or
invest in R&D. The role of fiscal policy in macroeconomic stabilisation is
equally important. However, its long-term sustainability is a necessary
condition.
239. Sustainability of public finances must be based on three wellbalanced
pillars: (1) the quality of public expenditure (money spent must
match the results achieved); (2) an acceptable and yet sustainable
structure and level of tax revenue from a social point of view (it must tax
different population groups fairly and take account of demographics),
economic (not limit economic activity) or administrative (effective choice,
low administration of taxes); (3) a flexible balance of income and
expenditure, which will be balanced in the long-term perspective (without a
structural deficit) and counter-cyclical (allowing, for example, investment in
the recession to offset the economic downturn).
240. Deciding what public funds are used for and where they come from is
a political decision. Effectiveness of public spending should be reflected by
the long-term universal success rate, i.e. measuring the success of public
policy and expenditure, even with international comparisons. Other
instruments include external auditing of public budgets, adherence to the
3E principle (economy, efficiency and effectiveness), strengthening of good
central purchasing practice or emphasis on open data.
241. The Czech Republic needs to streamline its tax system. There is
useful guidance for this process in the form of repeated recommendations
from the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the OECD and the
European Union, which highlight a relatively low current tax burden, an
excessive tax burden on labour, a lower than average capital and asset
burden and a disproportionately long time for tax administration.
Companies also legitimately call for more predictable tax rules. In order to
improve the effectiveness of corporate tax collection, the strengthening of
European and international cooperation, including the reduction of the role
of tax havens, should also be promoted.
242. The public finance system must prepare for the impact of megatrends
– ageing, technological leaps, growing inequalities and climate change. In
addition to changes in terms of expenditure, a change in the tax mix
(income taxes, environmental taxes, property taxes, indirect taxes, etc.)
Public finances are a tool for
implementing public policies
The three pillars of public
finance
Politically-determined
expenditure must be spent
as efficiently as possible
The tax system can be
streamlined by reconfiguring
some of its parameters
The sustainability criterion of
the tax system is to ensure
sufficient income under
changing conditions
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
64
could be a response to these trends. In some cases, these may not
necessarily entail higher rates, but more efficient choices.
243. European funds have strengthened the Czech economy, helped to
revitalise cities and towns, and to revitalise the countryside. We must be
careful to adhere to the principle of additionality to avoid displacement of
national resources and to make public policies and the normal operation of
the state dependent on EU funds. Their inflow into the Czech Republic will
gradually decline. The emerging dependence may undermine the fulfilment
of the tasks that have eventually been successfully funded. The state
should therefore prepare public budgets to counteract the future decline.
Meanwhile, it is necessary to consider concentrating the funds on
investments to increase the growth potential of the Czech economy.
Innovative financial instruments can also be used as available risk capital
for investment into small and medium enterprises.
244. All changes to the fiscal system must respect the principle of
solidarity and justice. The same tax can have a different impact on different
social groups. When using taxes (instead of expenditure) for direct
implementation of policies, it is necessary to consider which groups can
achieve tax benefits. The state must also subject the same tax
considerations to existing tax bonus-malus setting.
2.6 Strategic objectives
7. The economy grows in long-term and the domestic sector is
strong.
7.1 Domestic parts of the economy develop.
7.2 The SME sector grows.
7.3 The state supports the shift of the economy towards higher positions
in the international division of labour and the international value
chain.
7.4 The quality of foreign direct investment in the Czech Republic
improves.
8. The Czech Republic has well-functioning and stable institutions to
support applied research and development and to identify
opportunities in this area.
8.1 The Czech Republic has a stable material and human capacity for
R&D with the appropriate structure and direction, in which both the
state and businesses invest sufficient financial resources.
8.2 Innovative enterprise activity is growing, based mainly on the results
of domestic R&D, and the extent of cooperation between the
academic and business sectors.
Public finances must be
prepared for a possible
reduction in the European
funds revenue
Changes in the public
finance system must not
compromise social peace
2. Economic model
65
9. Natural resources are used as efficiently and economically as
possible to minimise the external costs caused by their
consumption.
9.1 GHG emissions are reduced and so is GHG intensity of GDP.
9.2 The share of the circular economy is increasing in the total volume
of material flows.
9.3 Energy and material efficiencies of the economy increase.
9.4 The use of domestic agricultural production is increasing, thus
reducing the imports of agricultural products and strenghtening
food self-sufficiency.
10. A working and stable infrastructure promotes economic activities.
10.1 Maintaining state control over the critical infrastructure system and
developing a critical infrastructure protection system.
10.2 Sound transport links are provided with the economic population
and transport centres of Germany, Austria and Poland.
10.3 The electricity network ensures electricity distribution at the required
technical standard regardless of the resource structure.
10.4 Thermal energy supply systems create conditions for the efficient
use of heat from renewable and secondary energy sources
available at regional and local level.
10.5 The availability of high-speed internet is improving.
10.6 Despite the negative impacts of climate change, the state maintains
a high standard of water services while improving accessibility.
11. The fiscal system as a prerequisite for a successful economy is
stable.
11.1 The medium-term outlook retains structurally balanced budgets,
ensuring both the stabilisation of public budgets and their longterm
sustainability.
11.2 Improving the effectiveness of public funds expenditure in selected
public policies (health, education, science and research, etc.).



69
3 Resilient ecosystems
Vision
Agriculture, forestry and water management respect natural limits and
global climate change; they improve soil quality, slow water drainage
from the landscape and help maintain biodiversity. The development
of settlements and technical infrastructure, especially transport
infrastructure, takes place with the utmost regard to maintaining and
strengthening ecosystem services provided by landscape.
Introduction
301. The structure of the Czech landscape underwent a significant change
in the second half of the last century. Efforts to rapidly increase agricultural
productivity, regardless of other landscape functions, led to rapid water
drainage, increased water and wind erosion, extensive soil degradation,
and a significant reduction in biodiversity and overall landscape uniformity.
302. Advancing climate change will mainly bring changes in rainfall
distribution. There will be less snow as well as periods of mild, longerlasting
rain. On the contrary, there will also be torrential precipitation and
rainless periods. Slowing water discharge from the landscape by improving
its ability to withhold precipitation is therefore vital to us.
303. Unless compensated by improved landscape structure and more
appropriate farming practices, climate change will also lead to further soil
degradation and the extinction of some biological species. Change must be
gradual and long-term, but fundamental and permanent. Due to ongoing
climate change, these changes are indispensable, unquestionably
demanding, but manageable.
3.1 Landscape and ecosystem services
304. The current Czech landscape contains both valuable parts that need
to be protected and degraded parts, the gradual change of which needs to
be decided (see Development Analysis). Spatial planning is of crucial
importance for decision-making in terms of the landscape, so it is
necessary to create conditions for the creation and use of specific spatial
planning documents aimed at sustainable use, management and landscape
planning as well as protection of its natural and cultural values. The
creation of a landscape policy in public debate and the definition of
Our landscape has changed
dramatically over the last
century – mostly for the
worse
We can compensate for the
fluctuation of precipitation by
slowing water drainage
Climate change in the
landscape will gradually
force major changes
The country needs the
principles of long-term
restoration and creation
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
70
instruments for its implementation form a suitable framework for this
process. The country's policy will, in a broader context than in the current
spatial planning, deal with the assessment of the landscape’s current state
and will propose the principles of its long-term restoration and creation. In
situations where there are fundamental changes in the landscape – the
decline of intensive agriculture on less fertile soils, suburbanisation
(Development Analysis, Municipalities and regions) and the landscape
burdened by other intensive uses – and on the other hand the demand for
ecosystem services, landscape policy will be the basis for other forms and
levels of planning (strategic and spatial planning, catchment area planning,
complex landscaping, etc.).
305. The structure of the Czech landscape was shaped mainly by
agriculture. The conditions of subsidy support (see DevelopmentAnalysis)
give the Czech state the possibility of reducing the negative impacts of
agriculture on the landscape, within the limits given by the respective
common EU legislation. Therefore, the state will use a system of European
and national support to permanently strengthen ecosystem services and
achieve appropriate level of food self-sufficiency (Economic model). The
provision of subsidies will be linked to improving soil fertility, increasing the
capacity of the landscape to retain water and restore biodiversity.
306. At the same time, it is necessary to maintain and progressively
improve the permeability of the landscape for wildlife (see Development
Analysis), in particular by protecting important migration corridors from
placing new barriers and make existing obstacles in these corridors
permeable. In the case of placing new linear structures in these corridors, it
is necessary to design the crossing sites to be as permeable for the
purposes of wildlife migration as possible.
307. Efforts to improve the landscape condition will also include creation or
restoration of pathways to make the landscape accessible to people again
(see Development Analysis) and planting associated elements such as tree
alleys that will help to improve landscape diversity, refer to the following
subchapter. It will be necessary to accelerate complex landscaping,
including landscape features implemented within the so-called shared
facilities.
3.2 Biodiversity
308. The goal of the Czech Republic for the next few decades is to
achieve the presence of viable, genetically diverse populations of
indigenous species in our landscape. To reach this, it is necessary to
achieve the individual natural habitats in a sufficient range and quality,
through a well-established restoration. This plan also features leaving a
portion of contiguous areas with preserved wildlife to spontaneous natural
development.
Subsidies can motivate
farmers to sustainable
development
The landscape must be
permeable again
Accelerating the complex
landscaping will be
necessary to improve the
landscape
We only have a few decades
left to restore the landscape
diversity
3. Resilient ecosystems
71
309. In the countryside, there are abandoned areas and they keep
emerging. They were previously used for agriculture, mining, industry,
transport or defence. Where appropriate, some of the abandoned areas will
be left to spontaneous development based on natural processes. Protection
of natural processes together with protection of habitats and species is the
third pillar of biodiversity protection.
310. Furthermore, it will be necessary to limit the spread of existing
invasive species and to prevent or reduce the spread of new invasive
species (see Development Analysis).
311. The conditions for making greener direct payments to farmers under
the Common Agricultural Policy have so far had a dubious impact on the
biodiversity of the Czech Republic as well as of other member states.57 The
real value added can only be the obligation to grow more crops, combined
with the limitation of the maximum size of a single area that can be planted
by a single crop. Substantial improvements can then bring a relevant share
of landscape features in Ecological Focus Areas (see Development
Analysis).
3.3 Water in the landscape
312. Expected changes in the distribution of precipitation during the year
may cause local water scarcity, leading to restrictions placed on consumers
(see Development Analysis), which may lead to conflict with an interest in
the protection of aquatic ecosystems.
313. If we want to mitigate the consequences of hydrological extremes,
reduce the release of nutrients from fields into watercourses, reservoirs and
groundwater, or more specifically to accelerate degradation of these
nutrients in the aquatic environment, it will be necessary to accompany the
restoration of riverbeds themselves, river floodplains, wetlands and other
water reservoirs by further long-term measures throughout the entire
catchment area. Therefore, the following subchapter on Soil care is
devoted to other measures affecting the water regime in the landscape.
314. Revision of the status, functionality and justification of drainage
systems will improve the water regime in the landscape as well as the
effectiveness of agriculture. Considering the needs of the site, parts of
these systems are designed and implemented inappropriately58 and will
need to be eliminated. Typically, these are cases of unnecessarily high
levels of drainage from extensively used locations. The remaining parts of
these often large-scale systems will have to undergo a gradual
reconstruction, often linked to the modification of their function.
57 UNDERWOOD, E.; TUCKER, G. (2016) Ecological Focus Area choices and their potential
impacts on biodiversity.
58 KULHAVÝ, Z.; FUČÍK, P., TLAPÁKOVÁ, L.; SOUKUP, M.; ČMELÍK, M.; HEJDUK, T.; MARTÁK, P.;
STEHLÍK, M.; PAVEL, M. (2011) Pracovní postupy eliminace negativních funkcí odvodňovacích
zařízení v krajině pro podporu žadatelů o PBO v Prioritních osách 1 a 6.
Some of the abandoned
areas will be left to
spontaneous development
It is necessary to increase
the proportion of landscape
features and the number of
crops grown
Lack of water can lead to
restrictions on some
consumers
To compensate for
precipitation fluctuation, we
must slow down the drainage
of water
It will be necessary to review
the necessity and condition
of drainage systems
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
72
315. We need to provide sufficient support to investigate the impact of
pesticide residues, pharmaceuticals and other relatively new chemicals,
including those that are hormone-active, on aquatic ecosystems and
human health. With regard to pesticides themselves, the previously
accepted objective is to reduce the area of bodies of groundwater, or more
specifically the number of surface water bodies that have exceeded
environmental quality limits due to the presence of pesticide residues.59
Encouraging organic farming and the more precise use of pesticides, in
particular, choosing the least hazardous product to meet the intended
purpose and using it in the right amount at the right time at the right place,
for example, within integrated agricultural production, will not only
contribute to achieving the goal set out in the previous sentence, but it will
also help to improve soil and biodiversity in the Czech landscape.
3.4 Soil care
316. For soils at all altitudes which, due to their properties (such as
waterlogging, low depth, considerable damage or location on a steep slope)
can no longer be used as arable land, it is necessary not only to continue in
their grassing and afforestation but also to support their conversion to
wetlands and other suitable natural features. This will dramatically improve
the resistance of such soils to erosion and lead to increased carbon
storage, and improved water regime. It will also improve the diversity of
landscape features (Subchapter Biodiversity).
317. In order to slow the erosion of arable land (see Development
Analysis), we will need to return dividing features into the agricultural
landscape, using trees, shrubs and permanent grasslands to divide the
existing blocks of arable land into smaller units. At the same time, suitable
habitats are created for some species of plants and animals (see
Subchapter Biodiversity). In the case of soil endangerment by wind erosion,
dividing features with orientation and structure acting as windbreaks are
preferable.
318. On sloping land where the erosion risk level does not require
unconditional physical partitioning of existing blocks of arable land into
smaller plots, it will be necessary to avoid growing crops that provide very
little protection of soil against erosion. These include maize, potatoes and
sugar beet. On all arable land, it will be necessary to keep to a minimum
the cultivation practices that leave the soil surface uncovered by growth
and thus significantly prone to erosion.
319. To reduce the erosion of forest soils, it is preferable to use permeable
surfaces when establishing forest paths, and equipping them with a
sufficient number of capacity culverts to avoid too much drainage
accumulation in trenches (see Development Analysis).
59 MA CR (2012) Národní akční plán ke snížení používání pesticidů v České republice.
We need to know more
about the effects on human
health of pesticides and
medicinal products in water
Little fertile arable land
should be transferred to
other uses
To reduce erosion, we will
need to return dividing
features into the landscape
It is necessary to limit the
cultivation of maize, potatoes
and beets on sloping land
Permeable surfaces reduce
drainage concentration
3. Resilient ecosystems
73
320. A sufficient proportion of its organic component improves the soil's
resistance to erosion. The organic part is also essential to maintain soil
fertility, to slow water drainage60, and to carbon capture and storage from
the atmosphere. In the case of both agricultural and forest soils, it is
therefore necessary to keep sufficient post-harvest/logging residues on the
spot61, to plough a sufficient amount of organic fertilisers into the arable
land and to improve gradually the selective and undergrowth forestry
methods on the forest soil as they do not lead to the rapid decomposition of
humus and consequently to acidification of the soil.62 The use of varietal
crop rotation with the representation of perennial forage crops (e.g. clover
and alfalfa) also helps prevent acidification and compaction of agricultural
land.
321. The shift towards natural species and natural age and spatial
structure of forest stands (Development Analysis) and more considerate
methods of their establishment and restoration without so-called area-wide
soil preparation will lead to an improvement in the overall condition of forest
soils, to a higher proportion of organic matter and more favourable
chemical composition and water regime. It will also improve the
microclimate in forest stands, reduce their susceptibility to insect mass
outbreaks and improve their resistence to wind.
3.5 Strategic objectives
12. The landscape of the Czech Republic is conceived as a complex
ecosystem and ecosystem services provide an appropriate
framework for the development of human society.
12.1 The landscape policy and the rules for its implementation have been
processed which the different levels of public administration use in
their decision-making process.
12.2 The share of arable land is decreasing and the share of permanent
grasslands in the agricultural land stock is growing.
12.3 The share of arable land managed under the organic farming
regime has been increasing significantly.
12.4 The share of forest land in the total area of the Czech Republic is
increasing.
12.5 The connectivity of the landscape necessary for migration of wild
organisms will also improve.
60 HUDSON, B. D. (1994) Soil organic matter and available water capacity. Journal of Soil and
Water Conservation 49(2).
61 Meant in places where this procedure will not lead to increased risk of insect mass
outbreaks.
62 HRUŠKA, J., CIENCIALA, E. (eds.) (2001) Dlouhodobá acidifikace a nutriční degradace
lesních půd – limitující faktor současného lesnictví.
Sufficient organic matter
improves soil resistance
Forest stability can be
improved with trees
appropriate for the given
habitat
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
74
12.6 Ecosystem services assessment is integrated into decision-making
processes.
13. The Czech landscape is diverse and biodiversity is being restored.
13.1 The diversity and stability of habitats and populations of individual
native species of plants and animals is improving.
13.2 Natural restoration of ecosystems significantly modified by man is a
commonly used process.
14. The landscape is adapted to climate change and its structure
helps water retention.
14.1 The drainage of water from the landscape is slowing down
significantly.
14.2 The quality of surface water and groundwater is improving.
15. Soils are protected from degradation and landscape potential is
utilised to the maximum extent possible to capture and store
carbon.
15.1 Organic matter content in the soil and soil structure correspond to
the natural state of the given soil type.
15.2 Levels of soil and water erosion have been decreasing.
15.3 The species composition of the forests planted corresponds to
habitat conditions and prevents further degradation of forest soils.


77
4 Municipalities and regions
Vision
Responsible use of land creates the conditions for a balanced and
harmonious development of municipalities and regions, improves
spatial cohesion, directs the suburbanisation trend and limits forced
mobility. Cities and towns create preconditions for maintaining and
improving the quality of life of their population. Competent public
administration communicates openly with citizens and integrates
them systematically into decision-making and planning. Housing is
adapted to climate change.
Introduction
401. The Czech Republic must find and maintain a balance between the
role of large cities as poles of growth at a European level and a balanced
development that preserves the polycentric nature of the territory at all
levels. This is the only way to ensure that everyone has an adequate
quality of life, with the freedom to choose the environment in which they
want to reside and live.
402. The division of the country into metropolitan, stabilised and peripheral
areas will probably continue to increase. The suburbanisation trend will not
disappear in the near future, but the character of urbanisation will change.
The main challenge therefore lies in limiting the pace of suburbanisation,
making both the existing and emerging suburbs sustainable and functional,
and reducing the accompanying negative phenomena such as the increase
in commuting and increased traffic load with all its negative effects – noise,
pollutants and growing inequalities between different parts of the republic.
403. In order to maintain the historically established polycentric settlement
structure, it is necessary to strengthen cross-border links. More than
anything else, it was the isolation of the border regions in the second half of
the 20th century that caused their transformation in the periphery.63 It is
therefore necessary to build infrastructure and promote economic
63 MAIER, K. (2009) Polycentric development in the regional development policy of the Czech
Republic. Urban Research & Practice 2(3), pp. 324.
Maintain the polycentric
character of the territory
Make suburbia sustainable
Strengthen cross-border
links and internal peripherals
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
78
development so that both cities and municipalities on both sides of the
border form a functional whole. The same applies to internal peripherals.
4.1 Survival and growing spatial mobility
404. So far suburbanisation has been threatened mainly by regional
centres, but smaller cities are also likely to be affected. It will bear the costs
of infrastructure and transport services that will be lacking during the
development of the core city and at the same time will endanger the nonproduction
function of the suburban landscape. Based on the experience of
cities in Western and Northern Europe, it can be expected that some public
and commercial services will shift to the suburban space.
405. However, commercial amenities – shops or services – are mostly
concentrated in larger centres and complexes. On the contrary, small local
establishments that have served small municipalities or local parts in cities
are disappearing. The trend mainly affects the elderly and the socially
weaker households that may find it physically or financially difficult to travel
for purchases. Excessive concentrations of out-of-town activities also result
in urban functions moving out from historic city centres, thus contributing to
the degradation of public space in the physical and philosophical sense of
the word. If the territorial public administration wants to face this trend, it
cannot do so without purposeful and effective regulation of spatial plans
and without investment from public budgets. A key role is played by a state
that can support small and medium businesses, including services.
406. Cities that economically-active residents are leaving are called
shrinking cities. This is a negative process, which is reflected in the
degradation of the physical part of the city, the reduction of budget
revenues, and inefficient use of services. At the same time, it has a
negative effect on the attractiveness of the city, for example, for investors.
Although this trend has not been as significant in the Czech Republic as in
other European regions, it is a trend that cannot be avoided. Almost one
sixth of cities are already shrinking.64 This situation raises new demands for
the management of affected cities; responding only to enhancing economic
performance is insufficient.65 In addition to the new approach to spatial
planning, local authorities and the state must also modify management,
improve and prepare public services. They must be prepared for the new
trend and not leave the cities to change based on ad hoc decisions.
407. The multilateral development of cities capable of directing the
suburbanisation trend also requires better national and regional strategic
planning, including mutual communication between national, regional and
local institutions. Traditional spatial plans are not sufficient to support
64 SCHMEIDLER, K.; JIŘÍČKOVÁ, H.; ZÁMEČNÍK, P. (2011) Výzva shrinking cities u nás, v Evropě
i ve světě. Urbanismus a územní rozvoj 14(6).
65 RINK, D.; COUCH, CH.; HAASE, A.; KRZYSZTOFIK, R.; NADOLU, B.; RUMPEL, P. (2014) The
governance of urban shrinkage in cities of post-socialist Europe. Urban Research &
Practice, 7(3).
Suburbanisation will also
affect smaller towns
The phenomenon indicating
suburbanisation will be the
concentration of services
Shrinking cities will need to
adapt to socio-demographic
changes
Planning at the level of
functional urbanised units
4. Municipalities and regions
79
economic, social and environmental links between cities, their backgrounds
and the countryside. The state therefore will support the coordination of
planning at a level lower than a region and beyond the territory of one
municipality, characterised by the strong relationship people have with their
place of work and home life in their locality, i.e. support shared coordination
of cities and surrounding municipalities.
408. Suburbanisation is not the only trend. Alongside, it is also possible to
expect further changes, especially the revival of the core towns that are or
will become centres of functional urbanised areas. Re-urbanisation, which
is an alternative to the extensive urban growth, can encourage the use of
existing urban structures and so-called brownfield sites (abandoned
industrial sites). However, it remains in the public interest to prevent their
occurrence.
409. The development of lively and cohesive cities cannot be achieved
without adequate and affordable housing, without addressing the causes of
discrimination and inequalities (e.g. families with children or multiplegeneration
families) in the housing market and without eliminating social
exclusion and homelessness. In terms of both spatial and strategic
planning, standards of availability of public services in municipalities must
therefore be developed according to their type and size. Spatial and
strategic planning must also ensure the protection of cultural and natural
heritage.
410. Population ageing also makes its demands on cities and public
services. This change requires that most of the dwellings, public spaces,
and amenities in cities and their structures be accessible, permeable and
friendly to all ages and user groups. The local administration, which plans
and implements investments in streets, squares, parks and buildings, plays
a very important role in this.
411. The population composition will also change, especially in the cities.
The first wave of immigrants from other countries have settled in large cities
in particular and did not create closed ethnic or religious enclaves. In the
coming years, some of them – or their descendants – will probably move to
other places in the country and also commute for work. It will be necessary
to promote the integration of foreigners into society in the full range of
activities carried out by regional centres to support the integration of
foreigners (social and legal counselling, socio-cultural courses and Czech
language courses).
412. In urban development, cities and municipalities must seek to combine
technological innovation, in particular so-called integrated solutions
(transport, energy, architecture, communication and green technologies).
However, the overall effectiveness of the urban system, such as the Smart
Cities concept, must not be at the expense of preserving the identity of
other buildings, public spaces, culture and everyday life. Planning at the
local level must therefore also promote social cohesion and create living
Re-urbanisation and the use
of the existing urban
structure should be
encouraged
Standards for public planning
are a prerequisite for a
balanced and inclusive
development
Cities must adapt to
demographic change
Foreigners can also be
integrated using appropriate
urban solutions
Technological innovation
must not compromise city
identity
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
80
communities and viable cities. Support for the Smart Cities concept should
be heading for this objective. Technological change is significant, but social
innovation and innovation are often more important.
413. Cities and regions are exposed to a growing mobility trend.
Commuting for work or education is necessary due to job opportunities and
schools (but also services) being located away from the home. It is in the
public interest to reduce this imbalance and to promote qualified job
opportunities where they are missing. This will reduce the demand for
transport, and therefore energy and economic costs, and will support the
preservation of the polycentric settlement structure and the balanced use of
the landscape. Restricting forced mobility allows people to make free
choices where they want to live, work and spend leisure time.
414. Pressure on labour migration and the production of externalities,
particularly from passenger car traffic, can mitigate the digitisation of
industry and services, as well as the development of telecommunication
and information technology, which allows many entrepreneurs and workers
to work from home.66 Internet shopping which has grown significantly over
the last decade (only between 2005 and 2015, the percentage of online
shoppers has grown from 5 % to 42 %67) also brings an increase in the
supply of goods and services, as well as time and cost savings. However,
as experience from other countries shows, the other side of digitisation and
electronisation of the world as well as the personalisation of work services
may also bring an increase in mobility, especially with regard to the longterm
growth of e-commerce (internet shopping and subsequent delivery)
and the gradual forcing of commercial infrastructures away from areas
showing symptoms of suburbanisation.68 Maintaining available and quality
postal services cannot be achieved without the multi-purpose use of post
offices, which, in addition to postal services, can serve as a public
administration contact point as well as service providers.
415. People are likely to move more in various stages of their lives. In this
respect, Czech families are beginning to follow the trends of Western
European countries. The elderly tend to leave the cities and seek a more
peaceful environment in their own country or abroad, where they are close
to nature and necessary services. Recreation and seasonal housing in
summer houses and cottages will therefore be less popular than ever
before in the coming years.69
66 Example is provided in the study VAN LIER, T.; DE WITTE, A.; MACHARIS, C. (2012) The
Impact of Telework on Transport Externalities. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences
54.
67 CZSO (2015) Využívání informačních a komunikačních technologií v domácnostech a
mezi jednotlivci.
68 Compare the study by VISSER, E.-J.; LANZENDORF, M. (2004) Mobility and Accessibility
Effects of B2C E-Commerce. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie 95(2).
69 We perceive second housing as “a complex of phenomena and processes associated with
the object (or part of the object) that is the temporary location of the owner or users who use
this object primarily for recreational purposes.” Quote FIALOVÁ, D. (2014) Second housing in
Restriction of forced mobility
is in the public interest
Digitisation does not have to
reduce mobility
Mobility will also be related to
life cycle phases
4. Municipalities and regions
81
416. All of these types of mobility will probably increase. But the places
where the people come from and go to can change. They can also move
back home (to the countryside or to another country) if they accumulate
capital, retire or lose their jobs. Mobility will affect energy prices, political
stability, availability of housing in places offering work and services in small
towns or in the countryside.
4.2 Regional inequalities
417. The growth is driven by and probably will remain driven by large cities
or settlement agglomerations of closely interconnected medium and small
towns. They are usually more productive, with their gains increasing in size.
They also strengthen the growth in their vicinity. At the same time, smaller
towns can prosper from their proximity to neighbouring cities – even at the
level of public service sharing (see paragraph 427) – which compensates
for their small size.70 However, urban development must not be at the
expense of spatial and social cohesion, nor should the disparities between
them and the country be negatively affected. Therefore, municipalities must
carefully consider the construction of new commercial, industrial and
business premises and buildings during strategic and spatial planning in
such a way that they do not contribute to the excessive degradation of
traditional centre functions and avoid a concentration of services and work
on the outskirts of the city. These processes reinforce differences in quality
of life, especially for the ageing and socially weak members of society. An
appropriate tool to prevent these negative phenomena is the abovementioned
planning at a level lower than the region and beyond the territory
of a single municipality allowing for the polycentric character of the state
and its regions.
418. The state wants to put functioning national strategies in place that
respond to the identified needs of the area in a timely manner and focus on
measures that support regions, cities and municipalities in addressing
social disparities in their territory. The state will provide systematic support
to regions and municipalities and will provide mechanisms for the transfer
of information between national, regional and local levels in addressing
social integration and inclusion in housing, education, employment, health,
setting up social services, solving excess debt, as well as in other areas.
The basis for the successful management of social inequalities is the
simple and balanced accessibility of the service functions, their balanced
distribution throughout the state and the solution of the problems at their
place of origin. Prevention which is focused on particular people and
households must go hand in hand with solutions that revive peripheral
regions, rural communities, or parts of cities in terms of the economy, and
provide the same standard of public services as in the prosperous parts of
the Czech Republic. In BLAŽKOVÁ, T.; FIALOVÁ, D.; MATOUŠEK, V. (eds.) Individuální a masová
rekreace v okolí velkých industriálních měst v 19.–21. století, pp. 43.
70 OECD (2015) OECD360 Czech Republic 2015.
Factors that will affect
mobility
Cities will continue to grow if
they avoid threatening their
spatial and social cohesion
Social inequalities need to be
reduced through integrated
strategies to solve the
problem on the spot
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
82
the country. In the case of economically problematic regions according to
the definition of the Regional Development Strategy, emphasis will be
placed on their systematic support and economic restructuring.
419. The state will focus on targeted and greater support for the creation of
highly skilled jobs, especially in those areas where the economic recovery
is yet to be successful. It also wants to strengthen the performance and
capacity of regions, cities and municipalities in charge of development
programmes. It is especially desirable to promote the creation of highly
qualified job roles in small and medium enterprises using local potential.
420. Not all internal migration is due to work, but for cheaper and
affordable housing. Socially weak families are moving from socially
excluded localities to cities, rural areas and peripheral parts of the country.
The state will therefore support the diverse forms of housing in all parts of
cities and regions, especially rental housing for all segments of society. For
life in cities and municipalities, the emphasis on prevention and gradual
transformation of segregated and socially excluded homes, streets and
districts is important; just as regulations should prevent the emergence of
closed gated communities at the opposite end of the social ladder.
4.3 Increase the importance of non-state participants and
community development
421. Major companies have frequently been one of the main counterparts
of the public administration in the decision-making process concerning
spatial planning. The public administration partner in decision-making
should primarily be the public in a broad sense – local citizens, citizens'
initiatives, associations and not-for-profit organisations, small entrepreneurs
or special-purpose associations of municipalities. Solutions should arise in
the spirit of public administration and investor cooperation with this public,
avoiding conflicts, challenging decisions and using remedies; planning
becomes more robust and more conceptual. A critical point may be the
year 2023, when funding from Europe, which now supports equal
representation and partnership building, is likely to drop sharply. Fulfilling
the partnership principle, however, must respect the responsibility of the
public administration for the final decision. An undesirable alternative to
partner development is the increase in the importance of legal conflicts of
non-state participants in the form of more frequent use of all legal means
(petitions, administrative proceedings, court proceedings), which may
increase the conflicts of the planning and decision-making processes.
422. Public administration at all levels must learn how to stir up an ongoing
public debate and moderate it. It should prepare and create a space where
various participants – businesses, local citizens and others – can jointly
participate in strategic planning and governance, discuss land use and
specific structures, seek consensus and compromise. This discussion must
also lead to practical results and, ultimately in the public’s interest, because
it is the public administration that bears the greatest responsibility for the
There is a need to promote
entrepreneurship using and
strengthening local
resources
Promoting affordable rental
housing prevents the
emergence of socially
excluded enclaves
Involving all participants in
decision-making stabilises
governance at all levels,
even the lowest levels
Strategic planning and
governance should involve
all participants and use all
instruments to do so
4. Municipalities and regions
83
implementation of the agreed intentions. However, the constructive
approach of companies, citizens and not-for-profit organisations, and their
willingness to accept (at least moral) responsibility for failure, i.e. the ability
to accept change and continue to cooperate, is a condition. The state will
therefore strive to develop and promote tools enhancing participation, in
particular MA21, and integrated rural development tools (CLLD),
agglomerations (ITIs) and regional centres (IPRs) which also require a
consensus of partners from the public, private and not-for-profit sectors. An
alternative to cities to which integrated tools do not apply may be the
community-supported development linked to MA21 in the future.71
Cooperation between rural and urban LAGs can strengthen social cohesion
and help solve urban and rural interconnections with suburbanisation and
climate change.
423. Through effective participation and involvement of all participants, the
state will support the development of local communities at different levels
(municipalities, city districts or the whole region). Support will be based on
trust, partnership and networking as they strengthen each other. The
community is a group of inhabitants, the unorganised public, living in a
shared territory consistently perceived as their neighbourhood, participating
in self-government and respecting the constitutional and legal framework of
the Czech Republic. A prerequisite for the functioning of a resilient
community is the equal standing of its members, a sense of belonging,
awareness and the ability to cope with failure, i.e. the ability to absorb
disruption and change, while maintaining its basic functions and structure.
424. One undesirable alternative is the continuation of never-ending
conflict and dissatisfaction amongst all parties, which can lead to a
significant weakening of the legitimacy of development programmes and
decisions by the authorities. Careful planning is replaced with chaotic
approval of individually enforced projects, unsustainable settlement
development and a waste of resources on incoherent infrastructure.
Another undesirable alternative is a reduction in the power held by local
government, centralisation and stronger regulation, which may also be
dependent on the influence of participants outside government. Solutions
will be looked at and delivered in a clearer way and less tailored to local
possibilities, opportunities and needs.
71 EESC (2014) Opinion of the European Economic and Social Committee on “Communityled
Local Development” (CLLD) as an instrument of cohesion policy for the period 2014-
2020 for local development and development of rural, urban and suburban areas.
Enhanced participation and
community life
An alternative to developing
and improving public
administration is the
delegitimisation of
development policies or their
centralisation
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
84
4.4 Competence and quality of regional public administration
for the sustainable development of settlements
425. The economic performance of the spatial units and the quality of life
of their population directly and significantly influence their management and
development. The steps taken by households and companies, as well as
cooperation between individual sectors of public administration, typically
have a greater positive or negative effect in functional urbanised areas, i.e.
cities and their suburban backgrounds, than in more populated areas.
Therefore, synergies and coordination across departments, regions and
different levels of government are needed. These are often insufficient
today. Regulation at various levels of government often creates
contradictory incentives, and the principle of subsidiarity is also not applied
consistently. The problem is compounded by the fragmentation of public
administration at the level of municipalities, and especially in large and
politically complicated metropolitan areas and urban regions. The OECD
survey has shown that this fragmentation leads to wastefulness and
ineffective decision-making. There is a need to strengthen the coordination
of decision-making across administrative boundaries within functional
urbanised areas, i.e. in agglomerations determined by the character of
settlements and forming functional units. Examples of such an
administrative complex may be metropolitan areas and ITI – an integrated
tool for their development.72
426. By 2030, the state wants to complete the ongoing reform of regional
public administration, to simplify and consolidate the existing system. First
of all, it is necessary to establish clarity and coordination of public
administration activity as well as composability of the regional
administration structure. Prerequisites for high quality management
performance at the base level also need to be considered. In this respect,
OECD recommends that the Czech Republic considers joining up
municipalities, however, from a realistic viewpoint it considers this effort to
be politically difficult to enforce. However, the administrative reform will not
affect the character of the Czech Republic's settlement directly. Therefore,
it is preferable for the state to set minimum standards for the availability of
public services (which will have been considered through strategic and
spatial planning), and to support integrated planning and inter-municipal
cooperation in terms of sharing public services. Collaboration of
municipalities needs to be further enhanced, especially in terms of the
principle of voluntarism and search for its new forms, which will be
particularly appropriate for the exercise of delegated powers, possible
compulsory tasks of local administration and the search for consensus at
the local level.
72 OECD (2015) OECD360 Czech Republic 2015.
The performance of regional
public administration is
coordinated; it respects the
principle of subsidiarity and
takes advantage of functional
urbanised areas
It is necessary to continue
reform of public
administration
4. Municipalities and regions
85
427. Successful urban or municipal development is built on robust and
stable local governance. It has to rely on sufficient institutional capacity,
expertise and mutual communication between all participants of change in
the territory (local administration, companies, citizens, universities and
research organisations, associations, not-for-profit organisations and
informal initiatives). It should not only reach a few current objectives, but
also regularly assess local life from the point of view of sustainable
development, quality of life and fulfilment of national policies. Public
administration should set tasks and measurable goals and achieve them in
clearly-controlled policies. Not only do they need to know the current
standard of legislation, regulations and norms and rely on expertise, but
they also need to understand sustainable development, have managerial
skills and know-how to work with local partners.
428. High-quality public administration also requires adequate
determination of the scope of application of the subsidiarity criteria.
Competencies should correspond to the possibilities of the municipalities of
the given category and to the public administration bodies at the given
level. Legal regulations and financial relations should support a conceptual
and comprehensive approach to the fulfilment of public administration
tasks, including establishment and enforcement of minimum standards for
the availability of public services in the territory.
429. The scope of the state administration tasks carried out by
municipalities with extended competence (MEC) needs to be improved.
This is also necessary in the context of the systematic support they should
provide to other municipalities in their administrative district and which are
not yet established in the form of a legal obligation. This systematic support
is necessary due to the large number of municipalities in the regions, which
naturally limits the possibilities of systematic assistance from the regions.
430. Development of municipalities should be ensured by linking spatial
planning with its own land policy. Positive foreign examples of good
governance are generally created in situations where there is a preference
for municipalities to develop land they own, thereby diminishing the conflict
of interest between the public and private sectors.73
431. The resilience of cities and municipalities is preconditioned by the
consensus between authorities and local partners. The public
administration must also involve citizens in their decision-making process
and consult with them on their proposed actions – starting with planning
and ending with implementation (see also paragraph 422). The realisation
and development of proven methods (MA21, CLLD) supplemented by
73 For example, the majority of owners of the major development project of the new Vienna
district of Aspern Seestadt are in the public sector. See HINTERKÖRNER, P. (2013) Veřejný
prostor v Jezerním městě Aspern. In Veřejný prostor, veřejná prostranství, pp. 57–60. We
would also like to point out the approach adopted by the city of Stockholm during the
restoration of former brownfield sites that also included active spatial planning policy, see
LEKEŠ, V. (2015) Urbanismus a ekologie. Urbanismus a územní rozvoj 18(6).
The basic skill for community
management is strategic
planning and management
It is necessary to create
conditions for quality
performance of municipal
competences at different
levels
Given the regional
capacities, the MEC need to
be strengthened
The municipality should not
dispose of its property
Participation promotes the
resilience of cities
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
86
partial innovative processes such as participatory budgeting represents an
opportunity for the near future.74
432. In terms of sustainable development of settlements and regional
development in general, it is important to ensure the interdependence of
documents at both the horizontal level (e.g. continuity of regional or urban
documents) and vertical (e.g. continuity of national, regional and municipal
level). In order to provide a meaningful development of cities and
municipalities, it is important to ensure that the decision-making process
concurs “across” decision-making bodies (for example, that different unions
of the same city unite their goals and plans) and “from the top to the
bottom” (for example, the region's intentions must respect the state policy).
The state also wants to encourage cooperation between local authorities –
even across borders – and to share examples of appropriate solutions.
433. Spatial planning documents must be linked to strategic documents. At
the level of cities and municipalities, a link needs to be established between
strategic plans and spatial plans. A strategic plan describes what the city or
municipality would like to work towards. A spatial plan sets out the concept
of regional development and its regulation in terms of area and space. In
order to do this, the plan needs to know the development goals and
intentions of the strategic plan. Similarly, it is necessary to ensure the
consistency of spatial planning documents at all levels and to link them with
strategic and sectoral documents that have a spatial impact.
434. Authorities need to strengthen the knowledge and skill base of staff
and workers in four areas. Employees and office workers should gain
expertise – not just the development of knowledge in their own field, but
also long-term management of a complex agenda and a coherent,
interrelated approach. They also need to hone their communication skills in
order to be able to interact with the public, to moderate and facilitate
discussion between various partners, to present their colleagues with
modern practices and to work effectively with various public administration
bodies and with various hierarchical levels within its structure. They also
need to be competent in planning (strategic planning and management
across varying timescales) and in evaluating results, particularly data
processing.
435. Regional and municipal authorities should further develop networking
cooperation between municipalities, including the international dimension
(e.g. ICLEI, Energy Cities and other initiatives), to ensure the transfer of
good practice examples at all levels. Many municipal associations in the
Czech Republic have long-term networking experience.
74 MIČKA, P. (ed.) (2016) Analýza občanské participace v České republice, pp. 44.
Documents must be linked
both vertically and
horizontally
Strategic and spatial
planning documents must be
interlinked
Regional public
administration workers
should be capable of
meeting the demands
expected of them
Networking and sharing good
practice promotes community
development
4. Municipalities and regions
87
4.5 Adaptation of settlements to climate change
436. Forecasts expect gradual climate change in the Czech Republic over
the next few decades – even if we manage to partially reduce the rate at
which the temperature rises. Summer and winter temperatures will be
higher than in previous decades. There will also be more summer
heatwaves and extreme droughts which will occasionally alternate with very
heavy rainfall. The drought will be most hazardous for South Moravia (the
area south of Brno), Vysočina and locations with a lower altitude in the
northwest half of Bohemia (from the Beroun region through Lounsko down
to the lower Ohře basin). Water shortages and more frequent floods are
therefore to be expected. Water quality will fluctuate. In big cities, the
influence of the so-called urban heat islands will increase – the temperature
difference between the cities and the surrounding landscape will grow.
Groups of people with a reduced ability to maintain body temperature will
be affected – the elderly, sick and very young children. Drought and heat
may also have a negative effect on the operation of buildings as well as all
types of transport.75
437. So far, Czech cities and municipalities have made little effort to
prepare for the complex impact of climate change. Adaptation and
mitigation at local and regional level requires responsible spatial planning
for agricultural management, thoughtful creation of landscape structures
that have a positive impact on the landscape, soil, biodiversity, and that
improve the functional link between natural and urban structures (Resilient
ecosystems). Strengthening the link between spatial planning, population
protection and crisis management and taking into account the negative
impact of climate change will ensure better protection of people, property
and infrastructure from natural disasters (long-term droughts, extreme
temperatures, floods and heavy rainfall, extreme wind)76 and anthropogenic
dangers.77 Settlements have always been an integral part of the landscape,
and they always will be. The impact of climate change in relation to the
effects of suburbanisation will further increase the impact of settlements, far
beyond their land registry office, on the associated landscape (e.g. on river
basins and streams). The need to preserve or restore the functional
interconnection of natural and urban structures in the wider landscape will
grow, and planning needs to be adapted.
438. The state, the regions and the local administration must work together
to strengthen the resilience of cities and municipalities. Adapting to extreme
weather patterns requires better care of greenery, and more greenery
75 BELDA, M.; PIŠOFT, P.; ŽÁK, M. (2015) Výstupy regionálních klimatických modelů na území
ČR pro období 2015 až 2060.
76 THE MINISTRY OF INTERIOR OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC AND CZECH SECURITY COUNCIL (2015)
Analýza hrozeb pro Českou republiku, pp. 8.
77 Act No. 183/2006 Coll., On Spatial Planning and the Building Act, § 19, letter g).
The impact of climate
change will affect all types of
municipalities and territories
The impact of climate
change will be reflected in
both spatial planning and
crisis management
Cities need to save water
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
88
throughout the cities. Saving drinking water – and saving water in general –
will become increasingly important and will become a daily part of life.
Planning must support increasing the capacity for artificial recharge,
retaining and using precipitation water, revitalising watercourses in cities as
well as increasing the amount of water in public areas such as rivers,
fountains, etc. Such solutions must be considered as part of the decisionmaking
around the use of water resources, and not only based on the
control of the infrastructure.
439. Access to nature will be an important dimension of quality of life in
urban spaces. Cities and municipalities are currently taking insufficient
action needed to adapt to climate change. Appropriate measures must be
gradually integrated into strategic and spatial planning. It is necessary to
create a dense network of small and large green elements that will
systematically make use of inner courtyards, lawns, walls and roofs of large
buildings. A green and ecological city also encompasses urban farming.
Apart from the areas themselves, it will also provide support for their natural
diversity. Research shows that the greater the number of birds, butterflies
and plants in the greenery, the more valued by inhabitants.78 It is also
necessary to remove obstacles and risk factors for animals (glazed walls,
etc.).
440. There is also a need to reduce the energy intensity of cities. Cities
must be prepared for possible power outages and reduce its dependence
on fossil fuels. The state will support cities in reducing pollutant emissions
and in preparing carbon footprint plans. A good example is the European
initiative Covenant of Mayors whose participants have decided to cut CO2
emissions by two-fifths by 2030 and to implement adaptation measures to
mitigate the risks and negative impact of climate change on their territory.
Each signatory is preparing a sophisticated plan for sustainable energy and
climate protection. There are already nine pilot Czech cities and
municipalities who have signed up as members of this initiative, which is
still a low number compared to countries within Central and Eastern
Europe.
441. The state wants to continue to help cities and municipalities make
major changes in heating (or cooling), reducing building energy
performance, using locally available energy sources, and developing public
transport and sustainable mobility. The state wants to support both
household and municipal programmes. The challenge is not only to keep
the heat in the house during the cold season, but to maintain a comfortable
temperature throughout the year. It will not be a piecemeal project, but a
systematic transformation of cities. Existing buildings will undergo
renovations that will help to bring the maximum possible energy savings
(deep renovation). Besides insulation, part of the programme must include
screening for external windows and glazed facades, transverse ventilation,
78 FULLER, R. A.; IRVINE, K. N.; DEVINE-WRIGHT, P.; WARREN, P. H .; GASTON, K.J. (2007)
Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity. Biology Letters 3(4).
Cities must be green and
their operations more
ecological
Cities must start measuring
carbon footprint as part of
sustainability evaluation
Requirement to construct
buildings capable of
maintaining a comfortable
temperature
4. Municipalities and regions
89
etc. Over the next 15 years, civil engineering will more or less update new
buildings in line with passive energy standards. New emerging solutions,
including energy storage, or cogeneration and trigeneration technologies
(electricity, heat and cooling) will start to appear on the market.
442. Cities and municipalities should also transform from simple energy
consumers to producers and local providers and to use locally available
energy sources. Urban decentralisation, smart grids and a higher share of
renewable energy sources in the energy mix will appear in the urban
environment (see paragraphs 222, 225 and 232). We can also expect
development of integrated projects that will combine various solutions in
one city or municipality, including various technologies, e.g. use of current
surpluses of solar power to recharge electric cars or heat from industrial
waste used for heating purposes. Sending usable and recyclable waste to
landfill will be prohibited. Mixed communal waste (after dividing the waste
into materials that can be used and biodegradable waste) will be used, in
particular in the purpose-built facilities in accordance with the applicable
legislation.
443. Changes in energy will affect the ordinary municipal waste disposal
process. The state wants to continue to work with cities and municipalities
to improve recycling, including the return of organic matter to the soil.
Separation of biowaste should become standard practice for Czech cities
and municipalities over the next 15 years; it should be used to compost or
produce biogas and digestate.
444. The state wants to encourage cities to move away from car usage
and increase the share of electric mobility, including electric vehicle
recharging and renewable mobility. Transportation must take into account
the needs of the population as a result of ageing and lifestyle changes.
New urban transportation policies will move away from unilateral
preference and will favour individual motoring through sustainable urban
mobility plans. Local administration should motivate people to change their
transport behaviour towards more sustainable forms of mobility, but also
address significant administrative restrictions as well as charging entry or
private parking for some city locations. There is also a need to invest in the
cycling and pedestrian infrastructure, support for shared transportation and
services, and the creation of a network of dedicated roads (walking and
cycling trails, in-line skating rinks, pavements, etc.) and compact,
accessible neighbourhoods. A reliable and clean public transportation
system will form the backbone of transportation in the regions. Although it
will continue to provide individual carriers, the state wants to gradually
integrate regional transportation systems into national interconnected
timetables, unified transportation conditions, mutual recognition of tickets,
minimum transfer distances and a common information system. It also
intends to link public transportation to individual transportation via bike and
ride systems (building sites and equipment for safe bicycle storage near
public transport stops or terminals), park and ride (building car parks close
to public transport stops or terminals); and kiss and ride (setting up
Urban energy should be
decentralised
Cities need to learn how to
handle waste efficiently and
make the most of it
The state will support
electromobiles, nonmotorised
and integrated
public transport
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
90
stopping or waiting places for passenger cars in the vicinity of public
transport stops or terminals).
4.6 Strategic objectives
16. Public services in the area are more accessible to all residents.
16.1 Strategic and spatial planning is coordinated at all levels.
16.2 Binding standards for the availability of basic public services and
appropriate public infrastructure for civilian facilities are in place
and are valid for all settlements.
16.3 Necessary conditions to ensure the availability of basic public
services are already in place at the stage of spatial and strategic
planning.
16.4 Strategic and spatial planning procedures are coordinated at a level
exceeding the level of individual municipalities.
17. Improving quality of life in individual municipalities reduces
regional inequalities.
17.1 Today's rural and peripheral areas are not depopulating, and their
populations do not age more than in urban areas.
17.2 Support for highly qualified job opportunities in SMEs using local
and regional potential.
17.3 Support for various forms of housing, especially affordable housing
for all segments of society.
17.4 Local integrated strategies reduce social disparities in the territory,
strengthen non-conflictual coexistence and improve the quality of
life for everyone.
18. Guarantee of high-quality urban development of settlements.
18.1 The decline of agricultural land appropriation in cities and in the
open countryside is decreasing. Brownfield sites are regenerated
and revitalised.
18.2 Cities are friendly to all age and user groups.
18.3 Municipalities regularly work together with the public to plan their
development.
19. Cities reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the negative
impact of climate change.
19.1 Municipalities of the III. level prevent the effects of climate change
and are able to adapt to them.
4. Municipalities and regions
91
19.2 The number and intensity of urban heat islands are decreasing.
19.3 All newly completed buildings are classified as Energy Class A.
Existing buildings are gradually being renovated at least to Energy
Class C.
19.4 The amount of public greenery in urban agglomerations is
increasing.
19.5 There is an increase in the length of cycling routes and roads
suitable for cyclists.
19.6 The number of zero-emission and low-emission vehicles is
significantly increasing.
19.7 The amount of municipal waste that is stored is decreasing.
20. Regional public administration uses the tools for sustainable
development of municipalities.
20.1 The central state administration systematically supports and
develops tools for the sustainable development of municipalities.
20.2 Regional public administration has sufficient institutional capacity to
deliver a sustainable development agenda.
20.3 The number and quality of Local Agenda 21 implementers will
increase.


94
5 Global development
Vision
The Czech Republic, as a confident and cooperative member of the
international community, contributes both through its domestic and
foreign policies to the promotion of values and principles of
sustainable development in the EU and the world.
Introduction
501. In certain areas of sustainable development, the Czech Republic is
successful, even by international comparison. Significant results have been
achieved primarily through coordination with other EU countries and the
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Above all, the
responses of the Czech Republic to global developments, as well as the
adoption of the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development and Sustainable
Development Goals79 and the contribution to the adoption and
implementation of the Sendai Global Action Plan on Disaster Risk
Reduction (see Development Analysis) are considered outstanding. The
Czech Republic will use this favourable situation to support the fulfilment of
global and domestic sustainable development commitments and to promote
its sustainable development priorities through coherent external policies
and its actions in the European Union and international organisations.
502. Some aspects of the development of the Czech Republic and the
European Union influence the direction of sustainable development in non-
EU. The Czech Republic will strive for the coherence of external policies of
sustainable development through closer coordination at the domestic level
in order to fulfil its global responsibilities.
503. The Czech Republic will encourage the world community to use its
existing infrastructure of international organisations to fulfil its sustainable
development commitments. The Czech Republic does not consider it
necessary to create new international organisations and mechanisms,
however, the multilateral system, cooperation among individual participants
and cohesion of their actions need to be streamlined in order to achieve a
79 See GOVERNMENT OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC (2016) Government Resolution of January 25,
2016 No. 61 to the Report on the Course and Results of the United Nations Summit on
Sustainable Development.
Positive actions by the
Czech Republic in the field of
sustainable development
The Impact of the Czech
Republic on global
sustainable development
Sustainable development
agenda and multilateral
system
5. Global development
95
more successful and effective fulfilment of all the commitments of the global
integrated sustainable development agenda.
504. Given the limited human and financial capacities of the Czech
Republic, it is appropriate to focus on a limited number of priority areas.
These topics should logically be based on the national priorities80 and
comparative advantages of the Czech Republic as well as on the current
international contexts. The formulation of national sustainable development
priorities for global action will be based on the Czech Republic 2030
strategic framework.
505. One of the main principles and key instruments for fulfilling the
commitments of sustainable development at both domestic and global level
is an integrated approach based on ensuring the coherence of sustainable
development policies. The external impact of individual national policies
should not be detrimental towards other countries, especially developing
countries. The individual activities underpinning sustainable development
policies must be interconnected and coherent, at local, national, regional81
and global levels. The interconnection of individual aspects and elements is
a prerequisite for the effectiveness and balance of efforts for sustainable
development, both in terms of resource and capacity utilisation on the part
of those who provide them, and in terms of impact on the part of those who
accept them.
506. Besides participation of the government, parliament and other state
and public institutions, the preparation and implementation of effective
measures to promote global sustainable development also require
participation of partners outside of the public sector. These partners are
representatives of the civil sector, private companies, academia and the
general public. Sustainable social consensus must be based on
cooperation in partnership.
5.1 A global environment conducive to sustainable
development
507. The Czech Republic is a responsible member of the international
community. To maintain this status, above all it must comply with the
sustainable development commitments it has made, including regular
reporting. Due to higher democratic legitimacy, the Czech Republic shall
support the global agenda of sustainable development in the long-term
perspective, particularly within the framework of the United Nations.
80 In the field of foreign policy, national priorities are reflected in the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs of the Czech Republic (2015) of the Foreign Policy Concept of the Czech Republic,
which also mentions sustainable development in chapter 4.2.
81 In terms of international regions.
National sustainable
development priorities in a
global context
Sustainable development
policy must be coherent at all
levels
Developing partnerships
among participants
Global commitments to
sustainable development
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
96
508. In the European Union, the Czech Republic as an open economy
intends to support new trade agreements with other states or blocks if they
respect the principles of sustainable development. It will also support
multilateral agreements of the World Trade Organization, while respecting
the same principles. The Czech Republic wants to apply these trade
treaties to prevent social dumping and to give signatories an explicit and
effective right to use social, environmental, consumer and hygienic
regulations according to their needs and to be consistent with sustainable
development. It will further promote coordination in the field of tax reforms.
The Czech Republic will also actively contribute to a fundamental review of
existing but obsolete frameworks and instruments (such as the Cotonou
Agreement).
509. In order to strengthen its political position, credibility and operational
capacity, the Czech Republic will also strive to meet international financial
commitments in the area of Official Development Assistance (ODA) and to
take steps to fulfil its commitment by gradually increasing its level of 0.33 %
of GNI by 2030. Emphasis will be placed on the effective use of funding
and experience in favour of reducing inequalities and achieving sustainable
development in the world. In its foreign development cooperation, the
Czech Republic will also focus on the implementation of recommendations
from the OECD's peer review in 2016 which commended the functional
institutional system of Czech development cooperation and humanitarian
aid as well as a specific contribution of the Czech Republic to reducing
poverty and inequality in partner countries.
510. At the global level, the Czech Republic will promote the
implementation of the Agenda 2030 and global agendas on climate change,
resilience and disaster readiness and its cooperation in its work with
international organisations. It also wants to support the mindset change that
Agenda 2030 strives to bring into the global agenda of sustainable
development. Special emphasis is on the Sustainable Development
Objective No. 16 Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions, with a particular
focus on the promotion of responsible and transparent institutions that are
honest and open with the public and ensure enforceability. This focus is
based on the long-term priorities of Czech foreign policy – the promotion of
democracy, good governance and human rights. This goal has a crosssectional
validity. It is impossible to achieve efficient and long-term
fulfilment of other goals without it. A peaceful and coherent democratic
society is also a prerequisite for security and stable international relations.
511. Responsible actions taken by international organisations also require
a consistent and coherent approach to sustainable development debates in
international forums, as it also contributes to spreading the reputation of the
Czech Republic around the world. It also helps to strengthen its value
added in international organisations both at home and abroad, and for this
reason the Czech Republic will develop interdepartmental coordination to
effectively enforce its own priorities and Czech expertise in international
organisations, to ensure the Czech Republic's participation in their
EU trade policy vis-à-vis non-
EU countries must be
consistent with sustainable
development
Development aid will be
increased to 0.33 % of GNI
and its effectiveness will be
regularly evaluated
Support for the Agenda 2030
for sustainable development
Strengthening the value
added of the Czech Republic
for its operations in an
international environment
5. Global development
97
decision-making processes, implementing the Czech Republic into
programmes and projects of these organisations as well as to support
Czech experts, especially in the elected bodies of international
organisations.
512. In order to operate consistently and efficiently at a global level and
within international organisations, the Czech Republic will actively enhance
its coordination capacity in the field of sustainable development. The main
coordinating body is the Government Council for Sustainable Development,
and its respective committees at the working level. The Foreign
Development Cooperation Council Coordination is responsible for the
issues related to foreign development cooperation and humanitarian aid
provided abroad.
5.2 Policy coherence
513. The Czech Republic will outline the national sustainability priorities
described in this document, the principles and objectives of Agenda 2030
as well as other international commitments made to the main external
relations and external relations policy instruments and strategies at
multilateral and bilateral levels, such as the Foreign Policy Concept, Czech
Republic Security Strategy, Concept of Foreign Development Cooperation
and the Transformation Cooperation Programme as well as the relevant
business, tax, energy, migration and other policies which come under the
responsibility of other departments, which have an impact on other
countries and on the external relations of the Czech Republic. These
include, for example, Export Strategy of the Ministry of Industry and Trade
of the Czech Republic, the State Environmental Policy of the Ministry of the
Environment of the Czech Republic, the Strategy of the Ministry of
Agriculture with a Perspective to 2030 and the Concept for Assistance to
Refugees and States under Strong Migration Pressures of the Ministry of
the Interior (see Development Analysis). Policy coherence will be taken into
account both in legislative activities and in the implementation of partial
policies and programmes both at home and abroad. The Czech Republic
will also seek to ensure that the European Union and other relevant
international organisations of which it is a member reflect coherently the
Agenda 2030 in their internal policies and external policy instruments.
514. The public administration will strive to create sufficient institutional
and analytical capacities to ensure policy coherence for sustainable
development. Monitoring the impact of policies on other countries will help
reduce the negative impression held of the Czech Republic in these
countries (see Development Analysis) and strengthen the value added of
the Czech Republic's external actions in the political, security,
environmental, trade and development sectors. The central state
administration of the Office of the Government of the Czech Republic will
build capacity for monitoring policy coherence to ensure – the necessary
expertise, capability and range across the state administration and thematic
focus on the area of sustainable development.
Coordination of operations at
a global level
Progressive revisions of
policy documents and
instruments for external
policy
Building capacity to monitor
policy coherence for
sustainable development
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
98
515. The Czech Republic will push for the European Union to jointly
promote sustainable development on the international scene. It will also
seek to make the key principles for the Czech Republic integral to EU
concepts, strategies and documents, and to ensure that national priorities
are duly respected in EU priorities for sustainable development. One of the
priority themes is the coherence of internal and external EU policies for
sustainable development.
516. An appropriate response to unsustainable ways of producing many
imported raw materials (see Developmental Analysis), with a significant
impact on the external security of the Czech Republic is the support of the
consumption of domestic raw materials wherever possible and beneficial
for the quality of the environment (Economic model).
517. The core coordination mechanism for tackling issues related to policy
coherence for sustainable development is the Government Council for
Sustainable Development and its committees at the working level.
Coordination in the European Union Committee and the Ministerial
Coordination Groups is ongoing to monitor the coherence of EU policies.
For other external impact policies, the coordinating role of the Economic
and Social Agreement Council team can be used. Monitoring policy
coherence will be (or perhaps already is) embodied in the statutes of these
bodies.
5.3 Strategic objectives
21. The Czech Republic co-creates an environment actively
supporting sustainable development at a global and European
Union level and with an emphasis on national priorities.
21.1 The Czech Republic promotes the global implementation of
international commitments in the field of sustainable development,
their implementation at the European Union level and their
reflection in the activities of international organisations and
fulfilment of these commitments.
21.2 The Czech Republic at both global and European Union level
supports the fulfilment of the Sustainable Development Objectives
and specifically Objective No. 16 Peace, Justice and Strong
Institutions.
21.3 The Czech Republic increases its value added for operations in
international organisations and the European Union.
22. By reinforcing the coherence of internal policies with external
impact, the Czech Republic supports global sustainable
development.
Monitoring the coherence of
policies at global and EU
level
Adequate self-sufficiency will
benefit ecosystems in other
countries
Coordination mechanisms to
monitor policy coherence
5. Global development
99
22.1 The Czech Republic continuously pledges international
commitments and national priorities in the field of sustainable
development which have been developed into policy documents
and external policy instruments.
22.2 The Czech Republic is actively building institutional capacity to
monitor the coherence of internal policies with external impact and
to limit their negative impact on the global move towards
sustainable development.
22.3 The Czech Republic actively promotes the monitoring and
implementation of policy coherence at European Union level, in
the external policies of the European Union and at the global level.



103
6 Good governance
Vision
The Czech Republic has a mode of governance that is both
democratic and efficient in the long-term perspective. The decisionmaking
structure is resilient, flexible and inclusive. Citizens
participate in decision-making on public affairs and the state creates
suitable conditions to facilitate this. Public administration enhances
the quality of life of the population of the Czech Republic via public
policies and achieve the goals of sustainable development in the
long-term perspective.
Introduction
601. The plans for sustainable development of the Czech Republic will
only ever remain on paper unless we are able to manage such plans well.
The quality of governance is fundamentally evident through our quality of
life. It decides what our schools or hospitals look like. It also influences
whether we are disadvantaged at work because of our gender or age
(People and society). Through governance mechanisms, we determine the
level of taxes or conditions for innovative business (Economic model), for
example, if public transport will work in our village or if a new building
(Municipalities and regions) will be built on neighbouring land. Good
governance also ensures that the first torrential rainfall does not wash away
the soil from the field onto the village green or that people are able to walk
down a shady alley (Resilient ecosystems). We are all able to make
decisions about our activity within the Czech Republic as well as beyond its
borders (Global development). We also see the quality of governance
reflected in the ability to express our views about public affairs, in dealing
with the public administration, or in the possibility of fast-track justice.
602. The state can influence many things. However, achieving the vision of
good governance in a democratic republic is not only a matter for the state,
but for all citizens of this republic. The state creates opportunities and
incentives that can be ineffective if there is no active interest in their
application. The Czech Republic 2030 shows that good governance can be
achieved if we work on it together.
603. To achieve good governance, the Czech Republic sets a
comprehensive goal of a better way of policy making. A human-centred
way that is inclusive, transparent, and pursued on the basis of the
Good governance turns
sustainable development into
action
Good governance is a matter
for all
Better policy making
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
104
necessary knowledge and skills. A way that will take the long-term impacts
and side-effects of decisions into account, resulting in coherent public
policies. A way that should be able to improve itself systematically, to
innovate.
6.1 Democratic governance
604. The Czech Republic will increase the inclusiveness of governance,
i.e. the real possibility of involving its citizens in decision-making on public
affairs, or more precisely into the policy-making process. Present dominant
democratic forms will also be improved. This means that constant attention
will be paid not only to elections (e.g. to the maintenance of equality of
electoral law, availability of polling stations, etc.) and to the functioning of
political parties (e.g. ensuring their transparency) but also to the promotion
of greater representation of women in decision-making positions.
Instruments of this improvement and support need not only be legislative,
but may also be cultural, administrative, technological, etc. There will also
be greater use of participatory forms of democracy which emphasise direct
involvement in the decision-making process, and deliberative democracy
oriented towards discussion and mutual persuassion. For example, public
consultation on legislative proposals, whether by the government, or by
anyone else, using referendums or inviting citizens to co-decide on
budgetary priorities (participatory budgeting), especially at the local level.
Civil and social dialogue at EU level also offers considerable opportunities.
605. The deliberation of public policies brings many opportunities.
Deliberation is a discussion method in which we try to justify our attitudes.
This discussion is open; everyone has the opportunity to speak. The basic
logic of the such discussion is argumentation, and not depends on power
dominance (e.g. number of votes or privileged position). The main objective
is mutual assurance that different perspectives will be taken into account in
decision-making and that they will be taken seriously. Deliberations can
take place at all phases of policy-making process. It can be used to discuss
proposals in assemblies at all levels, and one form may be a substantive
and responsive discussion between the government coalition and the
opposition. However, deliberation should be used to a greater extent at the
phase of policy formulation, setting its origins and objectives and through
the direct involvement of citizens. The technical solution may be different
(e.g. public forums based on the so-called mini-publics concept, working
groups involving various participants, individual in-depth interviews or focus
group, deliberative polls, various forms of public consultation using e-
Government frameworks, etc.).
606. The Czech Republic will remove obstacles that prevent or complicate
good representation, participation and deliberation. There are not many
legislative barriers and immediate technical barriers are relatively easy to
remove. In the long-term perspective, we must therefore focus mainly on
barriers that restrict access to certain information, barriers that restrict
access to certain skills, and obstacles linked to social inequalities.
More inclusive governance
Public policies as a result of
deliberation and not power
superiority
Obstacles to representation,
participation and deliberation
6. Good governance
105
607. Easier access to information can be ensured in a variety of ways.
First of all, by developing an e-Government system or generally by building
an open data infrastructure, furthermore by strong public service media,
and by supporting the building of professional backgrounds for political
parties, etc.
608. Participation and particularly deliberation are “soft” skills. We can
learn to master them and become aware of their inclusion in the education
system, including adult education. However, they are improved mainly by
use. The more citizens are involved in the debate, the more meaningful
their next debate will be. Discussion skills may not only develop open
political forums, but they also represent opportunities for employee
participation or participation in the form of co-operative business (Economic
model). Apart from the economic dimension, both forms also have
participative and deliberative dimensions.
609. In a democracy, rights are guaranteed by law, they are equal for all,
and provide citizens with support of the high-quality and swift decisionmaking
of the legal system without any significant regional deviations.
However, it is not enough to grant citizens formal rights to achieve
democracy. They must also have real opportunities. These will always be
different due to different personal interests, skills, etc. However, some
people are also limited by social barriers, the removal of which is the task of
the state. Reducing the poverty rate, eliminating gender inequalities or
inequalities in education (People and society) are also essential for
democratic governance.
610. In the Czech Republic, there must also be room for alternative
thinking about how to govern democratically, because it is not possible to
estimate the democratic needs “from scratch” and to develop appropriate
forms for decades to come. The Czech Republic will create this directly, in
the form of state support for scientific R&D. However, the source of
innovation in democratic governance can also come from the proposals of
various think tanks and NGOs, the work of so-called political institutes in
political parties, the activities of municipalities, etc.
611. Any particular form that will increase governance's inclusiveness
must always be considered. Long-term impact and impact on other areas
must be taken into account. Experience from other countries as well as
experimental implementation of new solutions on smaller samples, i.e.
different forms of piloting, may also help. Innovation in democratic
governance should also be retrospectively evaluated with respect to
meeting the objectives set and taking into account their side-effects.
Easier access to information
Learn to discuss
Reducing inequalities in
society
Democratic thinking is open
Good intentions are not
enough
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
106
6.2 Long-term effectiveness of governance
612. The long-term effectiveness of governance particularly depends on
the long-term effectiveness of public administration, which therefore face
high demands and expectations. Public administration should be
transparent, predictable, accessible and should not violate the impartiality
principle in order to achieve unauthorised private gain. It should be effective
and efficience. It should be able to respond to changes and learn from
experience. Each of these aspects is important and none of them must be
systematically neglected. However, there is tension among the different
types of expectations, or more specifically among instruments to fulfil them.
The fulfilment of different expectations associated with public administration
must therefore be balanced against the current situation and the mission of
the particular institution. Given that in the Czech Republic the functions of
public administration are performed both by the state administration and
through the competence transferred via local administration, it is necessary
to take into account the differences between them in the claims of specific
institutions.
613. The Czech Republic shall improve the policy coherence by improved
horizontal and vertical coordination in policy-making process. Horizontal
coordination will be both intra- and interinstitutional (e.g. within ministries
and among ministries, at regional level, etc.). This requires a sufficient
institutional background and intensive day-to-day communication. We can
use existing communication channels or the existing network of strategic
and analytical services in different institutions if they have the necessary
skills, abilities, employees and budget. The system of employee circulation,
such as internships in other ministries or other regions, support for
internships in the European Commission, exchanges through different
networks and associations of cities and municipalities or regions will also
help. Vertical coordination should take the form of bidirectional circulation of
suggestions, solutions and experiences.
614. Another important step towards achieving policy coherence will be to
strengthen the strategic approach and greater emphasis on preliminary
impact assessments and retrospectiveevaluation. For each decision,
consideration should be given to impact on other areas (side-effects),
especially long-term impact and, if possible, to developing variants
solutions. Particular impact assessment tools are mainly RIA (Regulatory
Impact Assessment), EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment), TIA
(Territorial Impact Assessment), SEA (Strategic Environmental
Assessment), or HIA (Health Impact Assessment). We can create more
tools in the future, if necessary. However, it is not sufficient to formulate
good policies, it is also necessary to evaluate them retrospectively, and
modify further according to these evaluations, e.g. to perform parametric
adjustments to systems, to adjust less effective regulation, to reduce the
Public administration values
Horizontal and vertical
coordination
Consider impact in advance
and evaluate the outcomes
retrospectively
6. Good governance
107
administrative burden on citizens, entrepreneurs/companies and public
administrations, etc. For the purposes of evaluation, it is necessary to
clearly define the purpose to be achieved by the given public policy and to
pursue this purpose. This will enable public policies not only to improve but
also to better manage the resources (competencies, financial resources,
personnel, etc.).
615. Coordination and coherence of public policies does not only concern
the territory of the Czech Republic. It will also be applied at European and
global level, from preparation of documents for government meetings in EU
institutions to coordinated activities in functionally defined international
organisations (Global development).
616. The policy coherence is not just a matter of executive power. Greater
emphasis on coherence, especially on impact assessments on other areas
(side-effects) and long-term impact, should also be proposed by legislative
bodies. The quality of public debate would be improved if legislative
proposals by MPs and regions used the impact assessment instruments at
least as much as government proposals. If there is insufficient institutional
capacity for this purpose, it should be created. Policy coherence is also not
just a matter of policy formulation and decision, but also matter of policy
implementation and conflicting issues solution. Here, in addition to public
administration, high-quality, accessible and fast-paced judiciary plays a key
role, which must not show significant regional deviations in their decisions.
A prerequisite for such a judiciary is a long-term strategy, which should set
out primarily a model of the administration of justice, optimise the
organisational processes, accelerate the electronisation of justice, and
identify the methods to systematically improve the rule of law. These
intentions should then be tailored to the institutional capacity of the
judiciary.
617. In the provision of public services, the Czech Republic will focus their
attention on individual inhabitants, and consider their needs and their lives,
not the internal needs of public administration. In public administration,
quality management should be enhanced, especially on TQM (Total Quality
Management) principles. It is not enough to “do things right”, it is necessary
to “do the right things” at the same time. Public services will be planned by
working together more closely with those to be addressed and the public
administration will also ask recipients whether or not the service had helped
them or indeed whether it had had an adverse effect on them. This will
allow public policies to be improved, synergies to be sought among them,
and better resource management (competencies, funds, staff, etc.). From
the conceptual and technical point of view, different e-Government tools are
also appropriate for the service recipient, if they are used for the purpose of
the service. They should go hand-in-hand with a reduction of administrative
burdens for citizens, entrepreneurs/businesses and public administrations.
618. Foreign experience may inspire us. We need to maintain a level of
knowledge of such experience and use it wherever possible. The Czech
Policy coherence not only on
the inside but also on the
outside
Policy coherence not only of
executive power, but also of
the legislative and judicial
system
Human-centred approach
Foreign inspiration, but not
copying
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
108
Republic must be able to register change in foreign development and
compare its efforts with current trends, not past ones. However, it is
necessary to avoid mechanical adoption and implementation of a solution
that may not be sufficiently effective in the Czech context. Tools for drawing
of foreign experience may be cooperation with scientific organizations,
education systems for public administration and the promotion of
internships in public administrations in other countries or in the European
Commission.
619. In policy-making process, it is necessary to honour the “count twice,
cut once” rule. To test the effects of the intended solutions, it is crucial to
evaluate current knowledge, including foreign knowledge, and then use
different forms of piloting, i.e. testing on small samples with rigorous
evaluation. Suitable opportunities are currently available, for example, in
the regulatory impact assessment process. However, these pilots must not
simply take on the form of scientific experiments. They must also have a
deliberative dimension, i.e. involve those who are about to propose the
solution and those who have something to contribute (for example,
professional or public).
620. The system of governance will be resilient. Specific security threats
can change rapidly, as well as their importance. But the types of possible
impact when these threats are fulfilled are relatively stable. Therefore, a
system of crisis anticipation and response will be further developed,
whether it relates to natural or man-made crisis situations (e.g. floods, longterm
droughts, epidemics, leakage of dangerous substances, disruption of
important electronic communications systems, large-scale electricity
outage, large scale legality violation, etc.). In terms of security, there is also
a need for coherence of executive and judiciary power (for example, a good
criminal policy in which the punishment component is balanced with the
correction component).
621. However, in the long-term perspective, resilience is improved by the
ability to prepare for possible changes or adaptability – in other words, the
ability to innovate in the designing and implementation of public policies in
general, in form of process innovations (administrative, technological),
service innovations, management innovations and conceptual innovations.
To a certain extent, this is already feasible. By 2030, however, the Czech
Republic will create conditions for innovation to proceed systematically and
rightly to their purpose. Within a shorter time frame, it should be possible
within the Czech public administration to experiment with processes,
services and other activities. In the future, it is important to ensure a degree
of autonomy for lower levels of public administration, a certain type of
knowledge and skills and a sufficient information base.
622. The principle of subsidiarity, i.e. decision-making and responsibility at
the lowest level on which the solution from the citizens’ perspective is
effective in the long run, will be applied consistently. In view of this
principle, we will look for an appropriate institutional set-up for specific
First test and discuss, then
implement
Resilience and security
Resilience and innovation
Subsidiarity in services,
systematic support and
evaluation
6. Good governance
109
areas. There are public services that are best created from the centre of the
administration. Faced with the individualisation of needs, however, the role
of lower levels of public administration, where most services are provided in
fact and which have an immediate experience of service effectiveness, is
increasingly important. Thus, lower levels of public administration receive a
degree of autonomy that will enable them to innovate, and a greater degree
of responsibility for innovative solutions. Autonomy and innovation, of
course, must not undermine policy coherence throughout the Czech
Republic. However, no solution is only a matter of a single level. Therefore
the systematic support provided by the centre (e.g. specifically-tasked
departments of ministries on a government level, regular meetings, a
common information system, etc.) and a system of consistent evaluation
(evaluation and audit of innovations) must be added to the lower levels of
autonomy and their capacity to innovate. All levels must have sufficient
institutional capacity to perform their tasks (Municipalities and regions).
623. The Czech Republic pays particular attention to the development of
expertise for the policy-making process. In addition to understanding the
diversity of values and experience with the impact from policies, expertise
and skills are an important factor influencing public decision-making. This
affects not only the institutions that public policy makers primarily create or
implement, but also those that make decisions about them (e.g. legislative
bodies). Therefore, more intensive interconnection of public administration
with specialised workplaces, such as universities, research organisations,
the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic and public research
institutions (PRI). The state support system for R&D will create and
encourage this cooperation. The public administration's demand for various
forms of analysis and counselling will increase which can be provided by
specialised departments.
624. The system of public administration employee education
intermediaries the latest scientific knowledge, contacts with experience
from other countries and insight into how to work with these findings. It will
encourage public administration employees to realise the possibilities and
limits of different methods, data and information. For this purpose, it is
possible to use the existing forms, e.g. the system of education pursuant to
the Act on the Civil Service (No. 234/2014 Coll.), the Act on Local Self-
Government Officials (No. 312/2002 Coll.), the Public Administration
Institute established by the Ministry of Interior, education in a network of
municipalities developing MA21, various forms of cooperation with public
universities or a system of internships in public administrations in other
countries or in the European Commission.
625. Better data and information are essential to good policy-making. Data
will therefore be systematically collected and their circulation facilitated.
There is also a wide range of domestic and foreign data sources that could
be used much more regularly than currently (e.g. so-called administrative
data of public administration, information from companies, NGOs,
academic information, data from international institutions, regulations and
Sufficient knowledge and
skills
Systematic education
Availability/accesibility and
quality of data and
information
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
110
legislative process data, etc.). Evaluation of policies also provides key
information for decision-making. A system will therefore be developed to
regularly update the data and information needs of public administrations,
linking resources from different areas to enhance coherence of policymaking.
The e-Government provides a suitable framework for this
endeavour. Assessment of existing policies will be based on evaluations
and on a comprehensive system of measurement and public administration
evaluation. If we want citizens to be involved in policy making and if we
want the result to be a meaningful public debate, data and information must
also be provided to them. Again, tools enabling this may come from e-
Government projects and generally open data approaches, both with
respect to the right to protection against unauthorised interference with
privacy. These activities should be linked to the effort to reduce the
administrative burden on citizens, entrepreneurs/companies and public
administrations.
626. Applying the principle of subsidiarity, sufficient knowledge of public
administration employees, and good data and information help to also
better justify and defence of decisions. In the policy implementation phase
in particular, we need to be able to prevent violating the impartiality
principle of public administration by clearly defining public interests, by
being transparent and whistleblower protecting.
6.3 Strategic objectives
23. Policy makers have the knowledge and skills to enable them to
participate fully in the public debate.
23.1 The education system for public administration employees will
develop conceptual thinking and provide the latest scientific
knowledge, contact with experience from other countries, and
insight into how to work with this knowledge.
23.2 The education system provided by public education institutions
ensures the development of participative and deliberative skills of
citizens.
23.3 The state system of support for oriented and applied research will
ensure a steady influx of knowledge, innovation of democracy and
long-term effectiveness of governance.
24. Public policies are coherent in respect to the goals of the Czech
Republic 2030 strategic framework.
24.1 Public administration at all levels will have sufficient institutional
capacity to make coherent policies (competencies, personnel,
funding, communication channels, etc.).
Protection against corruption
and discrimination is a fair
public policy justification
6. Good governance
111
24.2 Public policies will take into account long-term impact; public
administration will monitor such impact within their own strategic
materials.
24.3 Public policies will be based on available knowledge and
systematically assessed in advance with regard to possible impact
on recipients and on areas other than primary interest.
24.4 Public policies will be systematically evaluated retrospectively (expost
evaluation).
25. Policy makers have quality and accessible data and information
for decision-making.
25.1 Inside the public administration, a system for collecting and sharing
data and information will be further developed to enable problem
analysis, variation creation and impact assessment.
25.2 Public administration data and information will be accessible in a
way that is most convenient for citizens.
25.3 A system of experience exchange between higher and lower levels
of public administration, among different sectors of government
and among Czech public administration and public administrations
abroad will be developed.
26. Innovation in public policy making is a progressive solution that
enhances the democratisation and/or long-term effectiveness of
public policies; such innovation is a permanent part of the
functioning of public administration at all levels.
26.1 A system of innovation support will be developed in public policy
making.
26.2 Pilotage will become a part of public policy making wherever it is
appropriate in terms of the given policy.
26.3 The deliberation of public policies will be the rule wherever it is
appropriate for the given policy.
27. The quality of governance has been improved in terms of public
policy recipients.
27.1 Procedures will be developed to increase the inclusiveness of
governance from the point of view of citizens.
27.2 Procedures will be developed to improve the effectiveness of public
administration in terms of citizens, entrepreneurs and companies.
112
Strategic framework implementation
701. The Strategic Document Czech Republic 2030 is a comprehensive government
document for national, regional and local levels. It also serves as a transfer mechanism for
Czech commitments to the European Union and the global community in the field of
sustainable development. It sets six priority areas for development of the Czech Republic in
the long-term perspective and formulates strategic and specific objectives. Specific
measures to achieve strategic goals fall within the responsibility of the relevant departments
or the Office of the Government in accordance with current competencies.
702. Following the approval of the Czech Republic 2030, an implementation document will
be prepared and submitted to the government in 2017 to determine the mechanism for
monitoring compliance and interaction between the strategic and specific objectives of the
Czech Republic 2030 and the sectoral strategies, concepts, programmes and measures. For
all national strategy papers, regional development strategies, concepts, programmes and
measures that have a structural impact on the long-term development of the Czech Republic,
the compliance with the strategic and specific objectives of the Czech Republic 2030 will be
assessed. The result is to ensure the linkage between the comprehensive strategic
document through sectoral and ministerial strategies at national and regional levels. The tool
for tracking the compatibility of strategic goals at each level of government is the Strategy
Database. The Strategy Database should be interconnected with data sources for monitoring
indicators (e.g. PDB CZSO, RIS MRD etc.).
Figure1 Relationship between strategic and specific goals of CR 2030 and measures
Strategic Objective
Specific Objective
Specific Objective
Measure
Measure
Measure
Measure
Czech Republic 2030
Ministerial and regional documents and
policies
Strategic framework implementation
113
703. The implementation document will include a proposal on how to analyse gaps in
current policies and identify causes that prevent potential goals from being met. At the same
time, it will determine the responsibility of individual ministries for achieving and fulfilling the
goals of the Czech Republic 2030. There will be concrete actions and measures (such as
regulation of legislation and regulation in general, securing financing, etc.).
704. Evaluation of the compliance of strategic documents, programmes and measures with
the Czech Republic 2030, fulfilment of sustainable development principles and progress in
quality of life and sustainable development will be assessed by the Report on Quality of Life
and its Sustainability (hereinafter referred to as the “Report”) which will be submitted to the
government every two years on the basis of indicators approved as part of the Czech
Republic 2030. This Report will be based on an analytical part that evaluates developments
in each priority area with a specific link to strategic and specific objectives. The Report will
also include recommendations on the content of policies or strategic documents, concepts,
programmes and measures. Data collection and preparation of indicators is ensured by the
relevant Committee of the Government Council for Sustainable Development; the
Department for Sustainable Development of the Office of the Government then elaborates a
draft Report based on this data. The Report is then subsequently discussed in the
Committees of the Government Council for Sustainable Development, approved by the
Council and submitted for discussion to the government. On the basis of this, and on the
basis of interim findings, the Office of the Government enters a dialogue with ministries to
ensure compliance with the Czech Republic 2030.
705. Non-profit and private sector participants not represented in the government's
Sustainable Development Council will be invited to prepare a shadow report during the
preparation of the Report.
Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
114
Figure 2 Participant Tree CR 2030
706. The Department for Sustainable Development in the aforementioned process also
ensures alignment of strategic objectives of the CR 2030 with strategic documents at
international and European level (Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, Europe 2020
Strategy, Sustainable Development Strategy of the European Union).
707. The Department for Sustainable Development will play a precise role in the application
of sustainable development principles, the development of instruments to promote
sustainable development and the fulfilment of the strategic objectives of Good governance
for Sustainable Development. This role will be fulfilled in close cooperation with other
agendas.
708. The Department for Sustainable Development will also provide systematical support to
public institutions to make use of voluntary instruments and innovative approaches as
examples of sustainable development.
Department of
Sustainable
Development
It analyses the consistency of
departmental action in relation to the
specific objectives of the CR 2030
based on a review of links between
specific objectives and departmental
measures contained in the
implementation document. It
summarises the results in the draft of
the Report on the Quality of Life and
Sustainability. For this purpose, it also
follows a plan of non-legislative tasks
and a plan of the government's
legislative work. It is involved in the
early stages of strategic document
preparation (needs analysis, analytical
phase).
Committees
of the
Government
Council for
Sustainable
Development
Government
Council for
Sustainable
Development
It discusses and
approves the draft
Report on the Quality
of Life and
Sustainability
They discuss the
Report on the Quality
of Life and
Sustainability and
provide incentives to
assess the
consistency between
the specific objectives
of the Czech Republic
2030 and the sectoral
measures
Participants outside
the Government
Council for
Sustainable
Development
They are consulted during the
preparation of the Report on
the Quality of Life and
Sustainability and they are
invited to prepare a shadow
report
Ministries
Strategic framework implementation
115
709. Strategic objectives of CR 2030 will be further enhanced by providing a framework for
so-called voluntary commitments that enable a wide range of participants outside the public
administration to subscribe to the objectives and principles of the CR 2030.
710. The Czech Republic 2030 is a live strategic document that responds to contextual
changes and developments in priority areas. The review of the strategic document will be
conducted as necessary via a regular assessment by the Department for Sustainable
Development or on the basis of identified needs within the sectoral, regional and other
strategic documents and policies, at least every five years.
116
List of abbreviations
B(a)P Benzo(a)pyrene
CLLD Community Led Local Development
CR 2030 Strategic Framework Czech Republic 2030
CR Czech Republic
CZSO Czech Republic Statistical Office
CSI Czech School Inspection
EESC European Economic and Social Committee
EIA Enviromental Impact Assessment
EC European Commission
EP European Parliament
ESIF European Structural and Investment Funds
ETS Emission Trading Scheme
EU European Union
GNP Gross national product
HIA Health Impact Assessment
GNI Gross national income
GVA Gross value added
CZFBRC Czech Fire Brigade Rescue Corps
CHCFE Consortium of “Cultural Heritage Counts for Europe”
ICLEI International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives
ICT Information and Communication Technology
IT Information Technology
ILO International Labour Organization
IRDP Integrated Regional Development Plans
ITI Integrated Territorial Investments
KA Key area
LAG Local action groups
MC Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic
MRD Ministry for Regional Development of the Czech Republic
MIT Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic
MLSA Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs of the Czech Republic
SME Small and Medium Enterprises
MJ Ministry of Justice of the Czech Republic
MOI Ministry of the Interior of the Czech Republic
MH Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic
MA Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic
MFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic
MoE Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic
NEA National Ecosystem Assessment
NCG National Coordination Group
NGO Non-Government Organisation
NPM New Public Management
OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
MEC Municipalities with extended competence
UN United Nations
List of Abbreviations
117
PAH Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
PISA Programme for International Student Assessment
PM10 Flying dust – suspended particles smaller than 10 micrometres
PM2.5 Flying dust – suspended particles smaller than 2.5 micrometres
FDI Foreign direct investments
RIA Regulatory Impact Assessment
RIS MRD Regional Information Service MRD
SEA Strategic Environmental Assessment
SFSD Strategic framework for sustainable development
TIA Traffic Impact Assessment; not implemented in CR yet
TQM Total Quality Management
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
OG CR Office of the Government of the Czech Republic
PRI Public research institution
R&D Research and development
PDB CZSO Public Database of the CZSO
PA Public Advocate

119
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Appendices:
Appendix 1: Indicators for specific objectives of CR 2030
Appendix 2: Analysis of the Czech Republic development
Appendix 3: Overview of UN sustainable development objectives
United Nations