Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Croatia
17 Jun 2011
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THE MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION, PHYSICAL
PLANNING AND CONSTRUCTION
1
Pursuant to Article 44 of the Environmental Protection Act (Official Gazette 110/07), the
Croatian Parliament at its session on 20 February 2009 adopted the
STRATEGY
FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA
I Introduction
Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without
comprising the needs of future generations. Sustainable development achieves a
balance between the requirements to improve the quality of life (economic component)
and achieve social well-being and peace for all (social component) and the
requirements to protect environmental components as a natural resource upon which
present and future generations depend. Adherence to the principles of democracy,
gender equality, social justice and solidarity, rule of law, respect for fundamental rights
and the preservation of natural resources, cultural heritage and human environment,
contribute to safeguarding the Earth?s capacity to support life in all its diversity.
Sustainable development is thus achieved through a dynamic economy with full
employment, economic, social and territorial cohesion, high level of education, health
protection and environmental protection.
At the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in
Rio de Janeiro in 1992, the global public?s attention was focused on the increasing
problems related to developmental and environmental issues at the local and global
level. The Declaration and the Programme of Action for the 21
st
Century (Agenda 21)
adopted at the Conference give strong support to the principle of sustainable
development. Chapter 8 of Agenda 21 calls on countries to adopt national strategies for
sustainable development (NSDS) that should build upon and harmonise the various
sectoral economic, social and environmental policies and existing national plans.
The General Assembly of the United Nations in 2000 adopted the Millennium
Declaration, a United Nations political document for the 21
st
century, which defines
development goals in areas of interest for the overall international community as well
as activities required for their realization. The Declaration, inter alia, gives support to
the principle of sustainable development which becomes a key element in ensuring
environmental sustainability ? one of the eight Millennium Development Goals that the
member states of the United Nations have undertaken to achieve by 2015. 2
The principle of sustainable development received strong political support at the World
Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) held in Johannesburg in 2002. At the
Summit countries were called upon to adopt regional and national strategies for
sustainable development and to begin their implementation. Furthermore, the
integration of the principle of sustainable development into national policies and plans
is one of the goals of the Millennium Declaration for the purpose of achieving the
millennium goal of environmental sustainability.
The Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals of the United
Nations General Assembly in 2000 as well as the later Practical Plan to Achieve the
Millennium Development Goals adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable
Development in 2002 provided encouragement for the strengthening of regional
cooperation in promoting and implementing the principle of sustainable development.
Within the framework of the Mediterranean Action Plan and the Convention for the
Protection of the Marine Environment and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean
(Barcelona Convention), at the 14
th
Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Barcelona
Convention held in Portoro? in 2005, the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable
Development was adopted.
The Amsterdam Treaty made the promotion of sustainable development one of the key
tasks of the European Union. After careful review of the 2001 EU Sustainable
Development Strategy adopted in Göteborg, in 2006 the European Union accepted the
revised Sustainable Development Strategy for an enlarged European Union. The
Strategy is directed at gradually changing the current unsustainable consumption and
production patterns and the non-integrated approach to policy-making. At the same
time, it reaffirms the need for solidarity and strengthening of partnership.
One of the first documents passed by the Croatian Parliament in which the importance
of sustainable development is mentioned is the Declaration on Environmental
Protection in the Republic of Croatia adopted in 1992. At the international level, the
Republic of Croatia supported Agenda 21 and its Action Plan adopted in 1992 at the
conference in Rio and assumed the obligations arising from the Millennium Declaration
and the Millennium Development Goals adopted by the United Nations General
Assembly in 2000. To that end, the Republic of Croatia prepared the National Report
on the Implementation of the Millennium Declaration which was adopted by the
Government in August 2004 and submitted to the United Nations in September of that
year. All relevant stakeholders contributed to the preparation of that report ?
competent ministries, government offices and bodies, scientific institutions and nongovernmental organisations. In 2006 the Republic of Croatia submitted to the United 3
Nations the Progress Report on the Achievement of the Nationalized Millennium
Development Goals in the Republic of Croatia (for the period from August 2004 to
December 2005).
In the Environmental Protection Act, which entered into force in November 2007, the
Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Croatia (hereinafter: the
Strategy) holds a key position as the document which directs long term economic and
social development as well as environmental protection towards the sustainable
development of the Republic of Croatia. The Environmental Protection Act prescribes
that the Strategy will establish guidelines for long term actions by defining objectives
and determining measures for their realization, taking into account the present status
and undertaken international obligations. The Strategy integrates different development
policies by trying to find solutions suitable for all three components of sustainable
development: economic, social and environmental.
The Strategy contains fundamental principles and criteria for determining the objectives
and priorities in considering the long term transformation towards sustainable
development of the Republic of Croatia. Taking into account the realization of
sustainable development of the Republic of Croatia, the Strategy sets basic objectives
and measures of economic sustainable development, social sustainable development
and environmental protection and identifies key challenges in their realization. The
analysis of the most important challenges provides a description of the current situation
from the economic, social and environmental aspect, thereby contributing to
sustainability. The Strategy also lists the institutions involved in its implementation and
the method of implementation, responsibility for the implementation and the method of
monitoring the implementation.
II Republic of Croatia and Sustainable Development
Sustainable development implies the realization of three general objectives: stable
economic development, social equity and environmental protection. These objectives,
while recognizing the state?s responsibility for global issues at the international level,
may only be accomplished by mutual cooperation of all stakeholders. The realization of
the aforementioned objectives should:
? safeguard the earth's capacity to support life in all its diversity, respect the existing
limits on the use of natural resources and ensure a high level of protection and
improvement of the quality of the environment, prevent and reduce environmental
pollution and promote sustainable production and consumption to break the link
between economic growth and environmental degradation; 4
? respect national specificities;
? promote an economy based on prosperity, development changes, spirit of
competition and social responsibility, an economy that ensures the quality of life
and full employment;
? promote a democratic, socially inclusive, cohesive, healthy, safe and just society
with respect for fundamental rights and cultural diversity that creates equal
opportunities and combats discrimination in all its forms;
? apply scientific and expert knowledge to develop a system for the protection of
human health, including the remediation of existing environmental burdens;
? encourage the establishment of democratic institutions across the region and the
world and defend their stability, based on the universal right to peace, security and
freedom;
? actively promote sustainable development in the region and the world;
? strengthen partnership among all segments of the society.
Principles
The following general principles will direct the Republic of Croatia towards sustainable
development:
(a) protection of human health;
(b) promotion and protection of fundamental rights;
(c) solidarity within and between generations;
(d) open and democratic society;
(e) involvement of citizens;
(f) involvement of businesses and social partners;
(g) corporate social responsibility;
(h) integration of economic, social and environmental components into the
development of all policies (guidelines);
(i) education for sustainable development;
(j) coherence of policies at all government and self-government levels;
(k) use of the best available technology;
(l) renewal (for example, by reuse or recycling) of natural resources;
(m) promotion of sustainable production and consumption;
(n) precaution and prevention;
(o) ?polluter pays? for damages caused to the environment.
Sustainable Croatia 5
The Republic of Croatia will achieve stability and progressive development with
balanced policies within the framework of general objectives provided that it:
? builds a stable economy;
? ensures energy security and efficiency;
? increases and equalizes the level of regional development and realizes good
internal cohesion;
? ensures full gender, ethnic, religious and age equality;
? builds a quality public health system;
? builds an efficient social welfare system;
? enables a high level of education of the population;
? builds a system of specific measures for the socially vulnerable part of the
population;
? achieves the management and rational use of all natural resources;
? achieves good monitoring of the state of the environment with an efficient emission
control system;
? efficiently protects parts of nature and environmental components;
? undertakes measures to mitigate climate change i.e. adapts to climate change and
minimises its effect on causing climate change.
Current Situation
Sustainable development of the Republic of Croatia must be put into the context of its
geopolitical environment and existing situation which includes the assessment of
available human and natural resources.
The economic and social progress in Europe and the world is currently based on
knowledge, use of scientific results and information and communication technologies
as well as alignment of the state?s involvement with the needs of entrepreneurs. The
Croatian economy, which until recently showed an increasing growth trend, is strongly
affected by the events in the global market that constantly generate changes in key
economic relations. The effects of negative trends in global financial markets reflect on
the real sector through slowing down and, in some of the developed countries, even a
negative trend in global economic growth. At the same time, oscillations in energy and
food prices have additional negative effects on economic growth as well as on inflation.
Projections of the European Commission and the International Monetary Fund (IMF)
predict a slow-down of economic growth in the European Union which is the main
Croatian foreign trade partner. This also implies a significant unfavourable impact on
current economic events in Croatia in the following short-term period. This also 6
changes the recent positive image of employment and unemployment trends and
places it into the context of negative trends.
The efforts to achieve economic growth are supported by fiscal policy while the stability
of the exchange rate, low inflation and further reduction of the budget deficit represent
positive macroeconomic factors. The costs of social infrastructure and security are in
balance with the sustainability level in the current national and global economic
conditions. However, there are certain problems that slow down the overall economic
development. For instance: dependence on imported energy, corruption, slow and
inefficient judiciary, decline in the population and average ageing of the population,
economic disparity between the regions, pressures concerning irrational management
of national land resources, etc. Furthermore, there is an opportunity to achieve a
significantly larger GDP than the present one which may be accomplished by raising
the general level of education of the workforce, primarily because of demands for the
use of new technologies and orientation towards more complex production processes.
Where natural resources are concerned, in addition to the beauties of the landscape
and geographic and climatic diversity, the Republic of Croatia also has large verified
freshwater reserves, sufficient areas of unpolluted agricultural land for which
melioration drainage or irrigation measures need to be implemented, own energy
reserves sufficient to meet at least one fourth of its needs. Significant areas of the
Republic of Croatia are still covered by quality forests and the sea quality permits
different forms of mariculture.
III Key challenges to sustainable development of the Republic of Croatia
Based on the aforementioned, and considering the ever-increasing environmental
pressures, the Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Croatia, while
respecting the assumed international obligations, is focused on long-term action in
eight key areas: 1. encouraging population growth in the Republic of Croatia; 2.
environment and natural resources; 3. promoting sustainable production and
consumption; 4. ensuring social and territorial cohesion and justice; 5. ensuring energy
independence and increasing the efficiency of energy use; 6. strengthening public
health; 7. interconnectedness of the Republic of Croatia; 8. protection of the Adriatic
Sea, coastal area and islands. In those areas it is necessary to redirect the existing
processes towards a more sustainable behaviour. These are the eight key challenges
of sustainable development that also serve as the basis for strategic directions of the
development of the Republic of Croatia.
Analysis of each of these areas begins by considering the basic features of the current
situation in order to define the overall objective according to which the direction of 7
systematic and long-term action is determined. Likewise, for each area different forms
of action (adoption of policies, sectoral strategies, implementation of plans and
projects) are proposed that contribute to realizing the overall objective. The proposed
measures are followed by specific objectives, bringing the overall objective into sharper
focus and making its realization measurable.
The realization of the overall objective needs to include institutions and state
administration bodies responsible for implementing specific segments of the Strategy in
all strategic and development documents within their competence. Their action is
manifold: they maintain dialogue with other stakeholders and prepare and propose
policies and strategies; implement plans and projects for the realization of the overall
objective and specific objectives; supervise the implementation of plans and projects
carried out by others, and monitor the realization of objectives.
The local self-government bodies play a vital role in the realization of overall objectives
at the local level. They promote sustainability in their own Agendas 21 that are used to
define their local objectives which in turn direct the economic and social local
community projects, environmental protection or adaptation to climate change in order
to strengthen the community?s sustainability through the implementation of such
projects.
The business community contributes to sustainable development by opening new work
posts through developing new technologies while accepting environmental protection
measures and, in particular, by exercising corporate social responsibility.
Citizens with their activities directly shape basic types of behaviour and contribute to
public participation in democratic development. The Government of the Republic of
Croatia manages and, through its bodies, coordinates and ensures harmonisation of all
forms of action associated with implementing the principles of sustainable
development.
1. Population
Situation
For a number of years Croatia has been characterised by unfavourable demographic
developments. This is manifested in an increase of ageing population, negative natural
growth rate, migrations during the Homeland War and ageing of the active working
population. According to the last 2001 census, Croatia had approximately 4.44 million
inhabitants, of which 56% lived in urban settlements. The birth rate in 2005 was 9.6%
while the natural growth rate was negative: -2.1?. According to the projections of the
mean fertility rate with migrations, by 2050 the total number of inhabitants in the 8
Republic of Croatia would be around 3.68 million, of which 80% would live in urban
settlements.
The age structure of the population between 1953 and 2001 has significantly changed
in the negative direction. In 1953, Croatia had a progressive population age structure of
the so called ?pyramid? type. In 1981 it took on the stagnating form of the ?beehive?
type and in 2001 it transformed into a regressive type by taking on the ?inverse
pyramid? form. The younger population spontaneously and rapidly migrated from
marginal and rural areas of the state, which is especially evident in highland areas and
areas affected by the Homeland War.
Due to the very low natural population growth and uneven population distribution,
almost all Croatian counties experience unfavourable demographic processes and the
distortion of the population age and gender structure. These processes are particularly
manifested in the migration of younger, fertile population from rural, remote and
economically underdeveloped areas to urban centres, which was especially noticeable
in the second half of the 20
th
century. The consequence of such migration processes is
a distorted structure of pre-working (age 0-14), working (age 15-64) and post-working
(age 65 and above) population and an unequal regional socio-economic development.
Overall Objective
? Prevent further decline in the natural increase of the population and negative
migration trends in order to sustain the population number of the Republic of
Croatia at a level higher than 4 million inhabitants by 2050, while raising the total
fertility rate from the present 1.38 to 1.88 or increasing the number of newborn
children from the present 42,500 to 60,000 per annum.
Activities or Measures to Achieve the Overall Objective with Specific Objectives
1. Increase the birth-rate through direct and indirect measures with a long-term goal
of balancing the age structure and sustaining the spatial and gender balance of the
population in the direction of increasing the proportion of younger population.
2. Through targeted activities at the level of the whole society and direct action in
specific areas, place the well-being of the family, children and young people at the
centre of general and special interests as a pledge of economic sustainability.
3. Create the preconditions for employment of young people and women by
implementing a good and sustainable economic policy.
4. Adopt and implement the housing strategy at the national, local and regional level,
particularly for young people entering the labour market and starting a family.
5. Raise the level of social security and quality of life of young married couples and
families in order to accomplish an expansive population policy through systematic 9
activities in the area of health, protection of maternity and child welfare,
development of family-oriented services, the system of family benefits, education,
housing care, tax reliefs and incentives, the reconciliation of work and family life,
employment and self-employment as well as economic development.
6. Encourage economic programmes aimed at developing and sustaining small
businesses and self-employment in areas affected by intense demographic
ageing, constructing roads for the purpose of improved and faster access to local
and regional urban centres and building a wider social infrastructure, and all for the
purpose of preventing further unfavourable migration processes.
7. Methodically direct the overall migration flows that will contribute to more
favourable demographic processes, particularly those focused on the return of
younger, recently migrated population.
Existing documents:
? National Population Policy
? National Family Policy of the Republic of Croatia
? National Island Development Programme
? National Demographic Development Programme
? Plan and Programme of Health Care on the Islands
Involved institutions:
? Ministry of Family, Veterans? Affairs and Intergenerational Solidarity
? Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
? Ministry of Science, Education and Sports
? Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship
? Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Development
? Ministry of Regional Development, Forestry and Water Management
? Ministry of Finance
? Ministry of Sea, Transport and Infrastructure
? Ministry of Tourism
? Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction
? Local and regional self-government
? Institutes
? Universities
? Expert institutions
? Non-governmental organisations 10
2. Environment and Natural Resources
Nature Protection
Nature protection is implemented through the conservation of biological and landscape
diversity and the protection of natural resources.
The total number of known species in Croatia is approximately 37,000, of which 1,136
are endemic. The conjecture that there is as much as three times more species
indicates the insufficient level of flora and fauna research. Considering the surface area
of Croatia, this is a significant number that places the Republic of Croatia among the
richest European countries in terms of biodiversity. In terms of diversity of plant
species, the Republic of Croatia (with 0.075 species/km
2
or 0.094 species/km
2
including subspecies) is third in Europe. Fauna of the Republic of Croatia is prolific in
bats (34 species) and birds (375 species) while all three species of large carnivores
(bear, wolf and lynx) are also present. The most under-researched species are moss,
fungi and lichen as well as invertebrate taxa. Among the researched plant and animal
groups (vertebrates, diurnal butterflies, dragonflies, subterranean fauna, vascular flora
and fungi), 1,131 species and subspecies are listed as endangered and protected
under law.
According to the national classification, habitats are categorized in 11 fundamental
classes, with particular specificity of those related to the sea, underground and karst
areas. Bogs, wetland and subterranean habitats are considered the most endangered.
The protected areas cover 8.54% of the total surface area of the Republic of Croatia, or
11.38% of its land area. 4.76% are national parks and nature parks. Until now, 461
protected areas, of which 9 under preventive protection, have been registered into the
Registry of Protected Natural Assets on the territory of the Republic of Croatia.
In order to preserve the biodiversity of wild taxa and habitats and to maintain or restore
a favourable conservation status of endangered habitat types and wild taxa, in addition
to the protected areas, the Ecological Network was proclaimed. It represents a system
of ecologically important areas and ecological corridors for which guidelines for
measures aimed at protecting the conservation objectives of the ecological network
were prescribed. In areas that are part of the Ecological Network of the Republic of
Croatia, each planned project, which by itself or in combination with other projects, may
have a significant impact on the conservation objectives of the ecological network is
subject to nature impact assessment, thus providing long-term preservation of the
favourable status of those areas (wild taxa and habitat types).
In spatial planning and development as well as in using natural resources, it is
necessary to provide for conservation of important and characteristic landscape
features as well as for maintenance of biological, geological and cultural values. 11
Landscapes are classified into landscape types. The rich landscape diversity is
endangered by monotonous and inconsistent urbanisation, inappropriate construction
locations and architecture, large infrastructural projects and agricultural activities.
Natural Resources
Natural resources include the entire area of the Republic of Croatia while special
protection is required for agricultural lands, forests and waters. The total surface area
of the Republic of Croatia is 87,661 km
2
, of which 56,594 km
2
is land, and 31,067 km
2
is
sea. In the structure of land surfaces, agricultural lands are prevailing. They amount to
29,557 km
2
. Forest surfaces cover 26,083 km
2
, and water surfaces (mostly lakes and
watercourses) cover 534 km
2
. The remaining 446 km
2
of land surface are settlements.
Croatian islands include almost all islands of the eastern Adriatic coast and its central
part thus forming the second largest Mediterranean archipelago. There are 1,185
islands, of which 47 inhabited, 651 uninhabited, 389 cliffs and 78 reefs. Islands cover
3,259 km
2
or 5.8% of Croatian land thus considerably contributing to the large surface
area of the territorial sea.
In order to preserve natural resources, various measures need to be implemented, first
and foremost demining measures. According to the report of the Croatian Demining
Centre concerning the implementation of the humanitarian demining plan and spent
funds allocated for 2006, the total mine suspected area amounted to 1,044 km
2
with a
decreasing tendency.
The reduction of agricultural land required for economic development of certain parts of
the Republic of Croatia occurred due to war destruction and building of roads,
settlements and economic structures. The sea coast is caught in the trend of
urbanisation, usurpation of the maritime demesne is frequent and the level of
harmonisation between economic and spatial planning is insufficient.
The Act on Physical Planning and Construction prescribes the rules of spatial planning
for the purpose of its protection and sustainable management and, in particular,
prescribes control and preservation measures for coastal and island areas from
unsuitable construction. All county, city and municipal spatial plans have been adopted.
The population density is significantly larger in the continental part (68% of the
population ? 94.40 pop./km
2
) than in the coastal part (32% of the population ? 57.76
pop./km
2
). Approximately 15% of the total length of the coastal line includes
construction areas where settlements are located and in which there is ongoing
construction of hospitality and catering and tourist facilities, nautical tourism ports and
economic structures and facilities whose business activity is associated with the
coastal belt. 12
Sea
The sea is a large and important area of the Republic of Croatia (35.4% of the total
surface area) both in relation to the protection of nature and the environment and the
conservation of biodiversity as well as in relation to a large number of various activities
(maritime transport, construction of transport and municipal infrastructure, tourism and
nautical tourism, economic activities associated with fisheries). All of the above is of
great importance and interest for the sustainable development of the Republic of
Croatia.
Forests
Forests and forest lands cover 47% of the territory of the Republic of Croatia or 26,083
km
2
. The state owns 74.09% of the total forest area and 25.91% is privately owned.
Natural forests make out 95% of Croatian forests. Out of the total forest area, 79% are
deciduous forests, 16% evergreen forests and 5% degraded forests. In 2004, the total
forest area devastated by fire was 2,889 ha. In comparison to European forests, forests
in the Republic of Croatia are in very good condition.
Agricultural land
Agricultural land covers 52.2% of the land area of the Republic of Croatia, of which
80% is privately owned and 20% is state owned. The land areas owned by the state
keep decreasing since the process of privatisation is still ongoing. A considerable part
of agricultural land is not used for cultivation which represents a good potential for a
significant increase in agricultural production, both for the food and non-food chain. Out
of the total of 29,557 km
2
, potentially arable land amounts to 21,491 km
2
, and
permanently non-arable soils, due to their unfavourable physical and chemical
properties, cover 8,066 km
2
. From the potentially arable land, currently only 10,920 km
2
is cultivated, while 1,100 km
2
is used as pastures. In any case, the available
agricultural land is poorly used with a low level of agricultural production. The
consequences of this situation are well-known: lack of required agricultural products,
large imports of food products and high prices. An increase in agricultural production
may be achieved by utilising the existing potentially arable 9,471 km
2
of land (prior to
that, melioration measures must be implemented in one part of those lands) as well as
by implementing modern technologies of sustainable agriculture on arable lands
already cultivated.
Overall Objectives
? Effective protection of biological and landscape diversity by implementing and
improving the present and adopting new regulations as well as by rational
management and protection of natural resources, application of advanced 13
technologies, integration of the nature protection policy in development policies of
individual sectors, together with monitoring of environmental pressures and with
expert supervision.
? Implementation of sustainable agricultural production in the sense of using
agricultural land in accordance with the principles of sustainable soil management.
? Use of forest and forest land products in accordance with the principles of
sustainable forest management.
? Strengthening the spatial development structure by supporting balanced polycentric
development based on providing quality infrastructure, creating a network of small
and medium-sized towns and respecting the specificities of natural and cultural
heritage as important factors of national spatial identity.
Activities or Measures for Achieving Overall Objectives with Specific Objectives
1. Prevent the loss of terrestrial biodiversity.
2. Reduce the loss of marine and coastal biodiversity and increase the number of
protected areas.
3. Carry out comprehensive inventorying and map the distribution of species,
continuously monitor and assess the status of endangerment, prepare and
implement action plans for protection and develop mechanisms for their
implementation.
4. Adopt a regulation to establish the landscape management plan for the Republic
of Croatia.
5. In spatial planning and development and in planning and using natural resources,
provide for conservation of important and characteristic landscape features as well
as maintenance of the biological, geological and cultural values which represent a
defining part of its importance and beauty.
6. Sanction any unacceptable behaviour by enforcing laws and economic
instruments and secure the integration of measures to preserve and improve the
overall biodiversity in all economic activities that use biological resources.
7. Promote restoration initiatives for agricultural and degraded forest lands in order to
restore their ecological functions and capacity to contribute to a sustainable rural
economy.
8. Encourage cultivation on the existing potentially arable agricultural lands while
implementing required melioration measures in order to achieve sustainable
agriculture and increased production of necessary products.
9. Demine all mine infested areas as soon as possible. 14
10. Reduce exports of wood raw material (logs) by use for other purposes (for
example, by stimulating furniture manufacturing plants).
12. Provide economic measures to ensure utilisation of abandoned spatial reserves
through revitalisation of derelict urban lands and transformation and remediation
of industrial zones with shut-down factories and support better use of urban areas
through their internal development.
13. Base spatial use on comprehensive management, not only by placing it under
protection.
14. In planning the development of settlements, endeavour to reduce the growth of
large cities and to functionally equip medium-sized and smaller towns with 7,000
to 30,000 inhabitants.
15. Promote development models which, in line with spatial features, improve the
space while preserving the physical and ecological integrity of resource areas.
16. Develop large infrastructural systems through the functional integration of the
territory of the Republic of Croatia.
Existing documents:
? National Strategy and Action Plan for the Protection of Biological and Landscape
Diversity of the Republic of Croatia
? Environmental Protection Programmes of counties and the City of Zagreb
? National Environmental Protection Strategy and National Environmental Action
Plan
? National Forestry Policy and Strategy
? National Project for Irrigation and Management of Agricultural Land and Waters in
the Republic of Croatia
? Strategic Development Framework for 2006 - 2013
? Physical Planning Strategy of the Republic of Croatia
? Physical Planning Programme of the Republic of Croatia
? Croatia in the 21st century ? Agriculture and Fisheries Strategy of the Republic of
Croatia
? Strategic Coherence Framework 2007 ? 2013
Involved institutions:
? Ministry of Culture
? Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction
? Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Development
? Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship
? Ministry of Sea, Transport and Infrastructure 15
? Ministry of Regional Development, Forestry and Water Management
? Ministry of Finance
? Central Office for Development Strategy and Coordination of EU Funds
? Local and regional self-government
? Croatian Environment Agency
? State Institute for Nature Protection
? Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund
? Hrvatske ?ume (Croatian Forests)
? Hrvatske vode (Croatian Waters)
? Institutes
? Public Institutions for the Management of Protected Natural Values (national parks,
nature parks, county public institutions)
? Universities
? Expert institutions
? Non-governmental organisations
Other Environmental Components
Air
In comparison to other European countries, Croatia has low emissions per capita and
relatively low greenhouse gas emissions. Because of economic rehabilitation in the
period 1996-2003, emissions increased by an annual average of 3.6%. In recent years
there has been a trend of air quality improvement in cities where the main problems are
nitrogen oxide and particulate matter. Outside urban areas there are elevated
concentrations of ground-level ozone and excessive nitrogen deposition.
Croatia receives more transboundary pollution than it exports. The national network for
permanent air quality monitoring has been established, but it needs to be significantly
upgraded.
Soil
Out of the total land area of the Republic of Croatia, 52.2% is covered by agricultural
land, 46.1% by forests and 6.0% by barren land. More significant soil pollution has
been registered; in 2005, there were 1,151 potentially polluted sites while pollution has
been found in 38 of those sites. Pollution is related to illegal municipal waste landfills
(of which 299 are currently under remediation), hazardous industrial waste landfills
whose remediation has just started, increased industrial activity, mineral extraction
sites and areas in which military warehouses are located.
Water 16
Total renewable water sources per capita amount to 35,200 m
3
. Freshwater reserves
are relatively high, 90% of water supply is received from groundwater reserves.
Connection rate to the public water supply system is 78% and to public sewage
systems 43%. The Republic of Croatia has a total of 32,000 km of national
watercourses of first and second rank (in first rank, 73% is fully maintained, 24%
partially and 3% is not maintained, in second rank, 75% is fully maintained, other
partially or not maintained). Water sources (ground and surface waters) that are used
or reserved to be used for public water supply are protected against contamination or
other impacts that may adversely affect water health standard or yield. The basic
prerequisite for implementing water source protection is to establish and maintain
protected areas (sanitary protection zones) of freshwater sources for public water
supply. An important protection measure for drinking water aquifers is to adopt and
implement decisions on sanitary protection zones, which include approx. 52% of the
total of approx. 426 water abstraction sites used to abstract 80% of the water. Sanitary
protection zones (proclaimed and proposed) at this moment cover approx. 10,552 km
2
,
or approx. 19% of the area of Croatia.
Definition and protection of strategic reserves of groundwater will fulfil the long-term
requirements of public water supply in the whole territory of Croatia. By including these
areas in spatial plans and defining their protection, prerequisites for appropriate use of
those areas will be ensured both for all water management activities as well as for all
other activities that may jeopardize the preservation of this extremely significant
resource.
Groundwater is primarily used for public water supply and its quality is principally
evaluated according to the indicators set in the Ordinance on sanitary quality of
drinking water.
The current status of preventive flood protection is not satisfying. The number of urban
wastewater treatment facilities and adequate devices for efficient pre-treatment of
industrial wastewaters is insufficient.
The management of river basin districts represents the basis for successful sustainable
water management that implies the identification of river basin districts, as
management units, retaining the internal division of river basin districts to smaller
administrative units (catchment areas harmonised with territorial-administrative
organisation, if possible) for the purpose of easier performance of operative water
management activities.
For the management of river catchment areas, the following river basin districts are
established: the Black Sea catchment area and the Adriatic catchment area. 17
Overall Objectives
? Reduce harmful emissions into the main environmental components to the smallest
extent possible and particularly provide protection against pollution of groundwater
i.e. freshwater reserves.
? In planning economic activities and especially exploitation projects, rational use of
non-renewable natural resources and sustainable use of renewable natural
resources must be ensured.
Activities or Measures to Achieve Overall Objectives with Specific Objectives
1. Adopt the Soil Protection Act and the Soil Protection Information System.
2. Perform inventorying for the soil and land database.
3. Identify high-quality lands for agricultural use and protect and preserve them.
4. Expand protected areas to ensure sufficient natural resources for the use of local
communities with a long-term objective to protect 15-20% of the surface area of
the Republic of Croatia.
5. Preserve water quality and prevent pollution, including wastewater treatment,
improve the national level of coverage by the public water supply (increase the
supply rate to 85-90%), improve the level of wastewater treatment and sewage
network availability, increase the quality of the flood protection system, take
account of renewability of resources and increase protection of sensitive aquatic
and water-dependent ecosystems as well as marine and coastal ecosystems.
6. Regulate transboundary water system pollution that leads to the pollution of marine
ecosystems.
7. Use a multidisciplinary approach to explore options for rational exploitation of
valuable minerals in strategically important regions of the Republic of Croatia while
respecting the principles of sustainable development.
8. Reduce emissions of harmful gases, causal agents of photochemical smog and
tropospheric ozone, phasing out of substances that deplete the ozone layer and
implement air quality improvement programmes.
9. Establish quality foundations for implementing sustainable soil management and
protection and prepare the Soil Protection Strategy and Soil and Land Sustainable
Management Plan.
10. Establish foundations for sustainable use of renewable natural resources and
rational use of non-renewable natural resources and prepare the Strategy for
Sustainable Use of Renewable and Non-renewable Natural Resources.
Existing documents: 18
? National Environmental Protection Strategy and National Environmental Action
Plan
? National Air Quality Protection and Improvement Plan in the Republic of Croatia for
the Period 2008-2011
? Water Management Strategy
Involved institutions:
? Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction
? Ministry of Culture
? Ministry of Regional Development, Forestry and Water Management
? Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Development
? Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship
? Ministry of Sea, Transport and Infrastructure
? Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
? Ministry of Science, Education and Sports
? Ministry of Finance
? Local and regional self-government
? Croatian Environment Agency
? National Meteorological and Hydrological Service
? Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund
? Hrvatske vode (Croatian Waters)
? Institutes
? Universities
? Expert institutions
? Non-governmental organisations
3. Sustainable Production and Consumption
Situation
Sustainable production and consumption is aimed at satisfying basic human needs and
improving the quality of life in such a way so as to minimise the use of natural
resources, generation of toxic substances, emissions into the air, water and soil and to
prevent or reduce the generation of waste at the point of origin throughout the whole
product lifecycle in order not to compromise the needs of future generations. While
sustainable production refers solely to the production process i.e. producers and takes
into account economic, social and environmental impacts of the production process,
sustainable consumption refers evenly to the production as well as the consumption
part of the process meaning that the responsibility for sustainable consumption lies 19
equally on both producers and consumers. Producers should strive for a production
process that would not only create quality and lasting products, but would also make
the methodology of that process such that it uses an optimum quantity of
environmentally acceptable resources and that those resources are used to their
maximum. On the other hand, consumers, with their proper selection of products and
moderation in their use (and appropriate disposal of the waste left after using that
product) as well as with their rational and moderate consumption of basic resources
(water, gas, electricity), should contribute to changing current unsustainable
consumption patterns.
For a long time it was considered that a significant part of production process issues
associated with the environment will be solved with the use of advanced technologies,
but today it is clear that this is not the case. The assumption that new technologies
enable a simpler and more cost-effective production and thus significantly affect the
reduction of negative impacts of the production process on the environment is correct.
However, this unfortunately leads to a rebound effect.
1
The Republic of Croatia is a small and open economy largely linked to other foreign
markets. The average annual GDP growth rate is around 4%, while the inflation rate is
relatively low. The Republic of Croatia registered an industrial production growth and
positive tourism trends. Agriculture, hunting and fisheries contribute 6.5% in GDP and,
together with the food industry (production of food, drink and tobacco products), the
share in GDP reaches 9.93%. From 1993 to 2008, more than 19.5 billion euro of direct
foreign investments were registered, but the industry, agriculture, food production and
construction still attract low investment interest. The Republic of Croatia is a net
importer of agricultural and food products. Although an imports growth of agricultural
and food products is registered, exports are growing as well.
In agricultural foreign trade, the import-export coverage rate is larger than in nonagricultural foreign trade (64.4% in relation to 46.7% in 2006). The development of
sustainable agricultural production is not sufficiently encouraged. According to the
statistical chronicle published in 2004, the GDP share of ecological (organic)
agriculture was only 0.23%. In 2007, areas used for ecological agriculture covered
7,577 ha (without bee-pastures) or 0.68% of the total arable land in Croatia. In the last
five years, the production of fish products decreased. More and more food companies
use the new international standard for food quality and safety ISO 22000. This

1
Rebound effect ? by accelerating and simplifying the production process, products become
cheaper and therefore more available thus increasing their consumption and, consequently, the
production itself. This in turn leads to generating larger quantities of waste and larger total
consumption of resources used in production while products, due to increased production
intensity, exponentially lose quality and their lifecycle is reduced. 20
standard includes the principles of system management system and implementation of
hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP).
Legislation that regulates the issue of genetically modified food (GMO) differs
considerably in countries around the world. In the Environmental Protection Act, the
Republic of Croatia regulates the issue of protection against adverse effects of
genetically modified organisms, which includes measures of preventing introduction
into the environment and placement on the market of GMOs and of products which
contain GMOs, are composed of and/or originate from GMOs contrary to the provisions
of a special regulation. Furthermore, modern biotechnology should be used with a
maximum degree of caution and with maximum possible protection of human health,
consumer interests and preservation of the environment and natural assets. Strict
GMO regulations governing the procedures of using GMOs for research purposes must
be followed.
With increasing awareness on the importance of ecological efficiency as a prerequisite
of entry into more demanding markets, the number of companies certified according to
the standard HRN EN ISO 14001 for Environmental Management Systems (EMS),
particularly in industrial sector companies and large energy producers, is increasing
and positive steps forward are also visible in the implementation of cleaner production
projects.
The establishment of the Environmental Information System (EIS) as a set of
interconnected electronic databases and sources of data on the environmental status
resulted in the monitoring of individual environmental components, environmental
pressures, environmental status, spatial features, climate and waste.
Clearly, it is precisely this challenge of sustainability, sustainable consumption and
production, where the influence of various stakeholders on processes is most
pronounced. Citizens i.e. consumers are as equally important stakeholders as
producers because they have an opportunity to direct and encourage processes, for
instance by selecting products manufactured in accordance with the principles of
sustainability. Naturally, the responsibility to ensure transparency of the production
process and of the total consumption of resources used to produce a particular
product
2
as well as of the product composition lies on the legislator in the sense of
forming a legislative framework that obliges the producer to do so, and on the producer

2
In the course of any production process, a certain quantity of resources is used. But it should
not be forgotten that, apart from materials which were incorporated into the product itself,
there is a whole line of secondary, indirect resource expenditures such as electricity, water, fuel
(during transport of basic resources, transport of products to distribution network), etc. The
total sum of all consumed resources in the production of a particular product is called the
ecological footprint.
.
21
who is obliged to comply with legal acts and principles of responsible business
conduct.
In order to achieve recognisability of products or services, which in their entire lifecycle
(consumption of raw materials and energy; emissions into air, soil, water; use; waste
generation; option of recycling, as well as the option and necessity of disposal) place
less burden on the environment, producers/distributors and service providers use the
environmental label (eco-label). With this label, producers/distributors and service
providers demonstrate their positive relationship with the environment and at the same
time this environmental label is an indicator for consumers to make the best choice with
regard to the environment.
Overall Objective
? Achieve balanced and stable economic growth which would have less impact on
further environmental degradation and waste generation than it has now. Growth
must be followed by a change in unsustainable behaviour patterns in households
and in both public and private sectors.
Activities or Measures to Achieve the Overall Objective with Specific Objectives
1. Elaborate all elements and implement a regulatory framework which encourages
market supply of sustainable products and services in the market.
2. Increase the share of arable land from the present 1,092,000 ha to 1,800,000 ha,
by using uncultivated land that presently amounts to 947,000 ha.
3. Increase livestock production to the pre-war level, with application of new
technologies based on the principles of sustainable agriculture.
4. Sustainable management of fish resources.
5. By 2013 increase the share of areas used for ecological production (including
pastures and forests) to at least 5% and support the development of the market for
ecological products.
6. Encourage the development of ecological food production and ensure sufficient
quantities of high-quality food, attract tourists, develop ecotourism and agrotourism, ensure exports of recognisable national products.
7. Achieve competitiveness and enter more demanding markets by increasing
efficiency while at the same time decreasing human and environmental risks and
by incorporating the principles of socially responsible and transparent business
practice and stakeholder interaction.
8. Integrate cleaner production programmes in production processes, products and
services. 22
9. Promote and encourage the use of the environmental label.
10. For more efficient environmental management and public information on the
effects of certain activities on the environment, through benefits and incentives
ensure inclusion of a larger number of organisations into the EMAS scheme (EcoManagement and Audit Scheme).
11. By informing and educating consumers and the business sector on the quality of
particular products and services, promote the selection of sustainable products and
services and develop environmental responsibility; the price of a product must
reflect its impact on the environment.
12. Promote corporate social responsibility.
13. Through introducing sustainability in public procurement, promote environmentally
responsible behaviour and the best selection of products according to: best value
for money (price, quality, availability, and functionality), environmental aspects
throughout the product lifecycle and social aspects (poverty eradication, work
conditions, respect for fundamental rights).
14. By 2015 break the link between waste production and economic growth and
achieve significant reduction in quantities of produced waste via initiatives for
preventing waste generation, increase the recycling rate, remediate the existing
landfills and build waste management centres, establish an integrated waste
management information system.
15. By 2010 reduce quantities of finally landfilled waste as well as generated
hazardous waste by approx. 20% in comparison to 2000.
16. In line with changes in consumption patterns in the developed world, invest in
scientific research and application of cleaner and ecologically more efficient
technologies with reduced use of natural resources, reducing emissions and waste
quantities as well as health and safety risks.
17. Develop tourism in accordance with construction criteria, spatial plans and
accommodation capacity and efficient adjustment to restrictions and opportunities
offered by protected areas, with the aim to preserve biodiversity, natural and
cultural heritage is the basic starting point for the sustainable development of
tourism.
18. Implement national economic measures that force economic subjects to pay
charges for burdening the environment.
19. Establish financial mechanisms to reduce excessive consumption of resources.
Existing documents:
? Strategic Development Framework for 2006 - 2013 23
? Programme of the Government of the Republic of Croatia for the Period 2008 ?
2011
? Pre-accession Economic Programme 2008 ? 2010
? Industrial Policy of the Republic of Croatia in Preparation for EU Accession
? National Environmental Protection Strategy and National Environmental Action
Plan
? Waste Management Strategy
? Croatia in the 21st century ? Agriculture and Fisheries Strategy of the Republic of
Croatia
? Croatian Tourism Development Strategy for the Period up to 2010
? Croatian Export Offensive ? strategy for the period 2007 ? 2010
Involved institutions:
? Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship
? Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction
? Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Development
? Ministry of Regional Development, Forestry and Water Management
? Ministry of Sea, Transport and Infrastructure
? Ministry of Tourism
? Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
? Ministry of Finance
? Central Office for Development Strategy and Coordination of EU Funds
? Local and regional self-government
? Croatian Environment Agency
? Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund
? Croatian Cleaner Production Centre
? Croatian Chamber of Economy
? Croatian Chamber of Trades and Crafts
? Croatian Employers? Association
? Institutes
? Universities
? Expert institutions
? Non-governmental organisations.
4. Social Cohesion and Justice
Situation 24
The principal characteristics are: ageing population, increasing number of single
households and couples without children, changes in lifestyle and gender roles, higher
divorce rates, migrations from rural to urban areas, new challenges regarding the
protection of human safety against violence and crime. Social sustainable development
is based on social equity and cohesion. A sustainable society is a society that respects
differences within a framework of democratic values, in which any individual,
regardless of gender and origin, has equal rights and opportunities to actively and
responsibly participate under conditions which advance or ensure social security,
human health and legal protection.
Due to the unfavourable age structure and the decreased number of the working
population, the dependent population is increasing, while the working population is
decreasing. Although the rate of unemployed persons in the active working population
has been decreasing since 2004, neither all parts of the Republic of Croatia nor all
unemployed persons are in an equal position. The highest unemployment rate is in
Vukovar-Srijem County and Sisak-Moslavina County, and the lowest in Istria County
and the City of Zagreb. Persons with lower qualifications have the most difficulty in
finding employment. The risk of poverty and social exclusion, apart from the
unemployed, principally affects senior and single households followed by households
with a larger number of children, homeless persons, etc. In relation to the regional
distribution, vulnerability to poverty is primarily associated with rural areas. In those
areas poverty rate levels are three times higher than those in urban areas. It is
estimated that 10% of the population of the Republic of Croatia is socially excluded.
Overall Objective
? Achieve a socially inclusive society that is characterised by solidarity within and
among generations and where differences are respected within a framework of
democratic values, in which any individual, regardless of gender and origin, has
equal rights and opportunities to actively and responsibly participate under
conditions which advance or ensure social security, human health and legal
protection.
Activities or Measures to Achieve the Overall Objective with Specific Objectives
1. Improve the educational structure of the population and bring education into line
with the labour market requirements. Use active forms of assistance to increase
the employment rate of persons with low qualifications or with knowledge and skills
currently not in demand on the market.
2. Devote special attention to the protection of childhood and development of
children. 25
3. By increasing the quality of the entire educational system, make it available to
everyone and improve education by continuous in-service training of teaching staff
in the territory of the Republic of Croatia.
4. Provide access to education for the whole population, together with systematic
promotion of adult education, primarily by increasing the availability of education
through introduction of e-learning and investments in lifelong learning.
5. By using information and communication technologies (ICT), equalize the quality
of education throughout the country and increase the availability of educational
materials on the internet.
6. By directing labour market policies towards the issues of vulnerable groups (longterm or periodically unemployed persons, persons over the age of 55, young
people who finished or left school, persons with disabilities, minority groups,
former addicts), increase the employment rate and create better opportunities for
their employment.
7. Promote examples of good practice in companies that respect the human rights of
their employees and fight against discrimination.
8. Secure a better position for women in all segments of society and promote their
increased participation in decision-making at all levels.
9. Increase and facilitate the employment of women and the growth of two-income
households through improving the child care system and making it more available
by increasing the number of infant nurseries, kindergartens and after-school care.
10. Increase employment opportunities for persons with disabilities thus enabling them
to autonomously control the conditions of their own lives.
11. Ensure progressive growth of pensions.
12. Implement and further develop measures for integration of Roma/minority
members in the labour market by their involvement in education and training and
vocational training programmes, counselling on job search, etc.
13. Revitalise deprived areas (areas of special state concern, islands, hilly and
mountainous areas, border areas) through projects of general economic
significance and balance the regional development of Croatia: through support
projects for rural areas, especially for the transformation of inefficient agriculture,
employment of women in rural areas, implementing the active labour market
policy, improved transport connections between the islands and mainland.
14. Achieve equality of social welfare services in all parts of Croatia.
15. Develop economic projects according to local conditions, in agreement with county
development strategies or regional operative programmes. 26
16. Optimise health care conditions - equal access to and quality of health services,
without differences between regional or population groups.
17. Complete the reconstruction of housing damaged or destroyed in the war, and
continue to invest funds in reconstruction and construction programmes for public
utilities and social infrastructure and in social economic regeneration in the areas
of return i.e. areas of special state concern.
18. Improve the housing standard.
19. Improve the material and social position of war veterans and their families.
20. Strengthen the concept of family and its role in child development by establishing
family centres.
21. By implementing action plans and by transposing the European Union?s social
policy objectives into national policy, encourage the fight against poverty and
social exclusion through the participation of state administration bodies, regional
and local self-government units, social partners, civil society organisations,
scientific and expert institutions, social welfare institutions and the media.
Existing documents:
? Joint Memorandum on Social Inclusion of the Republic of Croatia
? Development Strategy of the Republic of Croatia "Croatia in the 21st century" ?
Pension System and Social Welfare System Development Strategy
? Strategic Development Framework for 2006 - 2013
? National Employment Action Plan for the Period 2005 - 2008
? National Strategy for Protection against Domestic Violence in 2005-2007 and
National Strategy for Protection against Domestic Violence in 2008-2010
? National Policy for the Promotion of Gender Equality 2006-2010
? Adult Education Strategy and Action Plan
? National Strategy for a Uniform Policy for Persons with Disabilities 2003-2006
? National Strategy for the Development of an Enabling Framework for Civil Society
Development
? National Programme for Psychosocial and Mental Health Care for Victims of and
Participants in the Homeland War
? National Programme for the Roma
? National Strategy for Prevention of Substance Abuse in the Republic of Croatia for
2006-2012
? National Anti-Corruption Programme and Action Plan for the Fight against
Corruption.
? National Health Development Strategy 2006-2011 27
? National Strategy for Equal Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities 2007-2015
? Social Benefits Reform Strategy of the Government of the Republic of Croatia
2007-2008
? Strategic Coherence Framework 2007 ? 2013
Involved institutions:
? Ministry of Family, Veterans? Affairs and Intergenerational Solidarity
? Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
? Ministry of Finance
? Ministry of Justice
? Ministry of Science, Education and Sports
? Central Office for Development Strategy and Coordination of EU Funds
? Local and regional self-government
? Institutes
? Universities
? Expert institutions
? Non-governmental organisations.
5. Energy
Energy indicators of the Republic of Croatia show a deficiency in available energy
resources and production capacities; the energy consumption growth rate is
approximately 4-5%. The trend of increasing energy efficiency continues with only
0.43% of energy consumption growth against 4.3% of GDP growth. The energy
consumption growth of 19% in the last decade occurred with only minor changes in
consumption structure, decrease in the share of water power, increase in the share of
coal and decrease in the share of gas. The absence of new sources of imported gas,
off-market prices, etc. affected the decrease of the share of gas in total energy
consumption even with the increase of domestic production in north Adriatic gas fields.
Domestic production in 2004 covered 61% of the total gas consumption which
amounted to 2.88 billion cubic metres.
The largest consumption (22.6%) still occurs in households. Public cogeneration plants
are the second largest gas consumer (16%), followed by industrial cogeneration plants,
construction material industry, etc. In 2006, the Republic of Croatia?s own production of
primary energy satisfied 50.6% of its energy requirements. The most significant share
of domestic production relates to natural gas (37%), followed by water power (34%)
and crude oil (21%). 28
Renewable energy sources do not have an appropriate share or position in the energy
structure of the Republic of Croatia, regardless of their great importance and availability
(especially solar energy, wind energy and biomass). The share of renewable energy in
electrical energy production (excluding hydro power plants) is less than 1%. Out of the
total electrical energy production, which in 2006 amounted to 14.15 TWh (including
Nuclear Power Plant Kr?ko), 6.08 GWh (43%) was produced in hydro power plants,
110 GWh in small hydro power plants, 6.0 GWh from biomass, 19 GWh in wind power
plants and 0.05 GWh in solar power plants.
Overall energy demands are increasing, led by the growing services sector of the
economy, an activity based on the quality of offer which is, however, possible only with
increased energy consumption. Emissions generated by fuel combustion have a
predominant share in overall emissions of SO2, CO2, NOx and particulate matter. In
2006 greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 30,834 Gg CO2-eq., especially the share
of CO2 which in the total greenhouse gas emission in 2006 amounted to 77%.
Observed by sectors, the highest contribution to greenhouse gas emissions comes
from the energy sector (73.1%).
Overall Objective
? Ensure quality and security of energy supply along with the necessary reduction of
adverse impacts on the environment and society.
Activities or Measures to Achieve the Overall Objective with Specific Objectives
1. By 2020 increase the share of renewable energy (excluding hydro power plants
exceeding 10 MW) in the overall consumption to 20%.
2. Ensure 12% of the average energy consumption and 21% of the electrical energy
consumption from renewable sources.
3. Reduce indirect consumption by 9% until 2006 in relation to the average 2001 ?
2005.
4. By 2012 reduce the primary energy consumption by 20%.
5. Decrease the energy intensity per unit of GDP until 2015 in the range of 1-2% per
year. A desirable goal for renewable energy would be to satisfy 7% of the overall
energy demand in this way by 2015, excluding combustible renewables and waste.
6. By 2015 (in comparison with 1990), the number of households without access to
electrical energy should be reduced by 50%.
7. Use regulations to define the requirements of energy efficiency and environmental
acceptability that must be met by energy facilities, new industrial installations and
certain production, service and trade companies. 29
8. Introduce the energy efficiency certification for products used in building
construction and industry.
9. Increase the use of geothermal energy.
Existing Documents:
? Energy Development Strategy of the Republic of Croatia
? Strategy for the Use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas on the Adriatic Islands for the
Period 2008 - 2012
? National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2008 - 2010
? National Air Quality Protection and Improvement Plan in the Republic of Croatia for
the Period 2008-2011
Involved Institutions:
? Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship
? Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction
? Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Development
? Ministry of Sea, Transport and Infrastructure
? Ministry of Science, Education and Sports
? Ministry of Finance
? Local and regional self-government
? Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund
? Institutes
? Universities
? Expert institutions
? Non-governmental organisations.
6. Public Health
Health care institutions are established with the goal of monitoring general and specific
health indicators in the area of public health, occupational medicine, transfusion
medicine and mental health and their activities are, inter alia, focused on the prevention
of contagious and chronic diseases and the promotion of healthy lifestyles. The
Republic of Croatia has a lower overall mortality rate than the regional average and
higher than the EU average. The leading causes of death are cardiovascular and
cerebrovascular diseases, with a significant share in premature deaths, diseases and
disabilities. In 2003, 53% of all deaths were attributed to those diseases. The second
most significant cause of death is malignant diseases, attributing to 24% of all deaths in
2003. Every year 20,000 new patients are diagnosed with those diseases, excluding
skin cancer. The most frequent form of cancer in men is bronchial and lung cancer and 30
in women breast cancer. Third on the list of leading causes of death is injuries and
accidents with the share of 5.4% in the total number of deaths. The infant mortality rate
in the Republic of Croatia is gradually decreasing and in 2003 was 6.3%. According to
this indicator, the Republic of Croatia is above the average of EU countries.
The status of contagious diseases as well as their control may be evaluated as
relatively favourable.
Coverage of the population connected to public water supply systems has been
increased and is now 76% with significant regional disparities while the percentage of
the population connected to public sewage systems, which was 43% in 2003, has also
been increased
For the period from 1996 to 2005, the Republic of Croatia allocated around 8% for
health services, which is somewhat lower than the average of old and somewhat larger
than the average of new EU member states.
Overall Objective
? Preserve and improve health of the entire population by ensuring timely access to
health services by means of scientifically based programmes for disease prevention
and control and health promotion.
Activities or Measures to Achieve the Overall Objective with Specific Objectives
1. Improve and develop health education of citizens and enable increased public
participation and influence in order to ensure safe and favourable conditions for
children, improving health at work, efficient protection from transmitted diseases,
healthier eating habits and lifestyles, including physical activity and reduction of
tobacco and alcohol use.
2. Improve cooperation with other sectors in the field of health promotion.
3. Reorganise the public health care system so that it becomes the foremost
proponent of preventive activities and of systematic implementation of preventive
programmes.
4. In the reorganisation of the health care system, ensure the conditions for
increasing the quality of work in primary health protection with the goal of
unburdening secondary health protection.
5. Improve the transplantation programme.
6. Improve communication skills programmes for health care employees.
7. Prepare the National Public Health Programme.
8. Equalise the level of health care services in assisted areas (areas of special state
concern, hilly and mountainous areas and islands) with those in the rest of the
Republic of Croatia. 31
9. Establish a system of categorisation and accreditation in the health care system.
10. Improve the system for monitoring the health situation in the Republic of Croatia.
11. Ensure the monitoring of environmental effects on the health of the population by
strengthening the public health and health ecology network and developing a
public health information system.
12. Establish a system for public health preparedness and response to all incidents
involving biological, chemical or nuclear agents.
13. Strengthen the system of quality control and sanitary safety of food, drinking water
and general consumption items.
14. Ensure adequate hospital capacities.
15. Improve the health protection and safety at work system.
16. Prepare programmes for protecting public health from adverse effects of air
pollution in industrial and urban areas.
17. Improve the transfusion medicine system.
18. Improve safety in handling hazardous chemicals.
19. Improve the system of control and marketing of medicines and immunological
products.
Existing Documents:
? National Health Development Strategy 2006-2011
? National Strategy for Substance Abuse Prevention in the Republic of Croatia for
2006-2012
? National Pandemic Flu Preparedness Programme
? National Programme of Early Detection of Colon Cancer
? National Programme of Early Detection of Breast Cancer
? National Programme of Early Detection of Cervical Cancer
? National Health Care Programme for Persons with Diabetes with Special Emphasis
on Disease Prevention
Involved Institutions:
? Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
? Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Development
? Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction
? Ministry of Finance
? Ministry of Science, Education and Sports
? Local and regional self-government
? Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Health
? Agency for Medicinal Products and Medical Devices 32
? Croatian National Institute of Public Health and county public health institutes
? Croatian Institute for Occupational Health and Safety
? Croatian Institute for Mental Health
? Croatian Institute for Transfusion Medicine
? Institute for Telemedicine
? National Institute for Toxicology
? Croatian Food Agency
? Institutes
? Universities
? Expert and expert institutions
? Non-governmental organisations
7. Connecting Croatia
Situation
A developed transport infrastructure is the basic precondition for overall development
of the Republic of Croatia because it strengthens its competitiveness, decreases traffic
isolation and creates the preconditions for balanced regional development. It is
especially important for economic growth as well as for social integration as an
important element of social equality and justice.
Balanced regional as well as endogenous territorial development is achieved through a
territorial cohesion policy which is closely connected to the transport policy. Territorial
cohesion recognises mobility and good transport infrastructure as key factors for
increasing the competitiveness of European regions and countries while taking account
of economic efficiency, social cohesion and ecological balance.
The Republic of Croatia has achieved a high level of development of the motorway
network, but state, county and local roads require further development. The length of
railway lines in the Republic of Croatia exceeds the European average, however, their
further modernisation and expansion is a precondition for development.
Additionally, transport connection of islands with the mainland as well as their mutual
interconnection is insufficient and does not ensure the sustainable development of
islands.
The development of the transport infrastructure must serve the country?s sustainable
and balanced development. The planning and construction of the transport system
must be performed cautiously with respect for the environment and moderate use of
natural resources. Along with transport development, emissions of gas (particularly
CO2 and NOx) and other pollutants must be reduced. At this time, greenhouse gas 33
emissions from road transport in the world and the European Union are increasing too
rapidly because the share of railway and inland waterways transport is inadequate. It is
necessary to redirect road transport to more energy efficient and environment friendly
modes of transport. In 2007, railway transport of passengers and goods increased
while the number of passengers in road transport decreased. However, the transport of
goods increased. To solve the problems of urban and suburban transport, it is
necessary to develop a system of instruments and measures to encourage the use of
public transport networks, and, in the function of regional, urban and suburban
transport in larger towns, it is necessary to strengthen the use of non-road forms of
transport, especially rail transport. The contribution of inland waterways transport to
sustainable development manifests itself in a low percentage of toxic emissions into the
atmosphere and efficient use of non-renewable energy sources. Results show that river
transport has the best investment/return ratio i.e. the longest distance can be covered
with the same amount of energy per tonne of transported cargo. Consequently,
waterways become part of an integral water management plan in order to preserve
their biodiversity and ecological value. The development of the transport system must
meet the basic needs of individuals and society in a safe manner.
Overall Objective
? Improved interconnection of all parts of the national territory and islands and the
mainland so as to make the transport system sufficient for all economic, social and
environmental needs of the Republic of Croatia while minimising their undesirable
impacts on the economy, society and environment.
? Through territorial cohesion develop an integrated approach to the issue of
accessibility and interconnection in order to achieve the best use of development
features specific to different parts of the country.
Activities or Measures to Achieve the Overall Objective with Specific Objectives
1. Promote the use of cleaner fuels and technologies and transfer to those forms of
transport that use energy efficiently.
2. Redirect transport from roads to more environmentally acceptable systems - sea,
inland waterways, railway and short sea shipping.
3
3. Enhance collective transport and the selection of transport options by raising the
quality of public transport as well as of bicycle and pedestrian zones.
4. Limit access to vehicles (pedestrian zones, limited parking zones, etc.).
5. Encourage energy efficient use of private vehicles (fuel efficiency, energy efficient
driving, etc.)

3
Short Sea Shipping ? the movement of freight along coasts34
6. Increase investments in the development of the railway infrastructure by ensuring
the competitiveness of Croatian Railways with other types of transport, develop
and build suburban railway infrastructure and increase efficiency and reliability of
railway transport.
7. Increase investments in the modernisation and development of the port
infrastructure and standards for maritime safety and protection against pollution.
8. Continue to develop the network of county and local roads.
9. Use telecommunications to reduce physical transport (telecommuting, internet
business, performance of public administration-related activities, telemedicine,
etc.).
10. Increase safety and investments in the infrastructure to promote walking and
bicycle use.
11. Plan cities in a way to reduce the need for physical transport of persons and goods
(grouping of public administration offices, etc.).
12. Direct the development of the transport infrastructure towards increasing the
integration and interconnection of the entire internal transport system to ensure
better access to European transport corridors and better integration into the
transport network of neighbouring countries, while respecting the environmental
protection criteria.
Existing documents:
? Transport Development Strategy of the Republic of Croatia
? Strategy for restructuring and modernisation of Croatian Railways
? National Railway Infrastructure Programme 2008 ? 2012
? River Transport Development Strategy of the Republic of Croatia for the Period
2008 ? 2018
? Pre-Accession Maritime Strategy of the Republic of Croatia, 2005
? Physical Planning Strategy and Programme of the Republic of Croatia
? National Air Quality Protection and Improvement Plan in the Republic of Croatia for
the Period 2008-2011
? Strategic Coherence Framework 2007 ? 2013
? Programme for Construction and Maintenance of Public Roads for the Period 2005
- 2008
Involved institutions:
? Ministry of Sea, Transport and Infrastructure
? Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction
? Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship 35
? Ministry of Finance
? Local and regional self-government
? Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund
? Institutes
? Universities
? Expert institutions
? Non-governmental organisations.
8. Protection of the Adriatic Sea, Coastal Area and Islands
Situation
The Republic of Croatia?s most valuable but also most vulnerable natural systems are
situated in the area of the Adriatic Sea, its coast and islands. This is the area where the
processes activated by the interaction between the sea and the mainland take place,
and where the development pressures and negative impacts on natural systems are
most pronounced. The Adriatic Sea represents a unique and very sensitive marine
ecosystem which by its hydrographical, oceanological, biological, biogeographical and
other properties differs from the rest of the Mediterranean Sea to which it belongs. The
Adriatic Sea is characterised by a wealth of living resources, clean and transparent
water and beautiful landscape. It is precisely because of these specific properties that
the Adriatic Sea has the status of a special sub-region within the Mediterranean Sea.
The coastal regions are also characterised by a high degree of biodiversity, including
numerous endemic species, extremely vulnerable habitats and ecosystems. They are
equally significant because of their highly developed economy, cultural and social life.
Therefore, the Adriatic Sea should be given special attention in terms of its exploitation
and preservation.
The loads on ecosystems of the Croatian portion of the Adriatic Sea by individual
pollutants (total phosphorus and nitrogen, heavy metals, organic and faecal pollution)
are more expressed in the proximity of large port cities and large river deltas, but they
are also significant in smaller settlements because of porous septic tanks and bad
sewerage systems. In the remaining part of the Adriatic Sea, the loads by individual
pollutants are comparatively low so the general state of the Adriatic Sea is satisfactory.
The sanitary quality of bathing sea water on beaches is high (98.5%), which places the
Croatian part of the Adriatic among the areas with the cleanest sea in the
Mediterranean and Europe.
The most significant issues of environmental protection and, consequently, sustainable
development of the Adriatic Sea are: lack of urban and industrial wastewater treatment
systems, accidental and operational marine pollution caused by ships and other 36
maritime structures, accidents in the transport of oil and oil mixtures, the issue of
introducing foreign marine micro-organisms and pathogens into the marine
environment, catching and excessive exploitation of fish resources and very excessive
construction in the coastal area. A total of 123 fish species is included in the Red List of
Marine Fish of Croatia, of which five are critically threatened. Mariculture production is
increasing and continuous monitoring of its impacts on surrounding ecosystems is
carried out.
Each of the listed problems represents a serious risk to the environment with
irreversible effects related to significant economic and social consequences. The
Republic of Croatia, together with other members of the Mediterranean Action Plan
(MAP), adopted the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development that awards
special attention in sustainable development of the Mediterranean exactly to
sustainable management of the sea, coastal areas and marine resources.
In addition to already existing protection measures relating to maritime safety
conditions (direct ship routing and traffic separation scheme and navigation warning
system), the Republic of Croatia adopted the Ordinance on ballast water management
and inspection which regulates the management of ship ballast waters for ships
entering Croatian ports. Within the last few decades almost all islands have
deteriorated both economically and demographically because actively working and
fertile population is constantly decreasing.
In the tourist season, coastal area and islands are especially exposed to environmental
burdens. Tourism is the main driver of economic activities in this area with constant
annual growth in tourist numbers of approx. 3%, which results in great pressure on the
coastal area during the tourist season. For particular coastal and island communities,
the development of nautical tourism has a whole line of positive economic impacts:
source of additional income for the local population, increased employment
opportunities, general standard increase, reduced emigration, revitalisation of various
local-specific activities, etc. However, along with the positive economic effects, nautical
tourism also results in large pressures on the marine environment and coastal zone.
The selection of sites for building nautical tourism ports often includes the most
beautiful and most vulnerable parts of the coastline, not excluding even the protected
areas. The main disadvantages and results include reducing the environmental quality
(construction of nautical tourism ports and berths in inadequate locations) and polluting
the sea and coast (waste, sewage and bilge waters). Therefore, in defining the location
and planning the construction of new facilities, it is advisable to consider locations in
areas with natural values that were degraded by former (intensive) human activities
and in areas with existing derelict structures and to define the optimal capacity of the 37
existing ports. There is no systematic monitoring of the effects of pollutants in ports of
nautical tourism. Nautical tourism is constantly developing, but in the port infrastructure
this is not matched by increasing the number of berths (wet and dry) in ports of nautical
tourism as well as in ports opened for public transport. With the development of
nautical tourism, the Republic of Croatia is promoting itself more and more as a strong
and important tourist destination. Concurrently, the protection of the marine
environment must have priority because a preserved natural environment is a
prerequisite for the future development of tourism.
Overall Objective
? Promote sustainable management of the Adriatic Sea, the coast and the islands
and the preservation of marine ecosystems by reducing the discharge of waste
material and foreign micro-organisms and pathogens into the sea from all sources
of pollution by means of supporting local communities, especially on islands, as
well as by limiting the effects of economic activities, especially tourism, on the
environment.
Activities or Measures to Achieve the Overall Objective with Specific Objectives
1. Perform an analysis of the characteristics and identification of the main burdens
and pressures on the sea, its economic and social use and the degradation of the
marine environment.
2. By 2030 ensure adequate waste water collection and treatment in all settlements
with more than 10,000 inhabitants.
3. By 2030 ensure adequate waste water treatment in all significant industrial
installations, including tourist complexes.
4. Continue, expand and improve the programmes for continuous monitoring of
physical-chemical-biological parameters of the Adriatic Sea.
5. Establish the baseline condition of physical-chemical-biological parameters of the
sea in the ports of the Republic of Croatia.
6. Exchange information on monitoring the physical-chemical-biological parameters
of the sea between ports in the Adriatic.
7. Prepare the Ballast Water Management Strategy for the Adriatic Sea.
8. Prepare the Marine Environment Protection Strategy.
9. Prepare the Act on the Marine and Submarine Areas.
10. Prepare the Integrated Coastal Management Strategy.
11. Establish a system of supervision and management of maritime transport (VTMIS)
in order to increase maritime safety and prevention of marine pollution. 38
12. By 2015 ensure a systematic solution for the issue of transfer of harmful aquatic
organisms and pathogens through various vectors and in particular through
agricultural production, mariculture and maritime transport (ballast waters and hull
fouling).
13. Establish a sustainable system for the collection of oil-polluted water, sewage
water and waste from ships and equip all ports with machines and equipment for
such receipt.
14. Enhance the implementation of measures for controlling the prohibition of
discharging oil-polluted and sewage water into the sea.
Existing documents:
? Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development: A Framework for
Environmental Sustainability and Shared Prosperity
? National Strategy and Action Plan for the Protection of Biological and Landscape
Diversity of the Republic of Croatia
? National Island Development Programme
? Croatian Tourism Development Strategy for the Period up to 2010
? Nautical Tourism Development Strategy of the Republic of Croatia
? Water Management Strategy
? National Environmental Protection Strategy and National Environmental Action
Plan
? Pre-Accession Maritime Strategy of the Republic of Croatia
Involved institutions:
? Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction
? Ministry of Sea, Transport and Infrastructure
? Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Rural Development
? Ministry of Tourism
? Ministry of Culture
? Ministry of Regional Development, Forestry and Water Management
? Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship
? Ministry of Finance
? Local and regional self-government
? Croatian Environment Agency
? State Institute for Nature Protection
? Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund
? Hrvatske vode (Croatian Waters) 39
? Institutes
? Universities
? Expert institutions
? Non-governmental organisations
IV Preconditions for Further Development
In guiding the Republic of Croatia towards sustainable development and progress, in
each of the 8 key challenges it is important, inter alia, to implement reforms and
continue building an efficient state, raising the level of education of all citizens and
building a society based on knowledge, foster a culture of research and investments in
development and adapt to climate changes. This will contribute to achieving both
sustainability as well as the overall objectives.
Efficient State
A state is efficient when, on the basis of the constitution, legal system and tripartite
division of power, it preserves peace and security, protects the citizens? rights and
improves the quality of their lives as well as provides all required public services. An
efficient state has efficient institutions that represent and include all citizens. In
addition, good political, economic and administrative governance must create and
adopt policies while at the same time answering to the public. For an efficient state it is
especially important to continuously strengthen the responsibility of government. The
Republic of Croatia requires: further development of efficient economic and financial
management systems, strengthening the legal system, freedom of independent media
and constant development of the civil society which serves as a vehicle for voicing
demands for change.
Knowledge-Based Society/Education for Sustainable Development
A precondition for sustainable development of the Republic of Croatia are swift and
great changes in the educational system: the number of educated citizens and the level
of education in general must be increased and the educational system must develop
skills and competencies which will provide an individual with a quick and easy
professional adjustment to changes in the production structure, that is, prepare him for
further learning. At least one million citizens needs to be included into the education
process, compulsory secondary schooling must be introduced, the number of persons
leaving school reduced and the number of participants in lifelong learning increased,
because in the Republic of Croatia only 0.2% of persons older than 35 participates in
adult education programmes, although this is of special significance for a modern
labour market. 40
Knowledge is the key that opens the door to increasing the quality of life of all citizens.
The return on investment in knowledge is significantly larger than the return from any
other investment. Research shows that each additional year in an average education
level of the population turns into a production growth of 4-7% per capita. Experience
shows that growth of knowledge results in growth of employment which would, apart
from reducing unemployment, help the Republic of Croatia in strengthening social
cohesion and reducing regional disparities.
Education is a precondition for a change in behaviour and for informing citizens about
the key competencies for delivering sustainable development because it contributes to
greater social cohesion and well-being through investments in social capital and by
ensuring equal opportunities, especially of disadvantaged groups, and public
participation. In line with the recommendations of the World Summit held in
Johannesburg in 2002, the General Assembly of the United Nations in December 2002
declared 2005 - 2015 to be the Decade of Education for Sustainable Development
(ESD). The objective is to integrate sustainable development, its values and practices,
into all forms of education and learning. The United Nations Economic Commission for
Europe in its 2005 Strategy of Education for Sustainable Development points out that
education, as a human right and essential tool for good governance, informed decisionmaking and the promotion of democracy, can help translate a vision of sustainable
development into reality.
Education for sustainable development should be implemented on three levels: 1.
through formal learning in educational institutions; 2. outside regular educational
institutions, for instance, through activities of non-governmental organisations (informal
learning); 3. through media (newspapers, television, radio) in order to make education
for sustainable development a part of everyday life. The success in changing a majority
of trends which lead to unsustainability largely depends on the quality of education for
sustainable development at all levels of the educational system.
Central subjects of education for sustainable development are: reduction of poverty,
assurance of peace, moral standing, responsibility at local and global level, democracy,
justice, security, human rights, health, gender equity, cultural heritage, rural and urban
development, sustainable production and consumption, corporate social responsibility,
protection of the environment and nature, management of natural resources, biological
and landscape diversity. The present educational programmes at all levels of formal
education need to be amended and adjusted in such a manner so as to include the
principles and values of sustainability and interdisciplinary permeation of its three
components. 41
Education for sustainable development represents a lifelong learning process ? it
develops the awareness of the impact of decisions that do not support sustainable
development. Through education people?s choices and actions are guided in favour of
sustainable development, healthy and productive life in harmony with nature and with
concern for social values, gender equity and cultural diversity.
Research and Development
The expansion and accumulation of findings and knowledge depends on establishing a
developed communication network for fast and efficient transfer of large quantities of
collected data and information for the purpose of their quality application. Experiences
of successful countries show that a society based on knowledge progresses much
more rapidly and efficiently with the application of advanced information and
communication technologies that have to be accessible to all social groups and
integrated into the everyday life of the community at large, not only in the form of ecommerce or e-learning but also in the form of e-governance. The application of new
technologies will enable the offer and demand of knowledge, with which successful
communication on all levels of society is established and contributes to strengthening
the structure of society in the economic and social sense. Progress will not be achieved
by technologies alone ? progress in, for instance, productivity, will be achieved only by
an extensive change in the way that companies, organisations, public administration
and citizens conduct their activities. This route is also supported in the European
Commission?s strategic document - A European Information Society 2010 - which
promotes open and competitive digital economy with emphasis on information and
communication technologies which, at a time of growing competitiveness, enable an
increase in production and improvement of services as well as improvement of the
quality of life.
In the global market, success is also reserved for those who have the skills and
capacity to innovate ? create new products and processes, markets and industries. In
order to build and sustain the skills and capacity for innovation, it is required: to
generate creative ideas resulting from strong and diversified basic research activities;
to have a creative, well-educated and motivated workforce and to create an
environment that recognises innovativeness and enables innovations to reach the
market. It is absolutely essential that we base our economic progress on research and
development, scientific and engineering education and policies that encourage
innovation. To achieve this goal, it is necessary: to increase funds invested in scientific
research and scientific infrastructure in order to encourage the development of
fundamental ideas which serve as the basis for innovation; to achieve close 42
cooperation between higher education institutions, encourage as much as possible the
best students; and ensure open interaction between students, scientists and engineers.
Mitigation and Adaptation to Climate Change
Climate change is one of the greatest challenges we all face today, and it has direct
consequences on the global economy, the environment and society as a whole. The
impact of climate change can already be seen everywhere. The conclusions of the
Fourth Assessment Report recently published by the International Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC) show that climate changes are underway and significant measures
need to be taken to mitigate their effects and scope of those changes. As climate
change impacts are inevitable, the need to adapt to the changing climate becomes
more pressing, not just in our way of life, but also in our ways of development. There
are still no assessments of the socio-economic implications of climate change in the
country and no analysis of potential adaptation options and the costs associated with
them.
Intensive and continuous informing of the public on these issues and hazards will
develop the awareness of every individual about their importance and extent and
encourage him to participate in solving them.
V Implementation of the Strategy for Sustainable Development of the
Republic of Croatia and Integration of Stakeholders
? The Strategy for Sustainable Development of the Republic of Croatia presumes a
process of deliberation and negotiation for the purpose of reaching a consensus in
order to determine priority economic, social and environmental challenges and the
measures with which to respond to those challenges. This process includes all relevant
stakeholders for the purpose of shaping the most realistic vision of sustainable
development of the Republic of Croatia in this Strategy. In addition to the Croatian
Parliament and the Government of the Republic of Croatia, important stakeholders also
include local and regional self-government bodies such as counties, the City of Zagreb,
major cities, cities and municipalities which, each within their respective scope, must
promote sustainable development through cooperation and joint actions (EPA, Articles
8 and 14). Stakeholders are also obliged to inform, educate and instruct the public on
sustainable development (EPA, Article 17). The Ministry of Environmental Protection,
Physical Planning and Construction is responsible for coordination and drafting of the
Strategy which is, at its proposal, considered by the Government and adopted by the
Parliament thus providing the Strategy with all the necessary institutional support. 43
The Strategy will be implemented through Action Plans which will contain the details on
the authorities responsible for implementing individual plans and projects envisioned by
the Strategy; authorities responsible for achieving specific objectives; funds required to
implement plans or projects; sources for financing plans or projects; participants in a
plan or project; timeframes for achieving the planned objectives; expected results of
plans and projects as well as on those responsible for supervising the implementation
of plans and projects. Action Plans will be prepared in workshops by mutual
cooperation of all stakeholders, including non-governmental organisations and the
business sector.
To ensure coordinated and harmonised economic development in the field of
environmental and spatial protection, as well as the preconditions for sustainable
development, on one hand, and a constant expert and scientific basis for regulating
particular issues in the field of environmental and spatial protection and sustainable
development, on the other, the Government established the Council for Physical
Planning of the Republic of Croatia and the Environmental Protection and Sustainable
Development Council, which will also participate in the preparation of Action Plans. The
members of the Council are appointed from among scientific, expert, public and other
employees and representatives of central state administration bodies competent for a
specific environmental component or burden and representatives of civil society
organisations active in the field of environmental protection. In order to implement the
Strategy, the concept of sustainable development needs to be introduced into every
long term government policy during its development. The realization of guidelines and
policies which support the implementation of the Strategy of Sustainable Development
must be based on cost-efficient use of financing and economic instruments. To that
end, a special role is given to appropriate economic instruments which promote market
transparency and prices that reflect the real economic, social and environmental costs
of products and services. Where possible, an attempt should be made to shift taxation
from labour to resource and energy consumption and, especially, to pollution. At the
same time, subsidies that have considerable negative effects on the environment and
are therefore incompatible with sustainable development should be gradually
eliminated.
The Government of the Republic of Croatia takes care to create a positive environment
in which the concept of sustainable development will be introduced and implemented at
all government and local self-government levels in the Republic of Croatia. The
Government of the Republic of Croatia will support the idea of sustainable development
of the Republic of Croatia by: (a) promoting systematic public information with
emphasis on how each individual can help in addressing those eight key challenges; 44
(b) strengthening public awareness on the link between economic, social and
environmental issues and the necessity to address them in a coherent way; (c) support
education for sustainable development at all levels of the educational system. It is
necessary to mobilise all stakeholders through the exchange of opinions and
experiences on the issues related to sustainable development policies in the Republic
of Croatia and on: (a) ways in which the concept may be applied at all government and
self-government levels; (b) new ideas to achieve sustainability; and (c) exchange of
best practices.
According to the Environmental Protection Act, a new Strategy may be adopted every
ten years or sooner, by way of derogation, upon the proposal of the competent
ministry.
To assess the progress achieved in implementing the Strategy, a comprehensive set of
specific national sustainable development indicators (SDIs) that will be developed
especially for this purpose will need to be used. To ensure both a comprehensive and
in depth coverage of the complexity of sustainable development in the Republic of
Croatia, specific national indicators must be developed in a way to assess the situation
in reference to all key challenges and at all levels of the Strategy?s implementation.
In addition to theme indicators of sustainability, which are listed as a part of this
Strategy and selected to show the progress towards the overall objectives for the eight
key challenges, a comprehensive set of indicators must also enable more detailed
insight into progress towards sustainability: they have to enable monitoring of the
implementation of individual policies or, in even greater detail, the implementation of
individual measures.
VI Theme Indicators of Sustainable Development of the Republic of
Croatia
With regard to theme indicators, after several years they should clearly show what
processes are underway in the Republic of Croatia; what the trends are and if the
Republic of Croatia is better responding to some of the sustainability challenges, that
is, whether it is managing to find answers to the main issues which prevent progress. In
the preparation of Action Plans, at the proposal of associated institutions, it is possible
to add and/or replace a theme indicator if the latest scientific knowledge shows that
they are better for monitoring the status of sustainable development. All theme
indicators may be calculated with data which is available without significant costs and
in a short period of time.
1. Population45
total population
average life expectancy, by gender
relative changes in population per county
average number of children per family
Demographic changes
immigrated and emigrated population, by age group
2. Environment and natural resources
total greenhouse gas emission, emission per sector
total emission of pollutants causing acidification,
eutrophication and ground-level ozone
total emission of heavy metals and persistent
organic compounds
air quality in urban and industrial areas (with regard
to pollutant concentrations)
Air quality
air quality in rural and protected areas
land-use conversion
soil degradation(ha) ? salinity, alkalinity, acidity,
vegetation diversity and density, physical soil
properties
Land status and use
proportion of changes in soil quality and fertility
within the given time period
Desertification percentage of land degraded by draught
high-value agricultural land
share of land under permanent crops in the total
arable land
mineral fertiliser consumption
pesticide consumption
application of land treatment measures to improve
physical, chemical and biological soil properties
Agricultural activities
changes in soil management and forms of
agricultural production (higher share of sustainable
and ecological agriculture in relation to conventional
agriculture, share of food and non-food production
chain, coherence of crop and livestock production)
exploitation index for renewable water resources Water quantity
water consumption by sector
presence of polymorphic bacteria in drinking water
index of risk of toxic chemicals to aquatic
ecosystems
eutrophication of surface waters
water pollution sources and their removal
compliance with water classification
percentage of water treated in water treatment
systems
adequately treated industrial wastewaters prior to
their discharge into the sea
adequately treated urban wastewaters prior to their
discharge into the sea
proportion of water pollution prevention
Water quality
plant feasibility and water purification efficiency
biodiversity index
percentage of endangered species in the total
number of species
Biodiversity
endangered habitats 46
habitat fragmentation by roads/traffic barriers
share of protected areas in the whole territory of
Croatia
percentage of forests under sustainable
management
3. Sustainable management and consumption
(DMC) domestic material consumption
total quantity of generated waste
quantity of waste generated per household
quantity o generated hazardous waste
quantity of recycled waste and quantity of landfilled
waste
number of recycling yards
percentage of recycling per waste type
percentage of adequately treated waste
Waste management
waste treatment capacities
area under organic farming in the total agricultural
production
consumption of organic fertilisers
use of sustainable instead of conventional
agriculture
Agriculture
implementing regionalisation of agricultural
production in order to develop all segments of plant
and livestock production and achieve better
production results
electricity consumption per capita
"green public procurement?
number and size of households
meat consumption per capita
eco-label product consumption per capita
Consumption patterns
consumer price index
Social responsibility eco-label products
percentage of companies with an environmental
management system
efficiency of enforcement of relevant legislation
4. Social cohesion and justice
percentage of population receiving social assistance
percentage of population under poverty line
Social status of
population
households without employed members, by age
group
total unemployment rate
unemployment rate by gender, age group and
education level
percentage of persons with reduced employment
opportunities or long-term unemployed persons
employment growth rate
Employment
unemployment trend by counties
Access to social
infrastructure
access to kindergartens, schools, social welfare
services, homes for elderly and disabled persons
percentage of literate adults (percentage of literate
population older than 15)
Education
percentage of persons with primary-level education,
per age group 47
percentage of active population (ages 25-64) with
higher education
lifelong learning
number of persons actively using the Internet/100
inhabitants (according to the share of active internet
subscribers in the total population; number of
subscribers per 100 inhabitants)
Information and
communication
technologies
number of mobile network subscribers per 100
inhabitants
corruption index Corruption
level of citizens? trust
Crime number of registered violent crimes and homicides
per 100,000 inhabitants
5. Energy
CO
2
emissions per unit of GDP and per capita
total CO
2
emission by sectors
Emissions
greenhouse gas emission per capita
energy supply sources, per fuel type
annual energy consumption per capita
energy use intensity, total and per sector
dependence on energy imports
share of renewable energy sources in energy
consumption
share of biofuels in total fuel consumption of
transport
electricity production in power plants
Energy
possibility of developing new energy sources for the
purpose of sustainable development
6. Public health
mortality rate of children under 5 years of age Mortality
life expectancy at birth
smoking; obesity; physical activity; eating habits;
drug and alcohol abuse for children between 13 and
15 years of age and adults over 20
chronic diseases and injuries (cardiovascular
diseases; cancer; hepatitis; diabetes; sexually
transmitted diseases; suicides)
work-related diseases and injuries
Health habits and health
risks
mental disorders
immunisation; prenatal care; health insurance;
regular health care
percentage of population with access to primary
health care
percentage of GDP spent on health care
Access to health care
percentage of women using modern birth control
methods
pesticide residues in food, concentrations of heavy
metals in fish and shellfish meat
Food quality and safety
dioxins and PCBs in food
Chemicals management consumption of toxic chemicals per economic
activity
7. Interconnectedness of Croatia
Transport growth share of road transport in the total goods transport 48
motor transport intensity compared to GDP
share of private vehicles in the total passenger
transport
share of transport in GDP
share of road transport in domestic transport of
goods
access to public transport
development of public transport
greenhouse gas emissions by mode of transport
ozone-depleting emissions by mode of transport
use of cleaner and alternative fuels
proportion of vehicle fleet meeting certain air and
noise emission standards (by mode)
Social and environmental
impact of transport
transport economics ? share of the total energy
consumption, emissions and transportation of
passengers or goods
8. Protection of the Adriatic sea, coastal area and islands
Nutrients marine trophic index
Biological quality of
seawater
introduction of alien invasive species
marine biodiversity status
Sea bathing water
standards
limit values of microbiological indicators and other
marine properties
percentage of total population living in the coastal
area
occupancy of the coastal line
Urbanisation
number of collectors
accidental marine and maritime demesne pollution Impact of maritime
transport impact of ballast water
Impact of land-based
economic activities on
the sea
accidental marine and maritime demesne pollution
by land-based economic activities
catch of fish and other marine organisms Fisheries and
aquaculture mariculture production
number of tourist nights Tourism
sanitary quality of sea water on beaches
Nautical tourism number of wet berths
number of dry berths
number of nautical tourism ports
In addition to these indicators, progress toward sustainable development needs to be
monitored on the basis of standards and good practice codes through transparent and
periodic reports in order to ensure continuous action.
This Strategy shall be published in the Official Gazette. 49
VII References
1. United Nations Millennium Declaration, A/res/55/2, 8
th
plenary meeting, 8 Sep 2000
2. UN DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS, Guidance in
preparing a national sustainable development strategy: managing sustainable
development in the new millennium, Background Paper No. 13, OUTCOME OF
THE INTERNATIONAL FORUM ON NATIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
STRATEGIES, ACCRA, GHANA, November 2001
3. Guidelines for developing the National Sustainable Development Strategy, Ref:
UNEP/NSDS/March 2006
4. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES, A RESOURCE BOOK, DalalClayton, B., Bass, S., the International Institute for Environment and Development,
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5. GOOD PRACTICES IN THE NATIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
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6. Handbook for the Peer Review of National Sustainable development Strategies:
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8. Commission Communication "On the review of the Sustainable Development
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10. Renewed Sustainable Development Strategy: European Council DOC 10117/06
11. Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development UNEP/MAP, Athens 2005
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Environmental Policy (Marine Strategy Directive) [SEC(2005) 1290]
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COUNCIL of 22 July 2002 laying down the Sixth Community Environment Action
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Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency, 2005
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9 Feb 2005 50
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17. Commission Communication "Towards a global partnership for Sustainable
Development" COM(2002) 82 final, adding a global dimension to the EU
Sustainable Development Strategy
18. Commission Communication "A sustainable Europe for a better world: A European
strategy for Sustainable Development" COM(2001) 264 final
19. Sustainable Development Strategy 2002, Swiss Federal Council, March 2002
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27. Poverty, Unemployment, Social Exclusion, the United Nations Development
Programme in Croatia, Zagreb 2006
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30. Environmental Protection Act (Official Gazette 110/2007)
31. Declaration on Environmental Protection in the Republic of Croatia (Official Gazette
34/1992)
32. Act on Physical Planning and Construction (Official Gazette 76/2007)
33. Act on the Quality of Health Protection (Official Gazette 107/ 2007)
34. Ordinance on ballast water management and inspection (Official Gazette 55/2007)
35. National Population Policy (Official Gazette 132/2006) 51
36. National Environmental Protection Strategy (Official Gazette 46/2002) and National
Environmental Action Plan (Official Gazette 46/2002)
37. National Strategy for the Protection against Family Violence in 2005-2007 (Official
Gazette 182/2004) and National Strategy for the Protection against Family Violence
in 2008-2010 (Official Gazette 126/2007)
38. National Forestry Policy and Strategy (Official Gazette 120/2003)
39. National Policy to Promote Gender Equality 2006-2010 (Official Gazette 114/2006)
40. National Strategy of Uniform Policies for Persons with Disabilities 2003-2006
(Official Gazette 13/2003)
41. National Strategy for Substance Abuse Prevention in the Republic of Croatia for
2006-2012 (Official Gazette 147/2005)
42. National Anti-Corruption Programme and the Action Plan for the Fight against
Corruption (Official Gazette 34/2002)
43. National Health Development Strategy 2006-2011 (Official Gazette 72/2006)
44. National Strategy of Equal Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities 2007-2015
(Official Gazette 63/2007)
45. National Programme of Early Detection of Colon Cancer
46. National Programme of Early Detection of Breast Cancer
47. National Health Care Programme for Persons with Diabetes with Special Emphasis
on Disease Prevention
48. Strategy for the Use of Liquefied Petroleum Gas on the Adriatic Islands for the
Period 2008 - 2012
49. National Energy Efficiency Action Plan 2008 - 2010
50. Statistical Chronicle 2004 and 2007
51. Water Management Strategy (Official Gazette 91/2008)
52. Waste Management Strategy (Official Gazette 130/2005)
53. Energy Development Strategy of the Republic of Croatia (Official Gazette 38/2002)
54. Transport Development Strategy of the Republic of Croatia (Official Gazette
139/1999)
55. Physical Planning Programme of the Republic of Croatia (Official Gazette 50/1999)
56. Pre-Accession Maritime Strategy of the Republic of Croatia
United Nations