National Sustainable Development Strategy Romania 2013-2020-2030
8 Aug 2011
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N A T I O N A L
S U S T A I N A B L E D E V E L O P M E N T
S T R A T E G Y
R O M A N I A 2 0 1 3 - 2 0 2 0 - 2 0 3 0
GOVERNMENT OF ROMANIA
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT AND
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAM
NATIONAL CENTRE FOR SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT
BUCAREST, 2008 C O N T E N T S
Executive summary 4
Project history and methodology 7
Part I. Conceptual framework 10
1. Introduction: Necessary definitions 10
2. EU Sustainable development strategy 11
3. Sustainable development Indicators 13
4. Measures taken in Romania towards compliance with sustainable development
objectives during the pre- and post-accession process
15
Part II. Current state of the socio-economic system and natural capital in
Romania
19
1. Natural capital 19
2. Physical (man-made) capital 26
3. Human capital 32
4. Social capital 37
Part III. Objectives for 2013, 2020, 2030 and actions to be taken in accordance
with the strategic guidelines of the European Union
40
1. Key challenges 40
1.1 Climate change and clean energy 40
1.2 Sustainable transport 46
1.3 Sustainable consumption and production 50
1.4 Conservation and management of natural resources 57
1.5 Public health 63
1.6 Social inclusion, demography and migration 68
1.7 Global poverty and the challenges of sustainable development 74
2. Cross-cutting policies 78
2.1 Education and training 78
2.2 Research and development, innovation 86
3. Financial and economic instruments 90
4. Communication, mobilizing actors and multiplying success 92
Part IV. Issues and concerns specific to Romania 95
1. Risks and vulnerabilities caused by domestic and external circumstances 95
2. Sustainable growth, structural change and macroeconomic balance 97
2.1 Long-term sustainability of energy and material consumption within the support
capacity of natural capital
99
2.2 Upgrading the economic macro-structure to accommodate social and environmental
requirements
100
2.3 Labour productivity growth and higher employment 101
2.4 Better micro- and macro-economic management 102
2.5 Investment policy and diversification of financial resources 102 2.6 Maintaining macroeconomic balance 104
3. Regional development and local action; specific rural development issues 106
3.1 Regional development 107
3.2 Rural development, agriculture, forestry and fisheries 112
3.3 Implementing Local Agenda 21 116
4. Spatial planning and zoning 119
4.1 Spatial planning 120
4.2 The Cadastre 123
5. The cultural dimension of sustainable development 126
6. Administrative capacity and quality of public services; sustainable development as a
measure of good governance and quality of public policies
131
7. Foreign and security policy: general guidelines and specific contributions of Romania to
the Common Foreign Policy , the Security Policy and to the European Security and
Defence Policy as relevant to sustainable development requirements
135
Part V. Implementation, monitoring and reporting 141 Executive Summary
This National Strategy aims to connect Romania to a new philosophy of development,
adopted by the European Union and widely shared globally?that of sustainable
development.
Close to the end of the first decade of the twenty-first century, after a long,
traumatic transition to pluralistic democracy and a market economy, Romania still
needs to overcome significant gaps relative to the other Member States of the
European Union, while seeking to absorb and implement the principles and practice
of sustainable development in the context of globalization. Despite the notable
progress it has made in recent years, it is a fact that Romania?s economy still relies
on intensive consumption of resources, society and the administration have yet to
develop a shared vision, while the natural capital faces the risk of degradation that
may become irreversible.
This Strategy sets specific objectives for moving, within a reasonable and realistic
timeframe, toward a new model of development that is capable of generating high
value added, is motivated by interest in knowledge and innovation, and is aimed at
continued improvement of the quality of life and human relationships in harmony
with the natural environment.
In terms of general orientation, this document addresses the following strategic
objectives for the short, medium and long run:
Horizon 2013: To incorporate the principles and practices of
sustainable development in all the programmes and public policies
of Romania as an EU Member State.
Horizon 2020: To reach the current average level of the EU
countries for the main indicators of sustainable development.
Horizon 2030: To get significantly close to the average
performance of the EU Member States in that year in terms of
sustainable development indicators.
The implementation of these strategic objectives will ensure high rates of economic
growth in the medium and long run and, as a result, a significant reduction of social
and economic disparities between Romania and the other Member States of the
European Union. Considering the main indicator that measures convergence in real
terms, Gross Domestic Product per person (GDPcp) adjusted for standard purchasing
power parity (PPP), the implementation of the Strategy enables Romania to exceed
in 2013 half of the current EU average, to approach 80% of the EU average in 2020
and to rise slightly above the EU average in 2030.
The commitments that Romania undertook as a Member State of the European Union
are thus going to be fulfilled in conformity with the Treaty of Accession, along with
PAGE 4 / 143 the effective implementation of the principles and objectives of the Lisbon Strategy
and the renewed (2006) Sustainable Development Strategy of the European Union.
The text is structured in five parts:
Part I presents the conceptual framework, defines the notions used and describes the
main points of the renewed EU Sustainable Development Strategy of 2006 (EU SDS),
the state of play regarding the preparation of agreed sustainable development
indicators, and the relevant steps Romania has taken during the pre- and postaccession periods.
Part II provides an evaluation of the current condition of Romania?s natural, manmade, human and social capital. This approach is in line with the latest (May 2008)
recommendations of the Joint Working Group for Sustainable Development Indicators
formed by the EU Statistical Office (Eurostat), the UN Economic Commission for
Europe (UNECE) and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD).
Part III offers a prospective view and establishes precise objectives for the three
time horizons, following closely the logic of the key challenges and cross-cutting
policies as they are described in the renewed Sustainable Development Strategy of
the European Union.
Part IV tackles the specific problems facing Romania and sets targets in order to
accelerate the transformations toward a sustainable development model, while
narrowing and closing the existing gaps in relation to the average performance of the
other EU Member States.
Part V contains specific recommendations concerning the establishment and
functioning of the institutional framework designed to ensure the implementation and
monitoring of, and the reporting on, the results of the revised National Sustainable
Development Strategy. The proposals take into consideration the experience and
established practice of other EU Member States and envisage some innovative
solutions, suited to Romania?s specific circumstances, which are aimed at promoting
the accountability of public authorities and the active involvement of societal actors
in an effort to meet the goals of sustainable development.
Rounding off the objectives included in national development strategies, plans and
programmes, this Sustainable Development Strategy sets the main guidelines for
action towards the adoption and implementation of the principles of sustainable
development in the immediate future:
? Rational correlation of development goals, including cross-sector and regional
investment programmes, with the established potential and sustaining capacity of
natural capital;
? Accelerated modernisation of the educational, training and public health
systems with due consideration of the unfavourable demographic trends and their
impact on the labour market;
? Use of the best available technologies, by both economic and ecological
standards, for publicly funded investments at national, regional and local levels, and
PAGE 5 / 143 encouraging the choice of such technologies on the part of private investors;
entrenchment of eco-efficiency standards in all production and service activities;
? The ability to anticipate the effects of climate change, to prepare solutions for
adaptation in the long run and to develop cross-sector contingency plans comprising
portfolios of alternative crisis-management solutions in case of natural or man-made
disasters;
? Ensuring food security and safety by turning to good account Romania?s
comparative advantages with regard to increased agricultural production, including
organic farming; balancing the quantitative and qualitative growth of agricultural
output for human and animal consumption with the higher demand for biofuel
production without compromising the need to maintain and improve soil fertility,
biodiversity and environmental protection;
? The need to identify additional, sustainable financial resources for large-scale
projects and programmes, particularly in areas such as infrastructure, energy,
environmental protection, food safety, education, healthcare and social services;
? Protection and promotion of Romania?s cultural and natural heritage; efforts
to meet the European norms and standards on the quality of life should be pursued
together with the revival of traditional occupations and ways of life in a modern
setting, especially in high mountain areas and wetlands.
The objectives set in this Strategy emerged from national and regional debates; they
focus on the maintenance, consolidation, enhancement and continued adaptation of
the structural configuration and functional capacity of natural capital as a foundation
for the preservation and augmentation of its support capacity and its ability to
operate under the pressure of social development, economic growth and the
foreseeable impacts of climate change.
The Strategy proposes an outlook of Romania?s sustainable development in the next
two decades by setting objectives that go beyond electoral cycles or opportunistic
political preferences.
Parallel to the implementation of the Strategy, the newly established executive and
consultative structures will start, in 2009, a process of comprehensive re-evaluation
of the national, sectoral and regional plans, strategies and operational programmes
in order to make sure that they are in conformity with the principles and practice of
sustainable development and with the evolving set of relevant EU regulations. Those
structures will also be responsible for the preparation of Romania?s views on, and
contributions to, further reviews of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy.
Project history and methodology
The preparation of the revised National Sustainable Development Strategy (NSDS) is
an obligation that Romania has undertaken as an EU Member State in conformity
with agreed Community objectives and the methodological guidelines of the
European Commission.
PAGE 6 / 143 The document is the result of a joint project of the Romanian Government, through
the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development, and the United Nations
Development Programme, through the National Centre for Sustainable Development
in Bucharest. The project was approved by Government Decision HG No. 1216 of 4
October 2007, published in the Official Gazette of Romania No. 737 of 31 October
2007.
(a) For the execution of the project the following functional and support
structures were created:
? The National Public Debate Council was the main deliberative forum and
included authorised representatives of the relevant ministries and other central
government agencies, political parties, business associations, labour unions, scientific
and academic community, interested non-governmental organisations and other
groups of the civil society.
The Council convened in monthly sessions to discuss the successive versions of the
draft Strategy throughout the elaboration process.
The comments, suggestions and recommendations that were made during the
sessions of the Council or subsequently submitted in writing were considered by the
Drafting Group and incorporated in the final version of the Strategy.
The deliberations of the National Council were conducted in open sessions and
received reasonable coverage in the media.
? The Regional Consultative Councils convened twice in each of the eight
Development Regions of Romania (in March and May 2008, respectively) with the
participation of representatives of local public authorities, associations of elected
officials, political parties, universities and research institutions, business community,
chambers of commerce and industry, labour unions, professional associations, nongovernmental organisations and the mass media.
The resulting contributions were examined by the Drafting Group and incorporated in
the final version of the Strategy.
? The Scientific Council consisted of members and corresponding members
of the Romanian Academy and operated under its aegis to provide a critical review of
the scientific accuracy of the draft Strategy.
? The Drafting Group was formed of specialists with recognized professional
competencies in their respective fields of expertise; it prepared the conceptual
framework, the thematic summary and the successive versions of the draft Strategy
that were subsequently submitted for discussion to the National Public Debate
Council, the Regional Consultative Councils and the Scientific Council.
The Drafting Group examined the comments resulting from the deliberative process
and from public consultations, along with the written contributions received from
various agencies, associations, interested groups and individual persons, and
incorporated them in the final version of the draft document.
PAGE 7 / 143 ? Working Groups were established within ministries and other government
agencies to provide the necessary factual information for the drafting process. The
figures and other data used in the final version of the draft Strategy were checked
and updated with the support of the National Forecasting Commission and the
National Institute of Statistics.
? Administrative support was provided, on the basis of the Memorandum of
Understanding between the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development
and the United Nations Development Programme in Romania, by:
The Operational Secretariat was established by the Ministry of Environment
and Sustainable Development and was tasked with the coordination of relationships
with central and local government authorities and other partners, and with the
management of all official correspondence related to the project;
The Technical Secretariat, which operated at the National Centre for
Sustainable Development /UNDP, prepared the terms of reference for the selection of
the personnel involved in the project, organized the public debate process and
provided the necessary logistical support.
(b) The methodology was designed in accordance with the recommended
procedures of the European Commission and the UNDP practice.
At an early stage, the conceptual framework was prepared in the form of a draft
table of contents that was further expanded to include the main theses to be
developed in each chapter.
In parallel, an inventory of the main sources of reference was compiled on the
principles, objectives and priorities of sustainable development, providing easy
access to relevant official documents of the United Nations, the European Union and
Romanian national plans, strategies and sectoral operational programmes.
In the following stage, the Drafting Group prepared preliminary versions for all
chapters that were subsequently revised to include data provided by government
agencies, to eliminate overlaps and redundancies, and to ensure the coherence of
the document as a whole.
The comments and observations that were made in the course of the public debate
process and those that were received in writing from institutions, associations or
concerned individuals were incorporated in the final version of the Strategy, after
consideration by the Drafting Group.
All the documents that were relevant to the elaboration of the Strategy (successive
versions of the draft text, reference sources, minutes of the National Public Debate
Council, Regional Consultative Councils, Scientific Council and Drafting Group
meetings, written contributions and comments received from interested
organisations and individuals) were posted on a dedicated Project Website.
The contact points for the project (Ministry of Environment and Sustainable
Development, National Centre for Sustainable Development, and the EurActiv press
agency) were publicized through the mass media in order to facilitate the collection
of written comments and contributions from the public.
PAGE 8 / 143 Along with the drafting process, an English version of the document was produced in
order to obtain informal international consultation prior to the official presentation of
the document to the European Commission. In this yet unfinished format, the draft
National Sustainable Development Strategy for Romania was presented at the annual
session of the European Chapters of the Club of Rome (Bucharest, 24-25 May 2008).
(c) The following statistics illustrate the magnitude of the participatory
mechanism that operated during the preparation of the Romanian National
Sustainable Development Strategy:
? National debate events: 5
? Regional debate events: 16
? Meetings of the Scientific Council: 3
? Meetings of the Drafting Group, in plenary sessions or expert sub-sections: 21
? Meetings of the Drafting Group co-ordinators with representatives of public
authorities, political parties, business and professional associations, labour unions
federations, non-governmental organisations, youth groups and other concerned
groups and persons: 39
? Average number of participants in each of the public debate sessions at national
level: 104
? Total number of participants in public debate sessions organised at regional level:
599
? Total number of interventions in public debate sessions at national and regional
levels: 143
? Total number o written comments, contributions and observations received 291
? Total number of visitors to the website dedicated to the Strategy project
www.strategia.ncsd.ro: an average of 550 weekly hits between November 2007
and June 2008
? Number of draft versions of the Strategy submitted to public debate: 6; number
of revisions 41.
PAGE 9 / 143 P A R T I . C O N C E P T U A L
F R A M E W O R K
1. Introduction: Necessary definitions
Sustainable development has developed as a concept through several decades of
active international scientific debate and has acquired distinct political connotations
in the context of globalization. In the Romanian language, the concept is described
by two equivalent terms ?dezvoltare durabila? and ?dezvoltare sustenabila? that have
emerged as synonymous borrowings from different linguistic sources and are used
alternatively throughout the Romanian version of the document.
In recent history, the first signal that economic and social development of the world?s
states and of humanity as a whole can no longer be separated from the
consequences of human activity on the natural environment was set forth in the
1972 report of the Club of Rome on the Limits of Growth (Meadows Report). The
document summarized the available data on the evolution of five factors (population
growth, the impact of industrialisation, pollution, food production and the trends
toward depletion of natural resources) suggesting the conclusion that the
development model in place at the time could not be sustained in the long run.
The issues involved in the relationship between humankind and the environment
became a matter of concern for the international community starting with the United
Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972) and took
concrete shape in the work of the World Commission on Environment and
Development, which was established in 1985. The report of the Commission on Our
Common Future was presented in 1987 by G.H.Bruntdland. It offered the first
broadly accepted definition for sustainable development, as «[the development path]
that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs». The concept of sustainable
development proposes an integrated policy and decision-making approach, in which
environmental protection and long-term economic development are considered to be
complementary and interdependent.
Henceforth, the complex problems of sustainable development acquired a global
political dimension as they were tackled at the summit-level United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro (1992), the
Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly which adopted the
Millennium Goals (2000) and the Earth Summit in Johannesburg (2002). Concrete
programmes for action at global level were developed (such as Local Agenda 21)
according to the principle «think globally, act locally».
A series of international conventions were adopted in the course of this process,
spelling out precise obligations for states and strict implementation deadlines in such
areas as climate change, biodiversity conservation, the protection of forests and
PAGE 10 / 143 wetlands, curbs on the use of certain chemicals, access to information regarding the
state of the environment, and more. Those agreements define the international legal
space for the application of the aims and principles of sustainable development.
It is thus widely recognized that the Earth has a limited capacity to meet the growing
demand of the socio-economic systems for natural resources and to absorb the
destructive effects of their overuse. Climate change, soil erosion and desertification,
the pollution of soil, water and air, the shrinking area of tropical forest systems and
wetlands, the extinction or decline of a large number of aquatic and terrestrial
species, the accelerated depletion of non-renewable natural resources have started
to have measurable negative effects on the socio-economic development and on the
quality of life of human populations in vast areas of the planet.
The concept of sustainable development is built on the premise that human
civilization is a sub-system of the Ecosphere and is dependent on its material and
energy flows, on its stability and capacity for self-adjustment. Public policies that are
being developed on this assumption, such as Romania?s National Sustainable
Development Strategy, seek to restore and preserve a rational and enduring
equilibrium between economic development and the integrity of the natural
environment in ways that society can understand and accept.
For Romania as a Member State of the European Union, sustainable development is
not one of several possible options, but the only rational prospect for advancement
as a nation, resulting in the establishment of a new development paradigm at the
confluence of economic, social and environmental factors.
2. EU Sustainable Development Strategy
Sustainable development has become a political objective of the European Union
since the Maastricht Treaty of 1997. In 2001, at Goteborg, the European Council
adopted the Sustainable Development Strategy of the European Union; an external
dimension was added to it at the Barcelona Council in 2002.
The European Commission commenced the review process of the Strategy by
publishing, in February 2005, a critical evaluation of the progress achieved since
2001 that also pointed to a series of directions for action to be further pursued. The
document revealed some unsustainable tendencies affecting negatively the
environment that could impact the future development of the European Union:
climate change, threats to public health, poverty and social exclusion, depletion of
natural resources and erosion of biodiversity. Having identified those issues, in June
2005, the heads of state and government of the EU Member States adopted a
Declaration on the guidelines for sustainable development, including the revised
Lisbon Agenda for Growth and Jobs as an essential component of the overarching
sustainable development objective. Following wide-ranging consultations, the
European Commission presented, on 13 December 2005, a proposal to renew the
2001 Goteborg Strategy.
As a result of that process, the EU Council adopted, on 9 June 2006, the renewed
Sustainable Development Strategy for the enlarged EU space. The document reflects
PAGE 11 / 143 a cohesive and coherent strategic vision with the general objective to develop
further actions enabling the European Union to achieve continuous improvement of
the quality of life for the present and future generations by creating sustainable
communities that are capable to manage and use resources efficiently and to realize
the potential of the economy for social and ecological innovation in order to provide
prosperity, a better environment and social cohesion.
The EU Sustainable Development Strategy, which provides the foundation for the
National Strategy of Romania, is complementary to the Lisbon Strategy and is
intended as a catalyst for those who draft public policies and for the public at large
with an aim to change the behaviour of the European and Romanian societies,
respectively, and to secure the active involvement of policy makers, both public and
private, and individual citizens in the preparation, implementation and monitoring
the objectives of sustainable development.
The European Union and its Member States have the responsibility for the
implementation of the Strategy by involving all institutional components at national
and EU levels. The importance of close collaboration towards the goals of sustainable
development with the civil society, business, social partners, local communities and
citizens is also underlined.
Four key objectives are thus identified:
? Environmental protection through measures that make it possible to decouple
economic growth from negative environmental impacts;
? Social equity and cohesion through observance of fundamental human rights,
cultural diversity, gender equality and combating discrimination of any kind;
? Economic prosperity through the promotion of knowledge, innovation and
competitiveness with an aim to ensure high living standards and full and high-quality
employment;
? Meeting EU?s international responsibilities through the promotion of
democratic institutions in the interest of peace, security, freedom and of the
principles and practice of sustainable development throughout the world.
In order to make sure that the economic, environmental and socio-cultural
components are integrated and correlated in a balanced manner, the Sustainable
Development Strategy of the European Union sets the following guiding principles:
? Promotion and protection of fundamental human rights;
? Solidarity within and between generations;
? Open and democratic society;
? Information and active involvement of citizens in decision making;
? Involvement of businesses and social partners;
? Policy coherence and the quality of governance at local, regional, national and
global levels;
? Integration of economic, social and environmental policies through impact
evaluations and consultation of stakeholders;
? Use of best available knowledge to ensure that policies are economically
sound and cost-effective;
PAGE 12 / 143 ? Application of the precautionary principle in case of scientific uncertainty;
? Application of the ?make polluters pay? principle.
The substance of the EU Strategy concentrates on 7 key challenges and 2 crosscutting policy areas. Many of the targets agreed at EU level are set in numerical or
percentage terms, with strict implementation deadlines that are mandatory for all
Member States.
The EU Strategy also establishes precise implementation, monitoring and followup procedures, together with obligations for the European Commission and all
Member States to report every two years on their commitments. The next deadline
for the review of progress and priorities of the EU Strategy by the European Council
is scheduled for September 2009, with the obligation of all Member States to report
on the implementation of their National Strategies no later than June 2009.
Since Romania has undertaken to finalize its own revised National Sustainable
Development Strategy and present it to the European Commission before the end of
2008, the first progress report on its implementation has to be presented by June
2011.
3. Sustainable development indicators
The use of indicators to monitor development trends in domains other than economic
activities precedes the formulation of the principles of sustainable development; it
emerged in parallel with the drafting of the early sustainable development strategies
under the aegis of the United Nations and the European Union, respectively.
Such monitoring instruments were produced by a variety of institutions, from
business enterprises to civil society organisations, groups of experts or research
centres, local administration units, national governments, inter-governmental
organisations or international financial institutions. The magnitude of these efforts
has intensified in recent years, both at a national level and through multinational
cooperation, reflecting the perceived need to have such instruments, to cover a
diverse array of applications and to overcome a host of methodological difficulties.
Persistent notable differences in terms of structure, maturity and effective utilization
of coherent indicator sets illustrates the complexity of the task to find effective
compatibility between normative and empirical approaches applying to distinct
domains to be integrated in the concept of sustainable development: economy,
society and natural environment. In the process, methodological aspects that are still
under theoretical consideration are taken up dynamically and applied in the
compilation of statistical reports.
An agreed and accepted set of sustainable development indicators, including the
ability to reflect environmental and social factors in the system of national accounts
through specific instruments, remains a priority concern for the statistical offices of
the European Union (Eurostat), the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
(UNECE) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Romania, through the National Institute of Statistics, is actively engaged in this
process. At this stage, the Romanian National Institute of Statistics conveys to
PAGE 13 / 143 Eurostat the available data based on a partial system of indicators that are
integrated in the European system of sustainable development monitoring. Currently,
the sources of data can be improved through direct and more effective inter-agency
cooperation, in particular with regard to quantifying the human and social capitals
and the carrying capacity of natural ecosystems. The system that is being used to
monitor the implementation of the renewed Sustainable Development Strategy of the
European Union (2006) admits the existence of such problems explicitly and
recommends that the Member States should continue to revise their respective sets
of indicators in order to ensure their quality, comparability and relevance relative to
the objectives of the EU Strategy.
One of the key points of the renewed Sustainable Development Strategy of the
European Union is that it introduces a regulated monitoring and reporting process
with an aim to harmonize the specific national requirements of the Member States
with the need for coordination and synthesis at EU level. It has been established that
the objectives to be attained and the instruments for measuring economic
performance in relation to social and environmental responsibilities shall be defined
through constructive dialogue to be engaged by the European Commission and each
of the Member States with the business community, social partners and relevant
elements of the civil society.
The European Commission, with the assistance of the Working Group for Sustainable
Development Indicators, was assigned the task to continue to develop the set of
indicators in order to improve consistency in reporting procedures. An early version
of that set of indicators was used for the first Evaluation Report (2007) of the
renewed Sustainable Development Strategy of the European Union. In its current
form, the monitoring mechanism points to several categories of indicators that are
still under development. The existing set of indicators is considered to be adequate
for monitoring the quantitative targets of the EU Strategy, but incomplete or
insufficient for monitoring and evaluating the fulfilment of its qualitative objectives
(such as ?good governance?, for example).
The structure of the indicators set produced by Eurostat for the first monitoring
report on the renewed EU Strategy associates a headline (Level 1) indicator to each
strategic dimension, a set of indicators associated to its subordinate operational
objectives (Level 2), and descriptive indicators for the domains of intervention of
associated policies (Level 3). A supplementary set of indicators outside this structure
(context indicators) is included to reflect phenomena that do not easily allow for
normative interpretation or that cannot be gauged in terms of expected response to
intervention.
In accordance with the European Council decisions, the EU Member States have the
obligation to formalize suitable institutional support to coordinate the development
and use of statistical monitoring instruments and to review periodically (every two
years) each National Strategy in order to ensure compliance with the systematic
reporting requirements on the implementation of the Sustainable Development
Strategy formulated at EU level. Consequently, a continuous process is envisaged to
revise the national and EU strategies at short intervals in order to reduce the margin
of error in the estimation of the resources required for the implementation of the
agreed objectives.
To monitor and verify the implementation of this National Strategy, a national
system of statistical indicators for sustainable development will be created,
PAGE 14 / 143 maintained and duly harmonized for congruence with the relevant system of
indicators in use at EU level for monitoring national progress in relation to the EU
Sustainable Development Strategy. The collection and processing of reliable data, to
be quantified and updated regularly and aggregated as indicators of sustainable
development, will make it possible to measure progress towards the objectives set
by the Strategy and to provide accurate reporting on the results. The following types
of indicators are scheduled to become operational:
? National sustainable development indicators, which are focused on the key
priorities, expressed through measurable targets, that shall also make it possible to
compare the national performance to that of international partners and to the
objectives of the renewed EU Sustainable Development Strategy. This set of
indicators shall be based on the results of the combined Eurostat-UNECE-OECD
Working Group and shall be updated permanently.
? Progress indicators for the Romanian National Sustainable Development
Strategy, covering the entire range of policies generated by the National Strategy
and including also areas that are not specifically mentioned in the EU Strategy. In
this way all policies will be subject to monitoring, thus motivating the political
decision-makers and enabling the public to evaluate the success of undertaken
actions.
The Interagency Committee for Sustainable Development, as described in Part V of
this Strategy, will coordinate and supervise all activities pertaining to the elaboration
of the national system of sustainable development indicators. The mandate,
composition and organisational structure of the future national working group for
sustainable development indicators, the deadlines for completion at each stage
(considering that the first deadline for reporting on the implementation of the
National Strategy is June 2011), as well as the role of the National Institute of
Statistics in terms of conceptual and methodological coordination will be established
within that framework.
4. Measures taken in Romania towards compliance
with sustainable development objectives during the
pre- and post-accession process
The awareness about discrepancies between the existing development model and the
support capacity of natural capital set in gradually in Romania in the 70?s and 80?s of
the past century, but it was confined to certain academic and intellectual circles and
had a limited impact on political decision-makers. The profound political changes that
started in December 1989, particularly access to information that was outside the
public domain during the communist regime, considerably expanded the interest in
such matters among the public opinion and the media. Numerous non-governmental
organisations and even political parties with an environmental agenda came into
being within a short period of time, mirroring the initiatives that had long been
functional in Western Europe. Institutions dedicated to environmental concerns were
created within the executive and legislative structures (ministry, parliamentary
committees), and the first acts of primary and secondary environmental legislation
were adopted.
PAGE 15 / 143 At an early stage, some sustainable development principles were incorporated in
public policies as a result of the concrete obligations undertaken by Romania under
the declarations and conventions that were developed following debates within the
UN and its specialized agencies (for example, Romania was the first European
country to ratify the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on
Climate Change). The prospect of EU accession caused these endeavours to become
more specific by emphasizing the priority of adopting a new philosophy of
development that could ensure an organic correlation of economic, social and
environmental dimensions along with the assimilation of the Community acquis in its
entirety.
A first National Strategy for Sustainable Development was prepared between 1997
and 1999 with the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP); the Strategy integrated a large number of contributions assembled though a
broad participative process and was adopted as an official policy document of the
Romanian Government. Although the impact of that document on public policies at
national level was relatively limited, it supplied the conceptual and methodological
framework for stakeholder consultation and facilitated the successful implementation
of Local Agenda 21 in approximately 40 counties and municipalities. Following EU
accession, an interim report was presented to the European Commission, in July
2007, on the implementation of the 1999 Strategy and the application of sustainable
development principles in Romania.
The endeavours to draft a comprehensive sustainable development strategy for the
year 2025 continued under the aegis of the Romanian Academy between 2002 and
2004 at the initiative of the Romanian Presidency, but the project did not get beyond
the drafting stage and was not finalized as a coherent document.
In the absence of an updated sustainable development strategy compliant with the
relevant directives of the European Union, the strategy documents and sectoral
programmes prepared in Romania during the pre- and post-accession periods contain
provisions and (in some cases) precise objectives consistent with the principles of
sustainable development; these policy documents have provided most of the
reference material for the drafting of the present Strategy.
Romania?s Treaty of Accession to the European Union, signed on 25 April 2005,
together with the additional Protocols comprise Romania?s concrete commitments to
implement the totality of the Community acquis; the documents include deferments
on the implementation of certain environmental obligations (to 2015 for complex and
highly polluting industrial installations, to 16 July 2017 for municipal waste dumps,
and to 2018 for the expansion of urban systems for potable water supply and
wastewater treatment).
The National Development Plan 2007-2013 is the key document for strategic
planning and multi-annual financial programming designed to give a sense of
direction to national economic and social development, in agreement with the
principles of the EU Cohesion Policy. The Plan sets as a general objective the fastest
possible reduction of socio-economic disparities between Romania and the other EU
Member States and details the specific objectives of this process along 6 priority lines
of action that integrate, directly or indirectly, the demands of sustainable
development for the short and medium term:
PAGE 16 / 143 ? To increase competitiveness and develop a knowledge-based economy,
including among the main subsidiary priorities the improvement of energy efficiency
and expanded use of renewable energy resources in order to mitigate the effects of
climate change;
? To upgrade basic infrastructure to EU standards, emphasizing the sustainable
development of transport infrastructure and means of transport by reducing negative
environmental impacts, promoting inter-modality, improving traffic safety and the
protection of critical infrastructure;
? To protect and improve the quality of the environment, including measures to
raise living standards through provision of public utilities, in particular water and
waste management; to enhance regional and sectoral environmental management,
conservation of biodiversity, ecological rehabilitation, risk prevention and
intervention in case of natural disasters;
? To develop and use human capital more effectively by promoting social
inclusion and strengthening administrative capacity for the development of a modern
and flexible labour market, enhancing the relevance of the educational and
professional training system for better employment, encouraging the emergence of
entrepreneurial culture;
? To develop the rural economy and to increase productivity in agriculture,
forestry and fisheries, including measures for rational land use, ecological
rehabilitation of areas affected by soil degradation or pollution, food safety, animal
welfare, encouragement of aquaculture in coastal areas;
? To diminish development disparities between and within regions, envisaging,
inter alia, improved performance of local administrations and upgrading of local
public infrastructure, protection of natural an cultural heritage, integrated rural
development, regeneration of urban areas affected by industrial restructuring,
consolidation of the business environment and promotion of innovation. In addition,
activities involving cross-border, trans-national and inter-regional cooperation are
envisaged to support the socio-economic integration of border areas and to increase
the accessibility of Romanian regions as components of the EU territory.
The financial programming of the National Development Plan 2007-2013 estimates a
total of Euro 58.67 billion in required investment, to be distributed in yearly
instalments.
The National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013, which was accepted
by the European Commission on 25 June 2007, sets the priorities for the application
of the EU Structural Intervention Instruments (the European Fund for Regional
Development, the European Social Fund and the Cohesion Fund) and links the
priorities of the National Development Plan 2007-2013 to those of the EU as
established in the Community Strategic Guidelines on Cohesion 2007-2013 and the
revised Lisbon Strategy. The National Strategic Reference Framework presents the
socio-economic situation in Romania at the time of accession, analyses its strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT), offers a strategic vision and provides
a synthesis of the Sectoral Operational Programmes (SOP) to be implemented under
the convergence objective.
To realize this strategic vision for Romania, the European Commission allocated Euro
19.67 billion for the period 2007-2013 within the cohesion policy framework, out of
which 19.21 billion are earmarked for the convergence objective (with an estimated
PAGE 17 / 143 co-financing from national sources of Euro 5.53 billion, of which 73% from public
sources and 27% from private sources) and Euro 0.46 billion are devoted to the
objective of Territorial European Cooperation.
The National Strategic Reference Framework together with the National Reform
Programme and the Convergence Programme address the objectives of
convergence by defining directions for action at national level corresponding to the
EU policies and strategies.
Relevant facts and figures for an analytical diagnosis of Romania?s current condition
and an evaluation of public policies and of existing gaps relative to the average
performance levels of the other EU countries are provided in the draft PostAccession Strategy that was prepared by the Romanian Government in 2007.
The measures undertaken by Romania to address the UN-sanctioned targets for
global sustainable development are presented in the second Report on the
Millennium Development Goals, which was adopted by the Romanian Government
on 18 September 2007.
The content of these policy documents and the corresponding implementation
measures taken during the first year after Romania?s EU accession are highly
relevant as a response to the key challenges and objectives set by the renewed
Sustainable Development Strategy of the European Union of 9 June 2006. At the
same time, a careful analysis of those documents brings to light several omissions
and redundancies in terms of inter-departmental coordination. The existing
strategies and programmes are targeted on different timeframes. Moreover, they fail
to fit into an integrating vision such as the one offered by the concept of sustainable
development.
PAGE 18 / 143 P A R T I I . C U R R E N T S T A T E O F T H E
S O C I O - E C O N O M I C S Y S T E M A N D
N A T U R A L C A P I T A L I N R O M A N I A
In order to be able to act in a knowledgeable and realistic manner toward the
strategic goals of sustainable development, it is necessary that Romania, its citizens
and its external partners have a clear representation of the starting point, the real
assets of the country, but also of the shortcomings resulting from a complicated
historical legacy. By way of consequence, in light of Romania?s specific conditions,
meeting the requirements of transition to the new model of sustainable development,
a process in which Romania is now engaged alongside the other EU Member States,
has to go hand in hand with an additional national effort to overcome the existing
substantial gaps in several areas.
1. Natural capital
Romania is a medium-sized country compared to the other EU Member States, with a
surface area of 238,391 square kilometres (comparable to that of the United
Kingdom) and a population of 21,584,365 in 2006 (comparable to that of Hungary
and Czech Republic taken together). It is located in the catchment basins of the
Danube river and the Black Sea and encompasses a large portion of the Carpathian
mountain range.
Five of the eleven bio-geographic regions of Europe are found in Romania: alpine,
continental, Panonian, Pontic (maritime) and steppe. The country is also placed at
the junction of the Mediterranean, Pontic and Eurasian Palaearctic eco-zones of flora
and fauna. This geographic position, physiographic and lithologic complexity and a
radial distribution of gradients over the forms of relief account for a great variety of
mesoclimatic and microclimatic conditions and soil patterns. This variety of the
abiotic substratum in terms of composition and structure also explains the wealth,
distribution and representation of natural habitat types throughout Romania?s
territory. Of the 198 habitats recorded in continental Europe (of which 65 have
priority status) Romania holds 94 (23 with priority status), and of the 14 biomes
identified worldwide, 5 are present in Romania: temperate coniferous forests,
temperate deciduous forests, pasture lands, mixed mountainous landscapes, and
lakes. Existing records show a remarkable variety of ecosystem types, species and
superior plant and animal taxons, although a thorough inventory of species has not
yet been completed, while the inventory of genetic resources is still at an early
stage.
The variety and relative balance of relief forms are unique in Europe and quite rare
in the world: 28% mountain areas (altitudes above 1,000 metres), 42% hills and
plateaus (altitudes between 300 and 1,000 metres) and 30% plains (below 300
metres in altitude).
PAGE 19 / 143 Romania holds 54% of the Carpathian mountain range of medium elevation (1,136
metres on average) with just a few peaks exceeding 2,500 metres in altitude. The
mountains represent the portion of the territory that has been least altered by
human intervention, with low densities of stable population and small settlements
which are thinning out because of domestic and external migration following the
extinction of traditional occupations. These factors also account for the location of 12
out of 13 national parks and 9 out of 14 nature parks in the mountainous region.
The hills and plateau areas have suffered more extensive encroachment by human
activities (urban and rural settlements, elements of infrastructure development,
vineyard and orchard plantations, cash crops, animal husbandry, forestry,
hydrocarbons and ore mining, industrial enterprises) and are subject to more severe
deterioration as a result of deforestation, erosion, landslides and soil degradation.
Still, the hills and highlands contain a variety of protected areas and preserve a
significant potential for the protection of additional areas that have been only slightly
altered or not altered at all by human activities.
The plains are the most densely populated and intensively exploited, with few
remaining natural sites. The severe floods in the summer of 2005 affected in
particular the low-lying meadows of the Danube flood plain, where extensive
damming and reclamation work was done before 1989. Consequently, the general
interest to bring vast tracts of land back to natural state was rekindled with expected
beneficial environmental and economic effects.
The Danube Delta, the largest wetland area of Europe covering an area of 5,050
square kilometres (of which 4,340 sq km in Romanian territory), acquired the status
of Biosphere Reserve in recognition of its global importance, and it is subject to
special attention and monitoring from UNESCO and the Ramsar Convention. The
Romanian coastline of the Black Sea is about 245 kilometres long, between the
national frontiers with Ukraine and Bulgaria, respectively. The Romanian portion of
the continental shelf (to a depth of 200 metres) covers 24,000 square kilometres
from a total 144,000 sq km (16.6%). The coastal zone is subjected to an advanced
process of erosion (about 2,400 hectares of beach lost during the past 35 years),
which not only harms the tourism business, but also endangers people?s homes and
wellbeing.
Romania?s water resources present a particular feature: 97.8% of the rivers are
collected by the Danube which flows for 1,075 kilometres on Romanian territory or
along the national border (out of a total length of 2,860 km). Natural hydrological
resources amount to a multi-annual average stock of 128.1 billion cubic metres per
year, of which 40.4 billion in interior rivers and 87.7 billion cu m represents the
Romanian share of the average annual discharge of the Danube. The volume of
underground waters is estimated to be 9.62 billion cubic meters per year. Romania
has a considerable potential to supply high-quality mineral water, with an exploitable
reserve of approximately 45 million cubic meters per year, of which only 40% is used
(more than 2,000 natural springs and underground sources in around 500 locations).
Over time, anthropic activities have affected surface and underground water quality,
particularly that of phreatic water. Only 57.5% of the total monitored river length is
suitable for use as drinking water through the centralized water distribution network.
Out of the total potential resources, only 45.5% are technically usable, mainly
PAGE 20 / 143 because of contamination at the source. Consequently, usable water resources
amount to 2,660 cubic meters per person per year (while the potential supply is
5,930 cu m/cp.year) compared to the European average of 4,000 cu m/cp.year,
placing Romania among the countries with relatively scarce usable water resources.
Interior rivers are supplied mostly from snow and rain fall, and less from
underground springs, which makes the water supply highly dependent on weather
conditions. Water resources are unevenly distributed throughout the country, with
large seasonal and year-to-year variations.
In the medium and long run, it will not be possible to cover water demand for human
consumption, industry, agriculture and other uses without undertaking large-scale
projects to redistribute water resources over time and space (dams, reservoir lakes,
inter-basin debit transfers, etc.)
The climate is temperate continental displaying significant regional variations (8-12
months per year with above-zero temperatures in the south and coastal areas,
compared to 4 months in the higher mountain zones). Heat waves with temperatures
rising above 40 degrees C (three such waves in Bucharest in the summer of 2007)
and cold spells with temperatures below -30 degrees C, especially in deeper valleys
between mountains, are quite frequent. Precipitations, with a multi-annual average
of 640 millimetres throughout the country, also display sizeable variations from
region to region (1,200-1,400 millimetres in high alpine zones, and 400-500
millimetres in the main farming areas in the southern half of the country) as well as
in terms of timing, as the spells of dry weather and drought alternate, sometimes in
the course of the same year, with spells of excessive humidity that produce
considerable damage (flooding, landslides). The existence of locations where the
average annual wind speed exceeds 4 metres per second and extensive areas where
the sun shines for more than 2,000 hours per annum indicates a significant potential
for the exploitation of those renewable sources of energy.
Romania is one of the European countries that are exposed to high seismic risk due
to an active tectonic fault (Vrancea), which occasionally causes catastrophic earth
tremors with intensities above 7 degrees on the Richter scale.
With regard to the level and type of human intervention, the land use in Romania
comprises the following categories:
? 61.8% of the total land surface is used for agricultural purposes (about 14.7
million hectares) of which 64% is arable land used for extensive and intensive
farming (i.e. 0.45 hectares per capita, which places Romania in the fifth position in
Europe), 22.6% is made of grasslands used as natural or semi-natural pastures,
10.4% is formed of semi-natural hayfields used for fodder production, and 3%
consists of orchards, vineyards or nurseries;
? 27% of the land surface is under forest cover (circa 6.43 million hectares), of
which 3% (circa 200 thousand ha) is listed as primary forest and the rest of 97% as
secondary forest or sparsely wooded areas. Taking only ecologically sound forests
into account, forest covers just 23% of the national territory. The percentage of
forested land in Romania is well below the other European countries having similar
PAGE 21 / 143 climate conditions (Slovenia 57%, Austria 47%, Bosnia 53%, Slovakia 41%) and
about half of the ideal proportion for Romania (40-45%);
? 3.53% (841.8 thousand ha) of the total is covered by surface water (rivers,
lakes and ponds), plus the continental shelf of the Black Sea;
? 1.9% (447.5 thousand ha) of the total is formed of areas with very low
productive potential or in an advanced stage of degradation;
? 5.77% (1.06 million ha) of the total consists of areas occupied by the physical
infrastructure components of the socio-economic system.
In terms of non-renewable resources Romania possesses yet unexploited mineral
reserves amounting to more than 20 billion tonnes: non-ferrous metal ores (potential
resources of 2.21 billion tonnes), ferrous metal ores (potential resources of 58.6
million tonnes), salt (potential resources of 16.96 billion tonnes), non-metal ores
(potential resources of 292.8 million tonnes), sand and gravel (potential resources of
456.9 million tonnes), construction and ornamental rock (potential resources 34.5
million tonnes of which 6.39 million tonnes of marble).
Romania holds 1,900 deposits of usable non-energy mineral resources covering a
range of final destinations: metals (copper, iron, manganese, mixed metal ores,
gold, silver, molibden, etc.), industrial uses (salt, feldspar, kaolin, peat, talcum,
bentonite, diatomaceous earth, etc.) and minerals used for construction materials
(limestone, chalk, quartz, sandstone, andesite, granite, marble, gypsum, various
types of sand and gravel).
The estimated reserves of crude oil amount to about 74 million tonnes and those of
natural gas to almost 185 billion cubic metres.

As a result of injudicious interventions (industrial pollution--especially from mining,
oilfields and petroleum processing, chemical plants--dumping of waste, faulty
farming operations, failure to deal with erosion), compaction, deterioration of soil
structure and depletion of nutrients have become widespread, leading to lower
fertility of farmlands. In 2007, soil quality in Romania presented the following
picture: 52% low and very low fertility, 20.7% moderate fertility and only 27% high
and very high fertility.
Regarding the ecological structure of the natural capital, it has to be noted that
the current configuration (composition, relative share of various categories of
ecosystems, spatial distribution) still holds some 53% of natural and semi-natural
ecosystems that, by and large, maintain their multifunctional character and generate
on their own a broad range of resources and services that support and supply the
population and economic activities.
? 150 types of forest ecosystems that are differentiated according to the
predominant tree species or groups of species composing the vegetal cover, the type
of soil and humus content, the hydric and ionic regime of the soil, etc.;
? 227 types of forest for which 42 types of herbaceous and subshrub cover
were described;
? 364 types of stations;
? A large typology of land ecosystems with herbaceous vegetation (alpine
pastures, pastures and hayfields in the highlands, plains and flood-plains);
PAGE 22 / 143 ? A great variety of aquatic ecosystems of which 3,480 rivers (62%
permanent); 246 alpine lakes, dam lakes, lakes and ponds in plain areas, flood plains
and the Danube Delta; 129 subterranean water bodies, and the marine aquatorium
of the Black Sea continental shelf.
Around 45% of the ecological structure of Romania?s natural capital is formed at
present of mostly mono-functional agrarian ecosystems that were organized, before
1990, for intensive production of vegetal or animal foodstuffs or raw materials for
the food and textile industries. In the past 18 years, the majority of large-scale,
state-owned or collective enterprises and their physical infrastructure (irrigation
systems servicing about 3 million hectares of arable land, farming machinery yards,
animal breeding facilities) were dismantled and broken into more than 4 million
micro-farms (mostly subsistence farming); some were simply abandoned, destroyed
or damaged.
The farming production systems are affected by erosion on some 40% of the area
(topsoil loss is estimated at 150 million tonnes per year, of which 1.5 m t of humus),
by landslides, phosphorus and potassium deficiency and by prolonged and frequent
droughts. About 2.5 million hectares of land are affected. In recent years, between
10% and 20% (17% in 2006) of all arable land was not cultivated.
In terms of biodiversity Romania?s accession brought into the European Union a
valuable input of plant and animal species, some of them endemic, that had become
extinct or rare in other parts of Europe. Although natural vegetation occupies
shrinking areas in the plains, tablelands and low hills, there are still wide tracts of
land where human intervention has been minimal (mountains and high hills, the
Danube Delta, lagoon systems and some river meadows).
The composition of the ecological structure of the natural capital, especially the parts
that function as natural or semi-natural systems, displays a relatively high level of
biological diversity and animal and plant stocks, some of which are sustainable.
Natural or semi-natural ecosystems as well as those where extensive or semiintensive farming has been practiced contain 3,630 species of plants and 688 species
of algae; 105 mammal species including large carnivores; 25 species of reptiles, 19
species of amphibians; 216 fish species; 30,000 insect species; 860 crustaceans
species, and 688 species of molluscs. The effort to complete the species inventory
and database in order to cover other taxa and to register the biodiversity that exists
in farming systems (native plant and animal varieties) will be a long process. This
will be largely dependent on the level of professional expertise deployed, the way in
which the investigation may be organised and the adequate coverage of all
ecosystem types.
The stocks of representative plant and animal species in the structure of various
ecosystems are, in fact, the key elements on which the functions of ecosystems and
their capacity to generate flows of resources and services actually depend. Also,
these are the carriers of the genetic heritage and therefore of the ability of the
ecosystems (as components of the natural capital) and of the production
technologies of the economic systems to adapt to the changes occurring in the
functioning of the climate system. The role of plant and animal species in the
structuring, functions and dynamics of the various components of the natural capital
and the fact that, during the past decades, the rate of attrition of biological diversity
(through the extinction of some species and the rising number of species that are
PAGE 23 / 143 vulnerable, in critical condition or endangered) and, implicitly, of the ecological
structure of the natural capital have been acknowledged and are the subject of
several international conventions and specific EU Directives. Romania, as a signatory
of those agreements and an EU Member State, has the obligation to implement their
provisions.
The main factors that have induced changes in the ecological composition and
structure (and therefore in the carrying and bio-productive capacity of Romania?s
natural capital) in the past few decades can be traced back to the strategic
objectives of socio-economic development and to the means for their implementation
over 1960-1989. Those policies caused imbalances and discontinuities that were
corrected only in part under the spontaneous impact of market mechanisms in the
period between 1990 and 2007:
? The expansion and intensification of farming production systems through the
transformation of some natural or semi-natural ecosystems into arable land and the
further alteration of those systems to accommodate the application of intensive
production technologies (20% to 80% of the flood plains of the main rivers and
particularly the Danube?s were dammed and transformed into intensive farming
ecosystems; a large portion of natural grazing grounds covered with steppe
vegetation and of wetlands was transformed into arable land; tree belts and forest
tracts in the plains and meadows were cut, etc.);
? Rapid industrialization through infrastructure development in large production
units, especially in ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, chemicals and
petrochemicals, and machine-building industries brought about an increased
consumption of non-renewable resources (minerals and energy) from local and
external sources. This contributed massively to the pollution of air, surface and
underground water, and soil. The damage was compounded by direct and indirect
pollution resulting from ineffective management or absence of pollution-control
installations in large industrial companies, including in the production of cement,
chemical fertilizers and pesticides;
? The concentration of the forestry sector in large units favoured the overexploitation of natural forests and caused ecological imbalances in many
hydrographical basins within mountain areas;
? Execution of large-scale engineering projects to create water reservoirs and to
prevent flooding;
? Expansion of production capacity for power generation, including large
thermo-electric plants burning inferior-quality coal;
? Urban growth and rural-urban migration, accompanied by insufficient
measures for waste and wastewater collection and proper treatment;
? Development of transport infrastructure (road, rail, river and maritime
transport systems) coupled with continued reliance on depreciated and technically
outdated vehicles;
? Expansion of open-pit mining activities and accumulation of mining waste,
? Diversification of sources and increased density of gaseous, liquid and solid
emissions resulting in enhanced pollution due to frequent violations of the accepted
emission levels in breach of environmental regulations;
? Over-exploitation of non-renewable and renewable natural resources to
supply the production processes of the economy;
PAGE 24 / 143 ? Intentional or accidental introduction of alien species in the natural or
agrarian ecosystems; for many of those species significant data have been collected
indicating their invasive potential and ability to disrupt the natural and semi-natural
systems.
The long process of transition to democratic governance and a functional market
economy witnessed an uneasy co-existence of political objectives and administrative
structures belonging to both the old and the new development cycles: state and
private property, central and decentralized administrations, intensive and
subsistence farming.
Major consequences for the state of the natural capital resulted from the
implementation of sectoral plans and programmes without a coherent overarching
strategy that could reflect complex, direct and indirect interdependencies within
different timeframes and spatial scales between the socio-economic system and the
natural capital. This produced a series of significant qualitative and quantitative
changes in the structure and functions of natural capital components. From the
perspective of the principles and objectives of sustainable development, the primary
relevant impacts on the current state of the natural capital are:
? An active process of erosion of biological diversity that is apparent in: the
extinction of plant species (documented for 74 superior plant species); 1,256
superior plant species were classed as rare, 171 as vulnerable and 39 as
endangered; of the 105 mammal species in the native fauna 26 are endangered, 35
are vulnerable and 25 are in serious decline, although 3 species that are rare or
extinct in many other EU counties (wolf, brown bear, lynx) have very vigorous stocks
in Romania; of the 216 species of fish in Romanian waters 11 species are
endangered, 10 species are in critical state and 18 are vulnerable.
? The fragmentation of the habitats of many species and the interruption of
longitudinal connectivity (through river damming) and lateral connectivity (through
the installation of dikes in flood-prone areas, the blockage or constraining the
migration routes or the access to feeding and spawning areas of fish species).
? Reduction or elimination of some types of habitats or ecosystems in transit
areas (tree belts, young marginal forest, wetlands within the perimeter of large
farming units or aggregations of plots) with a considerable negative impact on
biodiversity and on the ability of those systems to control diffuse pollution, soil
erosion, flash flooding and propagation of flood waters, to ensure the biological
control of pest species, and to facilitate the replenishment of aquifers and
underground water bodies.
? Large-scale alteration, sometimes above the critical threshold, of the
structural configuration of hydrographical basins and waterways, associated with a
very significant reduction of the capacity of aquatic systems to absorb the pressure
of human activities and with an increased vulnerability of such systems and of the
socio-economic systems that depend on them. Torrent activity and the formation of
surface runoff have accelerated in many catchment basins.
? Excessive simplification of the structure and multifunctional capacity of those
ecological formations that are dominated by, or are formed exclusively of intensive
farming ecosystems, and their increased dependence on commercial material and
energy inputs.
PAGE 25 / 143 ? Destruction and reduction of the bio-productive capacity of the natural capital
components in the farming sector.
The totality of structural changes that have occurred over long periods of time,
primarily as a result of the diversification and growth of human pressure, and are
reflected in the current configuration of the ecological structure of the natural capital
in Romania also led to a reduction of the bio-productive capacity of natural capital
and of its ability to support the demand of the national socio-economic system for
resources and services. As a result, the Romanian territory has become more
vulnerable to geomorphologic, hydrological and climate hazards.
The bio-productive capacity of the natural capital in Romania, considering its
current structure expressed in the equivalent of gross productive area per capita (g
ha/cp) is estimated at 2.17 g ha/cp, which amounts to slightly more than half of the
estimated potential of 3.5-4 g ha/cp.
This major decline of the bio-productive or support capacity of the natural capital
reflects the changes that have occurred and accumulated in all categories of natural
capital, especially in the farming and forestry sectors. Presently, the bio-productive
capacity of the natural capital is exceeded by the demands of the socio-economic
system, which was estimated at 2.45 g ha/cp for the year 2004 and 2.7 g ha /cp for
the year 2006.
This conclusion calls attention to the fact that Romania?s economic development
continues to follow an unsustainable path. The support capacity of the natural capital
in Romania has been exceeded, and the gap tends to widen inasmuch as several
sectoral programmes pursue objectives conflicting with the principles of sustainable
development, generating negative impacts on the structure and support capacity of
the natural capital.
2. Physical (man-made) capital
The current condition of Romania is characterised by a belated transition to a
functional market economy, compounded by deficient management, against the
background of a difficult historical legacy and severe structural distortions that
occurred in the past 3-4 decades.
Between 2001 and 2007, Romania?s macroeconomic performance improved
significantly despite less than favourable international circumstances. The growth of
the gross domestic product (GDP) posted an average annual rate of more than 6%,
one of the highest in the region, and was accompanied by a sustained and largely
successful process of macro-stabilisation. In 2007, the GDP reached a total of about
Euro 121.3 billion, three times over the figure for the year 2000. None the less, the
GDP per capita calculated at standard purchasing power parity represented only
some 41% of the EU average.
After 1990, the Romanian economy underwent important structural changes, marked
by transfers of activity from manufacturing industries and farming first to services
PAGE 26 / 143 and then to construction. In the early stages, the restructuring of manufacturing
industries caused a reduction of their contribution to GDP formation from about
40% in 1990 to about 25% in 1999. After 2000, structural decline was halted and
the contribution of industrial activities to the GDP held steady. It is significant that, in
2007, the private sector created 86.6% of the gross value added in industry
compared to 68.4% in 2000. The share of the service sector rose from 26.5% of the
GDP in 1990 to about 50% in 2007. It is noteworthy that some sectors (textiles,
footwear, furniture, electrical equipment) underwent deeper structural adjustments,
which were made possible due to rapid privatisation and were able to attain a
reasonable level of profitability. Significant progress was also made in the
restructuring of the mining sector, building materials production and shipbuilding.
In other industrial sectors, however, a large number of loss-making enterprises were
kept alive through government interventions, which sheltered them from the rigours
of market discipline and prevented them from adjusting to an increasingly
competitive business environment. Delayed restructuring and insistence on
unrealistic conditions for privatisation in relation to market requirements caused a
severe depreciation of assets in many enterprises and wiped off the competitive
advantages that they might originally have had. The actual worth of manufacturing
equipment that was made redundant as a result of restructuring and privatisation is
hard to estimate, but it will suffice to note that, from 2000 to 2007, the Romanian
exports of scrap iron averaged 2 million tonnes a year. Until recently, investment
trends in the manufacturing industries showed a preference for low-technology,
energy-intensive sectors using low and medium skilled labour and producing modest
added value.
Prior to 1989, Romania?s economy was characterised by a high share of energyintensive industries and a poor energy-saving culture. The restructuring of the
manufacturing sector, which was done by contraction of activities rather than by
enhanced efficiency, resulted in a 40% reduction of energy intensity between 1990
and 2000.
In the area of energy, structural adjustments in the economy and increased
efficiency of resource use led to a reduction of primary energy intensity from 0.670
tonnes oil equivalent (Toe) in 2000 for each Euro 1,000 of the gross domestic
product (GDP) at constant 2006 prices to 0.526 Toe per Euro 1,000 of the GDP in
2006, adjusted to 2005 monetary values. However, energy intensity in Romania
remains twice as high as the EU average. The electric energy intensity also showed a
favourable trend as it dropped by approximately 10% between 2000 and 2005. The
level registered in 2005 (0.491 KwH/Euro-2005) was still almost twice the EU
average. For a gross domestic consumption of primary energy resources of
approximately 36 million Toe per annum, it is estimated that the national potential
for energy saving, mainly through increased efficiency and reduced losses, amounts
to 10 million Toe per annum, i.e. 30-35% of primary resources (20-25% in
manufacturing industries, 40-50% in buildings, 35-40% in transport).
The dependence on imports of primary energy resources went up in 2007 to about
30% for natural gas and 60% for crude oil, and the energy bill tends to grow further
considering the depletion of national reserves. The domestic production of coal,
though still relatively abundant (to last for 15-40 more years), is of low quality and
uncompetitive in terms of cost. Domestically produced nuclear fuel is also close to
PAGE 27 / 143 depletion, so that Romania will become a net importer of uranium by 2014 at the
latest.
Compared to the total installed capacity for electric power production of 18,300
megawatts (MW), the available supply capacity in 2006 was 14,500 MW, of which
40% from plants burning coal, 31% oil (mainly fuel oil) or natural gas, 25% from
hydropower stations and 4% from nuclear reactors. The actual production of
electricity was provided by plants burning fossil fuels (61.2%), hydropower stations
(29%) and nuclear plants (9.8%, up to 16-18% starting 2008).
The technological equipment and reliability of fossil fuel fired power generation plants
and some hydropower stations are still relatively low-grade, many such installations
are well past their designed lifetime of about 30 years (70% for thermal and 40% for
hydro power plants). The same observation holds true for the technical obsolescence
of the high-voltage transmission lines (50%), electricity substations (60%) and main
gas pipelines (69%).
Manufacturing industries account for 17.5% of the final energy consumption. The
aggregate energy consumption of all economic activities represents 68.6% and
residential use 31.4% of the total (compared to the EU average of 41%). The district
heating network is relatively well developed, covering the heating and hot water
requirements of about 29% of the households, 55% of those in urban areas (mainly
in 85,000 multi-storeyed buildings housing about 7 million people). Prior to 1990,
the principal suppliers used to be large cogeneration units for industrial and urban
uses, which provided 40% of the electric power produced in Romania. Compared to
the 251 central systems that used to supply thermal energy in 1990, only 104 were
still functional in 2007, most of them operating below the threshold of profitability.
Energy losses in district heating systems are very high, between 35% and 77% in
relation to fuel consumption, depending on the kind of technology they use and the
degree of depreciation (15-40% during production, 15-35% during transport and
distribution, 10-40% at the final consumer end). It is estimated that simply by
resorting to the thermal rehabilitation of the multi-storeyed housing developments
the energy savings could amount to 1.4 million Toe per annum leading, by way of
consequence, to a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions of about 4.1 million tonnes
a year.
In the field of transport Romania holds a key position at the eastern border of the
European Union as a transit zone for both the East-West routes (link to Asia across
the Black Sea) and North-South (from the Baltic to the Mediterranean). Three of the
priority TEN-T axes cross Romania.
Recent Romanian developments confirm the current trends that are common to the
EU countries and considered to be alarming: the share of road transport increased
from 45.6% in 2001 to 72.4% in 2007 in terms of distance covered for the shipping
of goods, and from 35.2% to 51.4% for passenger traffic (inter-city and
international, in passengers/km). In relation to the amounts of cargo (in tonnes) and
the number of passengers actually transported the share of road transport went up
in 2007 to 78,8% and 71.6%, respectively, close to the EU average (76.5% in
2005). During the same period of time, the number of road haulage vehicles
increased by 24.5% to 545 thousand and the number of automobiles by 25% to 3.6
million, still below the EU average. The precarious condition of road infrastructure
(only 228 kilometres of motorways and 21.5 thousand kilometres of rehabilitated
PAGE 28 / 143 national and local roads out of a total of about 80 thousand kilometres in 2006) and
the low density of public roads (33.5 kilometres for 100 square km in 2005,
compared to the EU average of 110.1 km for 100 sq km in 2003) account for longer
distances and more time required for transport from point to point. This leads to
excessive fuel consumption, generating nefarious effects on the environment and a
large number of road accidents (743 deaths per 1 million passengers), way above
the EU average (239).
Taken together, the share of rail, river and maritime transport of goods went down
from 50% in 2001 to 25.7% in 2007 (in tonnes/km). Rail cargo traffic decreased by
5.4%, but its market share shrank almost 2 times from 39.6% in 2001 to 19.7% in
2007. Although river shipping grew by 32%, its market share diminished from 6.8%
in 2001 to 3.3% in 2007. Considerable shrinking occurred in the market share of
maritime cargo shipping from 55.6% in 2000 to 14.3% in 2001 to less than 0.1% in
2007. A contributing factor was the decline of those industries that required shipping
of large amounts of bulk cargo, but the main cause was a contraction of more than
50 times of the carrying capacity of the Romanian merchant fleet. Out of a total
322.7 million passengers who travelled in 2007, 71.6% used the services of road
transport, 27.3% went by rail, 1.0% by air and only 0.1% used river transport.
Although the total amount of transported goods (in tonnes) rose by 24.4% between
2001 and 2007 in relation to a real GDP growth of 34.8%, which can be seen as a
favourable development in light of the EU target to decouple economic growth from
transport volumes, the total distances covered saw a two-fold increase. This was
almost exclusively due to the larger share of road transport in handling the 32.8%
growth in moved cargo at the expense of the other modes of transport, which led to
longer travel distances, larger fuel consumption and higher amounts of harmful
emissions.
An analysis of resource productivity in activities related to transport, storage and
communications from 2001 to 2006 shows that the gross added value rose by 41%,
while intermediary consumption (the value of purchased goods and services) grew by
57%, resulting in a 10.4% reduction in the profitable use of resources. It follows that
the value added from transport activities was achieved in its entirety at the expense
of supplementary resource consumption, which runs counter to the principle of
sustainable development.
Romania?s agriculture is still in decline due to excessive fragmentation of land
property (subsistence farming is predominant), poor endowment with machines and
equipment, precarious state of rural infrastructure, low amounts of chemical or
organic fertilizers and pesticides used, dramatic reduction of irrigated areas, soil
degradation, chronic deficit of available financing and the absence of a functional
system of farming credit.
The farming area of Romania covered roughly 14.7 million hectares in 2006,
representing 61.8% of the total land area, of which 64.1% arable land, 1.5%
vineyards and grapevine nurseries, 1.4% orchards and fruit tree nurseries, 22.6%
pastureland and 10.4% hayfields.
In pursuance of landed estate legislation, some 95.3% of the farmland and a large
proportion of the forested land were returned to their rightful owners. As a result,
the total number of farms was 4,256,152 in 2005, of which 90.65% had an area of
PAGE 29 / 143 less than 5 hectares, 9.02% between 5 and 10 hectares and just 0.33% more than
50 hectares.
Food consumption in Romania is low in meat, dairy products, eggs, fish and some
varieties of fruit and vegetables, and higher in cereal-based products compared to
the developed European countries. Meeting the needs of the population for a
balanced diet depends on creating sufficient availabilities of food and increasing
purchasing power. In 2007, the household expenses on foodstuffs exceeded 70% of
the disposable income.
The total number of tractors, in 2006, was 174,563 units (of which 13,519 nonfunctional) averaging 54 hectares of arable land per tractor, i.e. 5 times more land
per tractor than in the core countries of the EU, which prevented the timely
execution of operations at the required standards of quality. Only 14.4% of the total
number of small and medium enterprises (most of them micro-enterprises) operated
in rural areas; they were not yet able to absorb the excess manpower and had a
weak impact on the market. Of the total 63,970 kilometres of county and communal
roads only 10.8% had been upgraded by 2005.
Due to persistent lapses in the administration of forests, the area under natural and
semi-natural forests shrank considerably in particular for valuable tree species: 40%
of forests were ecologically destructured, the proportion of sparse forests increased
and the maintenance work for young growth was neglected.
The state of basic infrastructure in Romania is still far below the EU average
standards; considerable gaps will have to be filled with regard to most of the
principal indicators. The existing safe water supply systems cover the needs of only
65% of the population. The quality of the water supplied by the 1,398 installations
for drinking water treatment (most of them operating with outdated and ineffective
technologies) is often below the accepted standards for chemical pollutants (10-25%
depending on the size of the locality and available technology). No less than 25% of
the public water systems for settlements of between 50 and 5,000 inhabitants supply
substandard water in terms of bacteriological infestation, turbidity, and ammonia,
nitrates and iron content. About 10% of the public systems for townships with more
than 5,000 inhabitants supply substandard water in terms of oxidation, turbidity,
taste, smell, and ammonia, nitrates and iron content. Sewerage systems are
available to just slightly more than half of the country?s population (11.5 million), of
whom 10.3 million in urban areas. On the whole, 52% of the total number of people
have access both to drinking water and sanitation, 16% only to safe water, but not
to sanitation, and 32% to none of the services. Only 33% of the villagers are
connected to running water supply systems (compared to 87% in the EU) and only
10% have access to modern sewerage systems.
According to an investigation conducted in 2005, of the total number of wastewater
treatment installations, only 37.6% were functioning according to required
standards. As a result, almost 71% of the water coming from the principal polluting
sources was discharged into natural recipients, especially in rivers, untreated or
insufficiently treated. The main sources of used water were electric and thermal
power production (51%), public utilities, especially sewerage systems (36%) and
other activities (13%).
PAGE 30 / 143 The total amount of solid waste was 320,609 thousand tonnes in 2006 with shares
that varied from year to year of around 27% for municipal waste and 73% for
industrial waste. About 49% of the population had access to garbage collection and
disposal services, with a coverage of 79% of the households in urban areas. The
chief method of waste disposal was in landfills and dumps in 239 municipalities (of
which only 18 met the EU standards). The largest volume of industrial waste came
from mining and power generation units. Some 98% of the total industrial waste was
disposed of in tailings and dumps.
From the perspective of spatial planning, the inhabited areas of Romania are
subject to a process of deterioration through the erosion of traditional features and a
belated link-up with the European trends toward sustainable modern development.
These processes are historically rooted in tardy urbanisation, continued deep
cleavages between urban and rural environments and also between different regions,
the existence of a considerable stock of substandard housing, and deficiencies in
property records and land use.
The current situation incorporates the long-term effects of social and spatial
engineering conducted during the four decades of an over-centralised communist
regime through intrusive interventions against the natural capital, expansion of farm
land at the expense of viable ecosystems, concentration of investments on giant
industrial and urban projects, demolition of historical centres in many cities to make
room for nondescript administrative buildings, the draining of resources for the
construction of the civic centre in Bucharest, etc.
To all this were added, after 1990, the specific consequences of a protracted and
often chaotic process of transition which became apparent, inter alia, in the socioeconomic decline of certain areas (especially in mono-industrial towns), accelerated
physical degradation of collective housing in the ?bedroom townships? that were built
in the 1960s to 1980s, irrational location of new construction by encroaching on sites
of public interest (parks, green spaces, sports grounds, etc.). The larger cities, which
have shown dynamic growth, are confronted with serious problems such as traffic
congestion, higher pollution levels, dysfunctional and outdated utilities, emergence of
slum belts harbouring communities that live in extreme poverty, and the
deterioration of urban landscape.
The deficiencies of the existing legal and regulatory system and permissive or even
abusive interpretation of existing rules by the local authorities, in particular with
regard to land use in violation of the spatial planning prescriptions, continue to
generate unfavourable effects and to produce irretrievable losses in some cases.
These observations also hold true to a large extent with regard to the conservation
and promotion of the national cultural heritage. The absence of adequate property
records and of a complete inventory of historical and architectural monuments,
archaeological sites, built spaces having heritage value and unique landscapes makes
it difficult to establish a rational hierarchy of the interventions needed for their
conservation, rehabilitation or, in specific cases, commercial uses such as tourism.
According to a survey conducted in 2005, 75% of the 26,900 listed historical
monuments and sites were in danger of deterioration or in an advanced stage of
degradation.
PAGE 31 / 143 The limited availability of funds allocated for such interventions is further aggravated
by defective planning (working sites abandoned half-way through the process
because of financing difficulties, absence of elementary conservation and protection
measures, etc.). The responsible authorities at county and municipal level are
understaffed and the few trained experts can hardly cope with the amount of tasks
and quality requirements for the preservation of the national cultural identity in a
European context.
3. Human capital
An accurate evaluation of the state of human capital and of the prevailing trends in
the medium-to-long run is of fundamental importance for realistic projections based
on the sustainable development model in all its essential components: economic,
socio-cultural and environmental. Ultimately, the question that the present Strategy
has to answer in a rational way is: with whom and for whom is sustainable
development to be achieved in Romania?
For an objective overview of the situation, recent studies (European Human Capital
Index, Lisbon Council, 2007) take into account elements such as the human capital
stock (per capita investment in the education and training of employed population,
the composition of human capital in terms of educational levels, and health),
utilization (employment and unemployment rates, share of the population connected
to multi-media networks, participation in productive or creative activities),
productivity (contribution of human capital relative to the value-added produced,
quality of education and training, employability over lifetime, investment in research
and development) and demography (population increase or decline, migration
trends, anticipated impact on the labour market).
All of Europe (with the exception of Turkey, a candidate to EU accession) is affected
by more or less severe demographic stagnation or decline resulting, among other
consequences, in population ageing. In the case of Central European countries that
have joined the European Union the situation becomes worrisome because of very
low birth rates leading to a progressive decline of the labour force, the exodus of
young people and of highly skilled persons, the unsatisfactory level of professional
training suited to market demand and acquisition of the skills required for transition
to the information society based on knowledge and innovation. It is estimated that
there is a real risk for the Central and Eastern European countries to become a thinly
populated area with a declining labour force under pressure to support the burden of
an ageing population.
Romania is no exception. In 2008, the demographic situation is in its nineteenth
year of decline. Three elements have impressed their mark on this state of affairs:
the economic and social crisis that prevailed during most of this period, the newly
acquired right to travel, and the legacy of the absurd demographic policies pursued
through the 60s to the 80s of the past century. Excessively harsh measures
regarding the right to contraception and abortion taken from October 1966 by the
communist regime that went as far as to ?plan? the level of births, the severe legal
restrictions on divorce and the financial penalties imposed on childless persons led to
an unusually large increase of the birth rate in 1967 and 1968 to a level slightly
PAGE 32 / 143 above the European average. The reverse of this temporary rise came in the form of
increased infant mortality that further stayed at high levels, the highest rate of
maternal deaths at childbirth in Europe and an alarming proportion of newborn with
defects at birth and of abandoned babies.
Consequently, it was hardly surprising that the abrogation of the above-mentioned
restrictions in the early days of the new regime led to a sudden drop in the birth rate
in 1990-91 and slightly less so in 1992. This process continued and was amplified in
the following years in relation to all three components that determine the number
and age structure of the population: birth rates, general mortality rates, and external
migration. The process went on also after the year 2000, as the first two components
stabilized at levels that reinforced the process of deterioration through the internal
dynamics of demography.
With a total population of 21,584,365 in 2007, Romania had a birth rate of 10.2 per
thousand inhabitants and a general mortality rate of 11.7 per thousand. Between
1990 and 2007, Romania?s population decreased by about 1.7 million people, which
amounted to a human capital loss of 7.2% without taking into account temporary
emigration or migration in search of better job opportunities. According to
demographic projections, a process of massive depopulation of the country may
occur in the following decades, if fertility rates remain within the limits of the past
ten years of just 1.3 babies per woman, compared to the reproduction rate of 2.1
that is necessary for generational replacement so that population numbers are
maintained at a constant level.
Between 2004 and 2006, the average life expectancy in Romania was of 72.22 years,
with notable differences between genders (68.7 years for men, 75.5 years for
women) compared to the EU average of about 75 years for men and more than 80
years for women. The age structure of the population reveals an ageing process
expressed in the absolute and relative decrease of the young people (0-14 years of
age) from 18.3% in 2000 to 15.3% in 2007, and the increase of the elderly
population (over 65 years of age) from 13.3% in 2000 to 14.9% in 2007. The
average age was 38.9 years in early 2007. Demographic ageing was more evident in
rural areas with an average age of 39.7 years and a share of people that were over
65 years old of 17.4%, most of them women. The ratio of economic dependence of
non-active persons above 60 per 100 economically active adults (20-59 years of age)
was 34, and forecasts indicate a dramatic increase in the following decades.
In 2007, the labour resources of Romania (people between 15 and 64 years of
age) amounted to 15.05 million persons, with an increase of about 100 thousand
over the year 2002. The rate of employment, in 2007, was 58.8%, showing no
significant variation compared to the figures for 2002, but still well below the target
of 70% set in the Lisbon Strategy for the European Union in its entirety for the year
2010. In terms of quality, however, progress has been significant: the number of
employed persons grew by almost 500 thousand in 2007 against 2002, with a
corresponding reduction of the people engaged in farming. The share of persons with
higher (university) education in total employment grew from 11% in 2002 to more
than 14% in 2007, while the number of high school graduates rose from 62.9% in
2002 to about 65% in 2007. This was duly reflected in the steady growth of labour
productivity.
PAGE 33 / 143 At the same time, the imbalances in the labour market have become more severe;
there are sectors and professions where workforce shortages are obvious. The labour
resources are further diminished because of the current retirement age (slightly over
58 years for women and 63.5 for men), significantly lower than the active age limit.
Unemployment among young people continues to be high, about 21%. On the whole,
it can be noted that Romania still has underused labour resources to the tune of
about 30% of the total, which allows for a partial, short-term solution of the
problems caused by labour shortage. Current trends also point to a more effective
use of human capital on the labour market.
The figures concerning migration (immigration and lawful, permanent emigration)
have not been statistically significant after 1995 (around minus 10-15 thousand per
year). However, temporary migration for work overseas, predominantly towards
other EU countries, was estimated to be around 2 million in the spring of 2008. The
emigration of young adults is of particular concern, since their potential decision to
become naturalized in the host countries can have a sizable impact on future birth
rates and age levels. Decision makers must also take into the account the fact that,
as long as considerable disparities in terms of living standards and prospects for
professional and personal advancement still exist, the attractiveness of temporary or
permanent emigration will remain strong, considering also the needs of the more
developed EU countries that are facing similar problems of demographic ageing and
decreasing birth rates.
The above arguments demonstrate that demographic factors represent an essential
component of the prospects for Romania?s sustainable development in the mediumto-long run. Such considerations must be adequately reflected in all national
strategies, both thematic and sectoral.
Demographic trends have been an important contributing factor in statistical terms
(though not in qualitative ones) in shaping the current situation in Romania?s
educational and training system. Between 2000 and 2006, the number of
graduates and that of functioning educational units (in particular at pre-university
level) declined continuously, with variations regarding educational levels and
locations (urban versus rural) that were linked, year after year, to a decline of
school-age population.
The changes that were made to the Education Law of 1995 in 2003 and 2004
significantly improved the legal framework by expanding compulsory education from
8 to 10 grades, introducing some elements of change in the system of pre-university
education financing by enhancing the autonomy of educational units and the role of
local authorities. Public funding of education rose from 3.6% of the GDP in 2001 to
5.2% in 2007 and to an estimated minimum 6% from 2008 onwards.
Following numerous critical remarks, supported by studies that revealed persistent
and, in some aspects, widening disparities compared to the other EU countries, and
the fact that Romania was falling behind the objectives of the Lisbon Strategy, the
main parliamentary parties signed, in February 2008, at the initiative of the
Romanian Presidency, a National Pact for Education that set agreed strategic targets
to remedy the situation in the following period.
The average school-life expectancy was 15.3 years in Romania in 2005, compared to
the EU average of 17.6 years. The share of population between 15 and 64 years of
PAGE 34 / 143 age that was enrolled in some form of education was 47.5%. The gross rate of
enrolment in the primary and secondary education showed an upward trend as it
increased by 4% in the school year 2005/2006 compared to 2002/2003, but a large
difference of 14% persisted between urban and rural areas. While in urban areas
almost 80% of the students completed the compulsory 10-grade cycle by passing the
final examination, in rural areas the percentage was below 50%. In 2006, only 2.9%
of all active population in rural areas had a graduate degree, compared to 21% in
urban areas.
The rate of participation in education of the population between 15 and 24 years of
age increased from 37.3% in 1999/2000 to 46.1% in 2003/2004, but the number of
dropouts remained alarmingly high at 19% in 2006, much above the average EU
level of 15.2% and the target of 10% that is aimed at for 2010 through the
implementation of the Lisbon Strategy.
The share of high-school graduates in the 20-24 age group was 77.2% in 2006,
compared to the EU proposed objective of 85% by 2010. Participation in early, preschool education was 76.2% in 2006, compared to the EU target of 90% for 2010.
Until 2005 there was no explicit and comprehensive system, harmonized at national
level for ensuring education quality. Consequently, the relevance and quality of
education and training could be gauged only on the basis of external evaluations.
The survey that was carried out in 2006 according to the OECD methodology under
the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to evaluate the general
performance of 15 year olds placed Romania in the 47
th
position out of 57
participating countries, with 52.7% of the Romanian students below the level of
scientific literacy. The mediocrity of those results is even more worrisome as it
represented a lower score relative to the previous PISA survey of the year 2000. The
PISA 2006 report revealed large variations between the results obtained by students
from different schools and the persistence of inferior results by students from the
disadvantaged segments of the population. With regard to the understanding of
environmental concerns, less then 40% of the Romanian students were able to
identify and explain the existing problems.
The situation seems to be even more serious in university-level education, where no
qualitative evaluation was made to reveal the relevance of acquired competencies in
relation to the actual requirements of the labour market and the demands of
sustainable development. In strictly quantitative terms, the enrolment rate of highschool graduates in higher education expanded from 27.7% in 2000/2001 to 44.8%
in 2005/2006. However, the fact that only 11.7% of all adults between 25 and 64
years of age are university graduates (compared to 27.7% in the US, 16.4% in the
UK or 15.4% in France) places Romania in an unfavourable position relative to the
demands of the knowledge-based society.
At the end of the 2006/2007 academic year, the enrolment was 818.2 thousand
students, of whom 552.6 thousand in public higher education institutions and 295.6
thousand in private universities. This marked an increase of 11% compared to the
previous year, especially due to registrations for distance-learning courses provided
by private universities (15% of the total number of undergraduate students). The
share of female students was of 59.8% of the graduates in the public education
system and 58% in the private system. The preferences for enrolment continued to
favour the humanities and science departments (31.4% in the public sector and
26.3% in the private), economics (23.9% in the public sector and 44.3% in the
PAGE 35 / 143 private), law (24.6% in the private sector) and 28.1% technical studies (in the public
sector). It is still worth mentioning that, in relation to the EU objective for 2010 to
increase by 15% the enrolment in mathematics, science and technology
programmes, Romania registered a rise of 25.9% in 2006.
The participation rate of adults between 25 and 64 years of age in educational
programmes was still very low in 2006: 1.3% compared to the EU average of 9.6%
or to the EU target of 12.5% for 2010. One additional explanation for the poor
participation in continued education is the low level of Internet penetration (23 users
per one thousand people in 2006) and of electronic services offered by public
administration (0.7%); in this respect Romania occupies the lowest position among
the countries that joined the EU after 2004.
The corroboration of the above-mentioned data on education with the demographic
trends suggests that a faster accumulation of human capital can be achieved through
enhanced investment aimed at increasing the share of high-school graduates in the
20 to 24 age group. Likewise, an increased rate of university enrolment and a higher
proportion of adults participating in life-long learning schemes may compensate the
deficit of highly skilled labour resources that are needed in a knowledge-based,
competitive and sustainable economy. Moreover, it is imperative to improve the
quality of compulsory education.
The Romanian public health system is organised as a social insurance service with
an aim to provide general, equitable and non-discriminatory access to a package of
basic services. In 2005, the National Health Insurance Agency was covering 96.08%
of the urban population and 98.25 of the rural population. Measures to modernize
the system started in 1998 and the legislation for health sector reform enacted in
2006 set the foundation for improved quality of health services through the
decentralization of certain activities, the introduction of a system centred on ?family
physicians? (general practitioners) chosen freely by the patients, the development of
infrastructure for therapy and preventive medicine, wider access to quality medical
services and improved effectiveness of emergency care. As of 2008, the majority of
healthcare institutions are functioning as autonomous units under the administration
of local or county authorities.
The share of public expenditure for the healthcare sector grew from 3.6% of the GDP
in 2004 to 4% in 2007 and to 4.5% in 2008, of which about 80% is disbursed
through the public health insurance system; the allocations from the national budget
were also augmented.
Still, the health system is currently deficient in terms of effective capability to cope
with the demands of modern society due to its precarious infrastructure, faulty
management and chronic shortage of investment against the background of a
combination of persistent socio-economic and environmental problems, with
additional pressures from deficient nutrition and stress. Although a downward trend
was noted over the past five years, according to the country report on the Millennium
Development Goals (2007), Romania continues to hold the lowest position in Europe
for infant mortality, with 13.9 for a thousand live births in 2006 (17.1 per thousand
in rural areas) and for the incidence of tuberculosis (10 times higher then the EU
average).
PAGE 36 / 143 The ability of the Romanian health infrastructure to provide adequate services in
terms of coverage and quality is ranked at less than 50% of the current level of the
ten countries that joined the EU in 2004. Although the number of hospital beds is 6.6
per thousand people (higher then the EU average of 6.1), most of them are in
insalubrious buildings that are more than 50-100 years old and poorly equipped.
The health system is clearly understaffed in Romania (19.5 medical doctors per ten
thousand inhabitants, compared to the EU average of 28-29). The situation if even
worse with regard to the paramedical staff: 2.04 licensed nurses per doctor
(compared to 2.66 in Hungary and 2.76 in the Czech Republic).
Serious disparities in terms of access to health services persist between regions and
social segments, with the low-income groups particularly at risk. While more than
40% of the population lives in rural areas, less then 11% of the medical doctors work
in such areas ? five times less than in urban centres.
Much like some other European countries, Romania shows a deterioration of the
state of mental and emotional health (slightly higher than the European average), a
rise in the abuse of, and dependence on psycho-active substances and in the
instances of aggressive and violent behaviour, also among minors.
The general ageing of the population adds to the pressures on the already fragile
health system.
4. Social capital
The optimal functioning of democratic society assumes not only the existence of an
adequate legal base and an effective institutional structure but also the development
of a participative culture that relies on trust and cooperation. From the classic
definition of social capital as a «societal good that unites humans and enables them
to pursue common goals more effectively» it results that the establishment of trust
among the members of society rests on the fulfilment of obligations and on
reciprocity. In modern society, the collaboration between public and private entities
in the pursuit of the fundamental interests and rights of the citizenry is supported by
networks of voluntary groups and non-governmental organisations, professional
associations, charities, citizens? initiatives, etc. acting (autonomously or in
association, directly or through the mass-media) in relation with the state powers
(legislative, executive and judicial) as guarantors of democratic values and practices.
In the period between the two world wars, there was some movement in Romania
towards the establishment of professional associations and other civil society
formations predominantly oriented towards providing aid and charitable activities or
social assistance on a voluntary basis. During the communist regime, such forms of
association (with the exception of strictly professional ones) were constantly
discouraged, and the existing ones were subjected to intense political and ideological
pressures.
Starting as early as 1990, at the very beginning of transition towards pluralistic
democracy and a functional market economy, the number of non-governmental
organisations grew rapidly and their profiles became more diversified. In the initial
PAGE 37 / 143 phase, and in some cases further on, these organisations enjoyed administrative and
logistic support from similar organisations abroad, particularly from the European
Union, the US, Canada, Japan, etc. Romanian branches of international nongovernmental organisations were established with a focus on human rights,
transparency of public affairs, rightful access to information, environmental
conservation and promotion of sustainable development.
The right to free association is enshrined in the Romanian Constitution and is the
object of no less then 15 special laws and other regulations in the form of
government ordinances and decisions.
The procedures for the establishment, registration, organisation and operation of
private law non-profit entities are regulated by law. The status of such entities as
legal persons is awarded by court order and is recorded in the Registry of
Associations and Foundations. At national level, the Registry is administered by the
Ministry of Justice. The procedures for the recognition in Romania of foreign nonprofit legal entities are regulated by law in a non-discriminatory fashion.
The legal status of political parties, business associations, labour unions, religious
denominations or associations, youth and women?s associations, and the
representative structures of professional communities (such as the Medical Doctors?
League, the Order of Architects, etc.) is regulated by special laws.
For the purpose of implementing the objectives of the National Sustainable
Development Strategy, the Law on Local Public Administration is of particular interest
since it regulates the right of territorial administrative units to work together within
the limits of their decision-making and executive competencies under the law by
forming associations for inter-community development with the status of private
legal entities of public interest in order to develop joint projects at regional or local
level or to render public services jointly. Such forms of association among local
administration authorities are already in existence and they have proved their ability
to come up with initiatives and to take meaningful action: Association of Communes,
Association of Towns, Association of Municipalities, National Union of County
Councils, Federation of Local Authorities.
In Romania?s specific case it is most relevant to note that the methodology for the
implementation of Local Agenda for the 21
st
century (LA 21) was successfully applied
with the assistance of the United Nations Development Programme in more than 40
townships and areas up to county level. The process actively involved all local
stakeholders including civil society organisations and citizens? initiatives in the
preparation and promotion of sustainable development plans and projects that
commanded the support of entire communities.
Most ministries and other central government agencies, as well as local
administration authorities have established special offices to deal with nongovernmental organisations and other associative structures. Significant progress
has been made toward engaging in joint projects with civil society organisations,
particularly for the provision of social services or environment protection and
conservation. The practice of partially subsidizing such activities that are performed
in partnership with non-governmental organisations from the central or local budgets
is still in its infancy, but it already shows constant growth both in terms of numbers
and in terms of actual impact on the communities. Thus, only in the area of social
assistance, the number of associations or foundations that were found to be eligible
PAGE 38 / 143 for subsidised programmes increased between 1998 and 2008 from 32 to 116, and
that of voluntary social assistance units from 60 to 307.
As a result of initiatives taken by individual non-governmental organisations or
coalitions of such organisations, some controversial projects were reconsidered with
regard to the mining industry, the siting or relocation of industrial and infrastructure
projects, spatial planning and urban development, ecological rehabilitation of
polluted sites, etc. However, such actions remain sporadic, showing a limited ability
to mobilize and sustain public support over time; consequently, they have had only a
small impact on the decision-making process so far.
Although the autonomy of civil society organisations is, by and large, acknowledged
and respected, instances of patronage in their relations with the authorities and
political actors are still encountered, particularly (but not exclusively) at local level.
Studies and opinion polls reveal a relatively low level, compared to the other EU
Member States, of citizens? participation in associative structures and of
communication and collaboration among various civil society organisations. One of
the causes that have been identified so far is the limited capacity to fund citizens?
initiatives or viable projects coming from non-governmental organisations due to
legislative deficiencies concerning sponsorship and incentives for the business
community to engage in such projects.
In step with the advancing maturity of civil action in support of the kind of
governance that builds its legitimacy on accountability and transparency, and
considering the crucial importance of public support for the principles and practice of
sustainable development, social solidarity and cohesion in Romania will rely on:
? The transparency of decision-making by the public administration;
? Permanent communication and free access to information of public interest;
? Reliable partnership for the implementation of agreed common objectives;
? Optimal use of available resources;
? Non-discrimination of non-governmental organisations relative to other
partners in the community;
? Respect for the values of non-governmental organisations and their mission.
In order to ensure the effective, transparent and influential involvement of the civil
society in the implementation and monitoring of the National Sustainable
Development Strategy, it is recommended to establish, by law, under the aegis of
the Romanian Academy, a Consultative Council for Sustainable Development with a
Permanent Secretariat, totally autonomous from the executive branch of
government, but funded from the state budget according to the established practice
in most of the EU Member States. As an innovation to the current EU practice, it is
envisaged that the Council should be legally entitled to submit an annual report to
Parliament, complementary to the report to be presented by the Government and
containing its own evaluations and recommendations for further action.
PAGE 39 / 143 P A R T I I I . O B J E C T I V E S F O R
2 0 1 3 , 2 0 2 0 A N D 2 0 3 0
A N D A C T I O N S T O B E T A K E N I N
A C C O R D A N C E W I T H T H E
S T R A T E G I C G U I D E L I N E S O F T H E
E U R O P E A N U N I O N
The structure of chapters and sub-chapters in this section follow closely the logic of
the renewed Sustainable Development Strategy of the European Union (EU SDS) of
2006. The specific Romanian issues and concerns, which are not covered in the EU
priority guidelines, are dealt with separately in Part IV.
1. Key challenges
1.1. Climate change and clean energy
Overall Objective of the EU SDS: To limit climate change and its costs and
negative effects to society and the environment
According to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, which Romania
ratified in 1994, climate change is described as the kind of change that can be
attributed directly or indirectly to human activities and causes an alteration of the
composition of global atmosphere adding to the natural variations of climate that
have been observed over relevant periods of time. Despite current efforts to reduce
greenhouse gases emissions, global temperatures are set to rise. This requires
urgent measures to adjust to the effects of climate change.
Romania?s Strategy and Action Plan on Climate Change for 2005-2007 provided for a
number of important measures for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, for
adjustment to the effects of climate change and for enhancing public awareness.
Romania?s further obligations as a Member State of the European Union regarding
the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions during the post-2012 period derive
from the policy objectives that were agreed at the Spring session of the European
Council on 9 March 2007: to reduce until 2020 the emissions of greenhouse gases by
20% compared to the levels of 1990, to increase by 20%, within that timeframe, the
share of renewable energy in the overall energy consumption, to enhance energy
efficiency by 20%, and to achieve a minimum 10% share of biofuel in the total fuel
PAGE 40 / 143 consumption in transport. In line with the objective to reduce the emissions of
greenhouse gases by 20%, the promotion of renewable sources is the main objective
of the legislative package on climate change and renewable energy resources that
the European Commission submitted on 23 January 2008. The targets envisaged and
the deadlines for their completion are, in some respects, more demanding then those
set in the EU renewed Sustainable Development Strategy of June 2006. The abovementioned legislative package is still being debated at European level and is likely to
be adopted in 2009 at the latest.
The new energy policy of the European Union that was launched in 2007 describes
energy as an essential ingredient for the development of the Union. It equally poses
a major challenge because of the impact of the energy sector on climate change, the
increasing dependence of the EU on energy imports, and the upward trend of energy
prices. It is now recognized that the EU is increasingly vulnerable to instability in the
international energy markets and to the concentration of ownership over
hydrocarbon resources.
By developing the internal energy market the European Union seeks to promote
competitive and fair pricing, to encourage energy savings and to bring more
investment into the energy sector.
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To meet the short and medium-term
energy demand and to create the prerequisites for national energy security
in the long run, responding to the requirements of a modern market
economy for safety and competitiveness; to fulfil the obligations under the
Kyoto Protocol regarding the reduction by 8% of greenhouse gases
emissions; to promote and implement measures for adjustment to the
effects of climate change and to observe the principles of sustainable
development.
For Romania, as a Member State of the European Union, it is particularly important
to be involved in the implementation of the four major medium to long-term
objectives of the energy policy framework of the Union: to enhance the security of
energy supply and of critical infrastructure, to increase competitiveness in the energy
sector, to reduce its impact on the environment and to achieve the integration of the
regional energy market.
The main strategic guidelines of the Romanian energy policy, which have to
concentrate primarily on achieving conformity with the agreed policies and objectives
of the European Union, are:
? Energy security: To maintain national sovereignty over primary energy
resources and national choices in the energy sector; to heighten the reliability of
energy supply and to maintain an acceptable degree of dependence on imports
through the diversification of external sources, national energy resources, national
and regional energy transport routes and networks; to promote regional cooperation
for the protection of critical energy infrastructure;
? Sustainable development: To improve energy efficiency along the whole
resource-production-transport-distribution-consumption chain through an optimal
organisation of production and distribution processes and the reduction of total
consumption of primary energy relative to the value of products and services; to
PAGE 41 / 143 increase the share of energy produced from renewable sources in total consumption
and in power generation; to use non-renewable primary resources rationally and
efficiently and to reduce progressively their share in final consumption; to promote
the production of heat and electric power in highly efficient co-generation plants; to
utilize secondary energy resources; to support research, development and innovation
in the energy sector with an emphasis on improved energy and environmental
efficiency; to mitigate the negative impact of the energy sector on the environment
and to live up to the commitments to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases and
atmospheric pollutant emissions;
? Competitiveness: To develop and further improve competitive markets for
electricity, natural gas, oil, uranium, coal, and energy sector services; to promote
renewable resources through the use of Green Certificates in the context of regional
integration; to develop the White Certificates market for the efficient use of energy;
to enhance participation in the EU emission trading scheme for greenhouse gases; to
liberalize energy transit and ensure the uninterrupted and non-discriminatory access
of market actors to transport and distribution networks and to international
interconnections; to develop the infrastructure of the energy sector; to continue the
process of restructuring and privatization in the power, heating and natural gas
sectors; to continue the restructuring of brown coal mining and use in order to
increase profitability and improve access to capital markets; to create a regional
energy exchange and to ensure Romania?s continued involvement in the
consolidation of energy markets at European level.
Through coherent measures to increase energy efficiency, final energy
consumption will be reduced by 13.5% in between 2008 and 2016 compared to the
average consumption levels between 2001 and 2005, in conformity with the first
National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency 2007-2010. This objective will be
accomplished through legislative and regulatory measures, voluntary agreements,
expanded energy-saving services, specialized financial instruments and cooperative
schemes.
National policies together with regional and local energy sector strategies will
promote the modernization of combined heat and power systems through the
use of highly efficient technologies. The rehabilitation of heating systems for at least
25% of the multi-storeyed buildings will result in significant energy savings,
reduction of carbon dioxide emissions and affordable energy bills for consumers. A
new social assistance system, combining a streamlined approach with targeted
interventions will be introduced to provide the necessary framework for coordination
among the relevant authorities and to reform the current system of subsidies and
support payments to the most vulnerable consumers. Particular attention will be
given to the energy sector in rural areas with an aim to introducing modern, ecoefficient heating systems and providing power supply at bearable costs.
Selective support of investments will encourage the commissioning of new power
generation capacity using clean energy technologies, resulting in considerable
reductions of emissions of greenhouse and other polluting gases and improved
operational safety of the national energy system.
With regard to renewable energy sources, under the terms of the legislative
package that the European Commission presented on 23 January 2008, Romania has
the obligation to prepare and to present to the European Commission, by 31 March
PAGE 42 / 143 2010, a National Action Plan including concrete targets for the share of renewable
energy sources used for transport, power generation, heating and cooling, along with
the corresponding measures to meet those targets. While the target for the
European Union as a whole is to make sure that 20% of the total energy
consumption comes from renewable sources in 2020, the new objectives of Romania
for the period from 2012 to 2020 will be in line with the targets to be set in the
process of redistribution of responsibilities among the EU Member States. By 2010,
the share of renewable resources in the total consumption of primary energy
resources will be 11% in Romania, growing to 11.2% in 2015.
The implementation of the Green Certificates scheme will increase the share of
power generated from renewable sources to 9-10% of the final consumption of
electricity, related to the actual amount of electric energy sold to consumers,
considering that the centralised EU Emission Trading Scheme has been functional
since 2005. Current legislation also provides for the suppliers? obligation to acquire a
number of emission permits that is equal to the ratio between the value of
mandatory quota, as agreed at EU level through the redistribution of responsibilities
among the Member States with regard to the promotion of renewable sources of
energy, and the amount of electric power supplied to the final consumers on a yearly
basis.
Romania will be actively involved, within the EU framework, in the internal
negotiations for the adoption, in 2009, of the legislative package on climate change
and energy from renewable resources, which was introduced by the European
Commission on 23 January 2008. At the same time, Romania will participate, as part
of the EU, in the international negotiations under the aegis of the United Nations
(Framework Convention and Kyoto Protocol) with a view to producing by the end of
2009, in Copenhagen, a new global agreement on climate change setting the
objectives for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and the required
additional measures for the post-2012 implementation period.
Adaptation to the effects of climate change is a complex process because the serious
nature of those effects may differ from one region to another depending on physical
vulnerability, level of socio-economic development, natural and human capacity for
adjustment, condition of health services and oversight mechanisms to cope with
disasters. As of 2007, the issues related to the adjustment to the effects of climate
change became a subject of European debate following the European Commission?s
Green Charter. The document provides for further EU action concentrating on four
main directions:
? Integration of adaptation measures into sectoral policies;
? Integration of adaptation measures into the foreign policy of the EU Member
States focusing on the neighbouring countries;
? Reducing uncertainties through the development of relevant research;
? Involvement of the civil society, businesses and public sector in the
preparation of coordinated and comprehensive strategies for adjustment.
The sectors that are vulnerable to the effects of climate change in Romania and
require a more detailed analysis are: biodiversity, agriculture, water resources,
forestry, infrastructure and construction business, transport, tourism, energy,
manufacturing industries, and public health.
PAGE 43 / 143 Special attention will have to be paid to the poor communities that depend in large
measure on the direct use of local natural resources for their livelihood. They have
limited resources for subsistence and for coping with climate variations and natural
disasters.
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To ensure the efficient and safe operation
of the national energy system; to attain the current average levels of energy
intensity and energy efficiency of the EU; to fulfil Romania?s obligations in
accordance with the EU legislative package on climate change and
renewable energy and with international targets following the adoption of a
new global agreement on that subject; to promote and implement measures
for adaptation to the effects of climate change and to observe the principles
of sustainable development.
According to the impact study which was conducted with a view to maintaining a fair
balance among the efforts to be made by the EU Member States in order to meet the
target to reduce unilaterally, by the year 2020, the greenhouse gases emissions by
20% against the emissions levels of 1990, the non-ETS sectors in Romania (sources
outside the emissions trading scheme) comprising smaller emission sources in the
fields of energy, manufacturing industries, transport, construction, farming, waste
management, etc. might benefit from a 19% increase of the allocated quota for
greenhouse gases emissions compared to the level of 2005.
The emissions from the ETS sector (companies that are subject to the emissions
trading scheme) will be regulated by harmonising at a European level the methods
for the allocation and distribution of certificates among all participating companies. It
is envisaged that, by 2020, the total number of permits for greenhouse gases
emissions should be reduced at European level by 21% compared to the number
allotted in 2005.
In conformity with the legislative package currently under consideration by the
European Parliament and the EU Council, Romania will have to increase the share of
renewable resources (solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, biogas etc.) in the final energy
consumption from 17.8% in 2005 to 24% in 2020 (compared to the EU average of
8.5% in 2005, with the objective to reach 20% in 2020). Romania proposes to bring
the share of electric power produced from renewable sources to 38% of the total in
2020.
Enhanced energy efficiency will bring about a reduction in the consumption of
primary energy by 20% and that of final energy consumption by 18% compared to
the average consumption of 2001-2005.
Primary energy intensity will go down to 0.26 tonnes oil equivalent per 1,000 Euro-
2005 (close to the EU average of 2006), and final energy intensity will decrease to
0.17 Toe/1,000 Euro-2005 (below the EU average of 2006).
The use of biofuels and other renewable fuels in transport will amount to at least
10%, reckoned on the basis of the energy content of all types of petrol and diesel
fuels now in use, while abiding by sustainability criteria for those products, with an
intermediary target of 5.75% in 2010.
PAGE 44 / 143 The rehabilitation of approximately 35% of the multi-storeyed residential,
administrative and commercial buildings will continue with a view to improving their
energy efficiency.
New power generation units will be commissioned and connected to the national grid
in order to cover the projected demand, including two new reactors at the nuclear
power plant in Cernavoda and the completion of several hydropower stations.
The potential negative effects of climate change were identified in Romania for every
sector leading to recommendations regarding the measures to be taken and the
studies to be performed with a view to a better, science-based approach to
adaptation. In the absence of detailed sectoral studies and climate change scenarios
at a national level in Romania, a preliminary evaluation suggests the need for the
following actions:
? Integration of measures for adjustment to the effects of climate change at the
time of implementation and amendment of current and future legislation and
policies;
? Revision of the state budget and all national strategies and programmes so as
to include the requirements for the adjustment of sectoral policies;
? Development of communication for the implementation of adaptation
measures at a local level. Many of the decisions that have a direct or indirect
impact on adjustment to climate change are taken at a local level;
? Enhancing the awareness about adaptation to climate change. Changes of
behaviour in society and at community level depend on awareness about
existing problems.
Horizon 2030. National Objective: To align Romania?s performance with the
EU average in terms of energy and climate change indicators; to meet
Romania?s commitments on reducing greenhouse gases emissions in
accordance with existing international and EU agreements; to implement
further measures for adjustment to the effects of climate change.
Romania will continue to contribute effectively, in keeping with the agreements in
force at international and EU levels, toward the implementation of the common
objectives of the European Union on climate change by reducing the emissions of
greenhouse gases and implementing measures for adaptation to the effects of
climate change.
Improved energy efficiency will bring about a reduction of the primary energy
consumption by 30% and of the final energy consumption by 26% compared to the
average consumption levels recorded between 2001 and 2005. The use of efficient
light bulbs will be generalised.
The use of clean technologies for power and heat production will be expanded in
generating plants using energy resources and technologies producing very low levels
of carbon emissions and provided with facilities for the capture and underground
storage or carbon dioxide.
The construction of hydropower stations and water engineering works will continue in
order to turn to good account the existing, but yet unexploited, 15-20% potential for
power generation.
PAGE 45 / 143 Two additional, large-capacity nuclear power units will be built to meet the expected
demand for economic development and public consumption.
The thermal rehabilitation of some 40% of multi-storeyed buildings will be continued
and projects will be developed for passive buildings and residential developments
with very low energy consumption (15-50 kWh per square metre per year).
1.2. Sustainable transport
Overall Objective of the EU SDS: To ensure that transport systems meet
society?s economic, social and environmental needs whilst minimising their
undesirable impacts on the economy, society and the environment.
Romania?s development plans give priority to the transport sector because of its
interdependence with the other branches of the national economy, the value of its
services for the population and its considerable impact on the environment.
The development of transport aims to facilitate the inclusion of Romania?s urban
systems in the European network by improving the road, rail, maritime, river and air
services having mainly European destinations. The relative indicator of accessibility
(combining services, transhipments, prices and duration of travel) will be gradually
aligned to the performance of European metropolitan areas by 2020.
The connections between cities will be improved by supporting the development of
public inter-city transport and better coordination of traffic management; minimal
general affordability of public transport services will be ensured to all citizens, with
special regard to the vulnerable groups (children, senior citizens, persons with
reduced mobility). The accessibility of public transport in areas with low population
density or in dispersed locations will be ensured at a reasonable minimal level.
Travel safety will be improved, with an estimated 50% reduction in traffic fatalities
by 2030 compared to 1998.
The protection of transport infrastructure will apply a ?zero risk? policy and the
perceived risks will be continuously re-evaluated for all transport modes.
In order to promote environment-friendly behaviour the global impact of pollutant
emissions from transport will be gradually reduced with a view to meeting the
targets that were assigned to Romania concerning the national emissions ceilings.
The current overshooting of accepted levels for air quality in cities will be reduced by
5% in 2015 and further on by 15% for those emissions where transport is the main
source of pollution.
Considering the precarious state of the infrastructure and available means of
transport and the unfavourable trends concerning resource productivity in recent
years (see Part II, Chapter 2), this sector is set to receive a significant portion of the
EU grant funding for the period 2007-2013.
PAGE 46 / 143 The negative ratio between the demand for transport services (particularly by road)
and gross domestic product (GDP) growth is currently four times the EU average; the
following means are envisaged to reduce it in the future:
? Gradual changes in the structure of the economy by reducing the share of
those sectors (mining, iron and steel, petrochemicals) that require haulage of large
amounts of materials and are massive consumers of energy and by raising the share
of those sectors that produce higher value added with a lower consumption of energy
and materials (services, processing industries, etc.);
? Changes in the structure of electric power generation following expanded use
of renewable energy resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, micro-hydro),
increased nuclear power production (which was doubled in 2008, with the prospect to
build two more units in the next 7-9 years) and a lower share of oil and coal-fired
generation plants, which require haulage of large amounts of fuel, often over large
distances;
? Reduction of specific material and energy consumption in all the productive
sectors of the economy resulting in lower transport requirements through
programmes designed to encourage technical and technological innovation and to
increase competitiveness;
? Gradual changes in production, storage and distribution processes leading to
a more balanced demand for freight and passenger transport;
? Gradual adjustment of transport structure, first by reducing the rate of growth
of road transport and, in a subsequent phase, by directing the flow of freight and
passengers towards alternative modes of transport;
? Stabilizing the demand for private transport and the artificial growth of the
need for individual mobility within and between urban centres through balanced
urban and spatial planning and through improved public passenger transport
services.
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To promote in Romania a transport
system that would facilitate the safe, fast and efficient movement of
persons and goods nationally and internationally, in accordance with
European Union standards.
Although the estimation of the future transport demand (in tonnes/kilometre) in
relation to GDP growth is still highly uncertain, it can be expected that a stabilization
of demand will not be possible in the 2007-2013 period. The trend toward a negative
coupling of transport demand and GDP growth that prevailed between 2001 and
2005 is likely to continue beyond 2013.
Regarding resource productivity, the unfavourable trend that was apparent in
2001 to 2005 (when the growth of transport services in terms of value was achieved
entirely at the expense of additional consumption of resources) will level out
following the gradual implementation of a specific set of measures:
? Modernisation of infrastructure for road, rail, water and air transport, which
will make it possible to increase the average speed and fluidity of traffic, to broaden
and diversify the range of options for freight transport and the quality of services for
passenger travel, and to optimize the use of means of transport while enhancing
safety standards and competitiveness;
PAGE 47 / 143 ? Equal treatment of all transport systems in terms of access to financing for
the upgrading, repair and maintenance of infrastructure and means of transport
(particularly rail transport);
? Accelerated renewal of the stock of vehicles by decommissioning those that
are physically depreciated or obsolete and replacing them with modern equipment
that fits the usage and technical standards of the EU in terms of economic, social and
environmental efficiency;
? Increasing the speed of rail traffic to 140-160 km/h, upgrading the rolling
stock and providing opportunities for a balanced transfer of part of road transport to
the railway system, with the target to reach a market share of 15% by 2015 (26%
for passenger transport);
? Gradual development of shipping on interior waterways through upgrading
and expansion of port infrastructure, providing continuous access for vessels up to
2,000 tdw on the Romanian sector of the Danube and fluent navigation along the
whole length of the Rhine-Main-Danube corridor (involving 8 EU Member States).
The promotion of transport on interior waterways will have significant socio-economic
effects by enhancing the competitiveness of river transport relative to other modes;
it is likely to take over a considerable portion of the cargo currently hauled by road,
to offer competitive alternatives in the ?door-to-door? logistical chain and to help
reduce environmental impacts;
? Re-launching maritime transport through the Romanian Black Sea and
Danube ports by expanding their functional structures to serve as logistical centres
integrated in the inter-modal transport system; providing a balanced framework for
fair competition among ports;
? Implementation of EU standards regarding inter-modal or combined transport,
consolidation of inter-modality by developing logistical platforms in the port of
Constanta and the Danube ports, multi-modal cargo platforms at the International
Airport Henri Coanda (Bucharest, Otopeni) and other airports specialising in
commercial cargo, and also increased access to railroad services in ports.
? Step-by-step attainment of the required performance levels on the air
transport market regarding inter-operability, standards and regulations, safety rules,
flight security and environmental protection.
These measures will lead to significant reductions in energy consumption and
pollutant emissions, with beneficial effects on the costs and competitiveness over the
entire national transport system.
The Sectoral Operational Programme ?Transport?, which was approved on 12 July
2007, provides a coherent vision for future developments and sets the priorities,
objectives and procedures for the allocation of structural and cohesion funds for the
development of the transport sector over the 2007-2013 period, with
particular focus on the following objectives:
? Development and modernisation of the priority trans-European transport axes
(TEN-T) in the territory of Romania in order to achieve a sustainable transport
system, integrated with the EU networks. The objective is to improve territorial
cohesion between Romania and the other EU Member States through a significant
reduction of travel time, improved safety and quality of transport services for
persons and goods to and from the main national and EU destinations, and a
reduction of adverse environmental impacts.
PAGE 48 / 143 ? Upgrading and development of the national transport infrastructure, other
than the TENT-T priority axes, with an aim to developing a sustainable national
transport system.
● Modernisation of the transport sector to improve performance in terms of
environmental protection, human health and traffic safety.
The Operational Programme ?Transport? 2007-2013 represents one of the ways to
ensure the implementation of the objectives established by law as early as 2003 to
design, develop and upgrade the national and European transport network in keeping
with Romania?s commitments in this sector and with the National Strategy for
Sustainable Transport for 2007-2013, with projections to 2020 and 2030 (drafted in
2008).
In order to minimize the negative environmental impacts of transport a
special strategy for environmental protection in the transport sector will be
developed in correlation with the new EU policies, including the maritime dimension,
with particular focus on such indicators as admissible levels of pollution, methods
and means for the monitoring and control of pollutant emissions, greenhouse gases
and noise levels caused by transport activities The mapping of noise intensity
produced by transport in large urban areas and on road networks with high-intensity
traffic will make it possible to establish the required measures for the protection of
the population and the environment. New regulations will be developed on the basis
of the best practice in the other EU countries for the taxation of infrastructure use
and means of transport. Financial and/or fiscal incentives (such as reductions of, or
exemption from excise tax, subsidies for research and development) will be used to
encourage more extensive use of bio-fuels and alternative fuels for transport.
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To attain the current EU average level of
economic, social and environmental efficiency of transport and to achieve
substantial progress in the development of transport infrastructure.
Technical and financial conditions will be ensured to continue the projects for
infrastructure upgrading and developments that started or were under way during
the 2007-2013 period. Work will start on those projects for which the blueprints are
ready, especially those that are scheduled for completion between 2014 and 2020.
Particular attention will be given to the maintenance of the upgraded or rehabilitated
infrastructure in keeping with the planned standards and to rehabilitation of
damaged segments through maintenance and repairs.
The projects included in the Operational Programme 2007-2013 for the southern
branch of the pan-European road and rail Corridor IV will be fully financed and
completed. The second stage of upgrading for the national networks, other than
those located on the TEN-T routes, will also be completed.
Studies and blueprints will be finalized in order to begin the upgrading of transport
infrastructure (road and rail) along the pan-European Corridor IX: from the border
with the Republic of Moldova to the border with Bulgaria, providing links to Corridors
IV and VII (the Danube).
Studies will be launched for the infrastructure network along the corridors that are to
be established following the revision of the TEN-T guidelines for 2020 to 2030.
PAGE 49 / 143 Romania will undertake further action to implement the programmes for the
modernisation, development and maintenance, according to technical and functional
standards, of those transport networks that were not included in the Sectoral
Operational Programme 2007-2013 for which financial resources are secured.
The liberalisation of the domestic transport market will be completed.
Following the measures undertaken in the first reference period (2007-2013), the
demand for transport (in tonnes/km relative to GDP) could be reduced in the 2013-
2020 period so as to reach the EU average level by 2020.
Horizon 2030. National Objective: To get close to the average EU level of
2030 in relation to all the basic sustainability indicators for transport
activities.
It is foreseen that, gradually, after the year 2020, most of projects for upgrading and
development, in particular those to be included in the 2018-2024 programming
period, will be completed. The ensuing priorities will concentrate on meeting, on the
newly upgraded and developed networks, the EU standards for the services rendered
on the TEN-T main network for heavy traffic (naturally, there will be differences
between forecasts and actual results, so that targets may be revised and corrected in
a timely manner).
The coordinated traffic management system will be expanded, and new tariffs for
infrastructure use by various groups of users will be introduced.
1.3. Sustainable consumption and production
Overall EU SDS objective: To promote sustainable consumption and
production patterns.
A realistic approach to this thematic area requires the evaluation of the production
and consumption pattern that has characterised recent developments in the
Romanian economy with a view to finding solutions to reduce the consumption of
material resources per unit of gross value added and to decouple the dynamic of the
gross domestic product (GDP) from that of the aggregated consumption of material
and energy resources and its negative impact on the environment.
With reference to the figures for the year 2000 (=100%), the production of goods
and services grew by 62.3% between 2001 and 2007, while the gross value added
increased by only 52,1% as a result of a 71.4% increase of intermediary
consumption (the value of goods and services purchased and consumed, excluding
fixed assets). The corroboration of these data indicates that, during that period of
time, the dynamic of value added was inferior to that of the output, despite
favourable trends in labour productivity. Actually, production growth was achieved by
resorting to higher resource consumption. The ratio between the GDP dynamic and
the growth of intermediary consumption was a negative one throughout those years
PAGE 50 / 143 and even tended to deteriorate (95.9% in 2001, 99.4 % in 2002, 96.5% in 2003,
99.3% in 2004, 99.5% in 2005, 98.2% in 2006 and 99.4% in 2007).
It results from the above-quoted figures that the Romanian development pattern of
the past five years (which also applies to previous periods) was based on a model
that runs against the principles of sustainable development that are being promoted
by the European Union of which Romania is now a part. The continuation of this
trend threatens the long-term sustainability of economic growth due to an excessive
and irrational use of resources, with negative consequences on the state of the
natural capital and on social and human development in a competitive environment.
Structural imbalances persist in Romania with regard to food consumption, along
with quality deficiencies in the production and sale of foodstuffs. At the same time,
the farming sector fails to ensure the access of the entire population to rational
nutrition, despite the availability of favourable natural conditions enabling it to cover
at least the necessary requirements for domestic consumption. Prices for some
foodstuffs remain inaccessible to vulnerable population groups. Farm production for
own consumption is still high, particularly in rural areas, while basic foodstuffs have
to be imported to supply the urban areas.
The situation needs to be addressed through adequate policies and instruments, in
accordance with market principles and relevant EU regulations designed to change
the consumption-oriented mentality and the propensity for shot-term profit
maximisation. To this end, an in-depth analysis of the factors behind the current
situation needs to be completed in the near future in order to establish the suitable
economic policies toward a significant growth of resource productivity.
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To achieve eco-efficient management of
resource consumption and to maximise resource productivity by promoting
a pattern of consumption and production that makes sustainable economic
growth possible and brings Romania gradually closer to the average
performance of the other EU countries.
Structural adjustment of the economy is the main way of enhancing resource
productivity by increasing the relative share of the products, processes and activities
that use a smaller amount of energy and material resources to achieve higher value
added.
In that respect, the most resource-efficient segment of the Romanian economy is the
service sector. With reference to the year 2005, total resource productivity in the
service sector has been substantially higher than in the manufacturing industries or
construction. Although the structure and quality of the services in Romania is not yet
adapted to the demands of modern economy, this sector is the only one where the
value added has exceeded resource consumption (by 39.3%).
The potential for the development and upgrading of the service sector, with its
favourable financial, economic, social and environmental effects, is illustrated by a
comparison to the situation in other EU Member States. The contribution of the
Romanian service sector to the gross domestic product is approximately 50%, way
behind the performance of Bulgaria (59%), Poland and Hungary (61-65%), Slovakia,
Sweden, Austria, Germany (67-69%), Italy, Portugal, the United Kingdom, Greece,
PAGE 51 / 143 The Netherlands (71-74%) and France (77%). The EU average is around 70% of
GDP. For example, the per capita revenue from tourism in Romania, in 2006, was 3
to 8 times lower then in Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary and the Czech Republic.

The development, specialisation and improved quality of services do not represent
ultimate goals by themselves: they are only specific instruments used by modern
economies to increase efficiency and competitiveness in all the other sectors of the
economy and society. The contribution of research, development and innovation
activities, information technologies, transport and communications, continuous
training and professional improvement of the labour force, expansion of financial
intermediation and other services does not inhibit the development of directly
productive sectors (manufacturing industries, construction, agriculture, forestry,
fishing and aquaculture, etc.) but rather enhances their potential for modernisation
and improved resource efficiency.
The period between 2008 and 2013 will see more incentives for the development of
certain categories of services that can have a major positive impact in terms of
increased resource productivity and eco-efficiency, with a multiplier effect in other
sectors of the economy: development of technologies that help reduce energy and
physical resource consumption for products and processes, consultancy and
expertise for the eco-efficient utilization of the funding available for upgrading
infrastructure and production processes, operations to increase the efficiency of sales
and purchases, including green public procurement, and optimal placement of
Romanian goods and services in the most favourable niche markets.
The development of broadband communications infrastructure aiming to ensure up to
95% coverage for broadband connections by 2013 will expand the offer of public
services for individual citizens and businesses and will have significant consequences
in all sectors. In order to enhance the essential role of information and
communication technologies in an increasingly competitive environment, the
envisaged targets are to aggregate public demand, to expand the use of, and access
to, digital services, to increase the availability and attractiveness of services, to
develop the content and practical applications, to improve consumer education and
awareness. The development of adequate infrastructure will be supported in those
sectors where market mechanisms prove to be insufficient to meet development
needs and also in less developed regions. All urban centres will be connected to a
national communications network by optic fibre.
Further measures will encourage a significant improvement of the quality of services
supplied on the EU Single Market as a persuasive argument for reinforcing the
perception of Romania?s competitiveness. The development of services in rural areas
(commercial and financial services, consultancy for farming and public works,
transport and agro-tourism, human health and veterinary services, etc.) will make it
possible to tap additional sources for GDP growth by providing alternative
employment opportunities to people currently engaged in farming (who represent
30.5% of the active population, but contribute less then 9% to the GDP). This will
also enhance the disposable income of rural residents and may help reduce the share
of subsistence agriculture in favour of commercially viable farming.
Effective resource use depends greatly on the developments in intra-sector
structures. Industrial activities, the sector having the highest consumption of
PAGE 52 / 143 resources, have undergone major structural adjustments, particularly between 2000
and 2007.
In the mining sector, excavation of metal-bearing ores was abandoned in sites that
had low useful content and high operation costs, which no longer justified the
allocation of state subsidies. The subsidies for brown coal and uranium ore mining
have been gradually phased out and will be completely discontinued by 2010.
In the electric power industry, production increase (13.9%) was below overall
industrial output growth (41.3%) as a result of decreasing energy intensity.
However, resource productivity went down because of increased intermediary
consumption (15.6%) and lower value added. The growing share of hydro and
nuclear power generation, technological upgrading of thermoelectric plants and
higher input from renewable sources that are foreseen for the following period will
reverse this trend.
The manufacturing industries tended to show a higher dynamic of growth (51.1%
in 2007 relative to 2000) compared to mining (3.1%). Resource productivity
improved thanks to increased production of road vehicles (188.8%), electrical
machinery and equipment (59.6%), furniture (77%) and food industry (77%), where
the growth of gross value added exceeded resource consumption. It is estimated that
the positive trends in these sub-sectors will continue in the following years.
Between 2008 and 2013 and thereafter, the industrial policy will pursue both the
strategic objectives and specific targets of the national economy and the EU trends,
in line with the tenets of sustainable development. The main targets for the
development of various industrial sectors in the medium term are:
? To maintain and develop an attractive business environment that can enhance
investment flows, stimulate technological upgrading and encourage continued
renewal of processes and products;
? To consider the impact of products on the environment throughout their life
cycle (from design, manufacturing, assembly, marketing, distribution, sale and use
down to recycling and disposal);
? To support research, development and innovation in close connection with the
actual needs of industry and market demand in order to obtain competitive
advantages and to reduce the technology and productivity gaps relative to the more
advanced EU countries;
? To promote the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and
digital services at all stages, from design to production to marketing, including
business administration;
? To develop competitive market practices under the rules of the EU Single
Market and to avoid the emergence of cartels or monopolistic attempts at exclusive
control of the market;
? To refine sectoral assistance and upgrade the role of public authorities in the
preparation and implementation of industrial policies and the administration of
restructuring and development processes in keeping with EU practice;
? To encourage direct foreign investments as sources of capital, know-how,
technology and managerial skills;
PAGE 53 / 143 ? To render continued support to the development of small and medium
enterprises (SME) in manufacturing industries in order to enable them to address
market demand with high-quality products at lower costs.
Preliminary estimations indicate that the application of adequate economic policy
instruments could result in a 3-4% annual increase in physical and energy resource
productivity during the period 2008-2013 through:
? Macroeconomic structural adjustment (raising the service sector contribution
to the GDP from 48.8 in 2005 to about 55% in 2013, 60-65% in 2020 and 70% in
2030) and intra-sectoral structural adjustment (lower share of energy and materialintensive sub-sectors in industry);
? Reduction by a minimum of 1.2-1.5% per year of the specific consumption
rates for materials and energy and production losses in the processing industries,
power generation, residential sector, transport and construction following a
significant increase in investment for technological renewal and infrastructure
upgrading, and also as a result of better management of technology and energy;
? A 2-3% annual increase of the share of products having high value added and
relying on medium-grade and high technology, and also of the share of services in
the structure of exports;
? Significant improvement in the technological content and the quality of
products and services leading to better performance on the market and higher value
added in relation to the cost of resources actually used;
? Enhanced commercial management, better procedures for the acquisition of
raw materials (particularly energy resources), materials, components and services,
and improved terms of sale of products and services on the most favourable niche
markets in relation to the international fluctuation of prices.
By meeting these perfectly feasible objectives it is estimated that over 60% of the
economic growth can be accomplished without additional consumption of material
and energy resources.
Increased resource productivity will also lead to a lower depletion rate of the main
categories of primary resources and will help reduce costs, improve competitiveness
and achieve sustainable economic growth.
In the field of agriculture and food production there will be a greater emphasis on
food security and safety. Agriculture will continue to have a key role in providing
income to a significant segment of the active population in the form of selfemployment, while the diversification of activities in rural areas will demand complex
interventions over time. The effort to promote a sustainable consumption and
production pattern along with the protection of ecosystems and decupling economic
growth from environmental degradation will ensure the sustainability of food
production, the reduction and elimination of imbalances on the markets for farm
produce that are caused by the current misuse of natural resources and will better
turn to account the comparative advantages of Romanian agriculture. To this end,
rational and coherent policies will have to be implemented in order to achieve the
sustainable development of agriculture and processing of farm products, and to
encourage quantitative growth and improved quality of food production and
consumption at sustainable levels.
PAGE 54 / 143 The implementation of the European Action Plan for Sustainable Consumption and
Production with an aim to reducing the negative impact of human activities on
the environment during the 2008-2013 period will make it necessary to engage in
permanent and systematic dialogue with the business community and social partners
with a view to setting agreed targets for the ecological and social efficiency of the
main products and processes.
The implementation of the measures included in the ETAP Action Plan to support the
introduction of ecological technologies and to encourage eco-innovation by
applying the national road map will bolster the demand for, and the production of
specialised equipment and procedures in all sectors of the economy. The correlation
of the targets set in the sectoral operational programmes, particularly the National
Strategy for scientific research and technological development, with those of regional
development will encourage the dissemination of innovations that bring social and
environmental benefits and will help the spread of technologies designed to improve
environmental conditions and to promote the rational utilization of non-renewable
natural resources and the sustainable use of renewable resources.
Research, development and innovation activities as well as those aimed at promoting
eco-efficient technologies will be focused, as a matter of priority, on those sectors
where the expected effects are the most significant in terms of ecological progress
and competitiveness (organic foodstuffs, water-management technology, energy
efficiency, urban transport, industrial processes having a major environmental
impact, construction business, selective waste collection, recycling and disposal, biofuels, etc.).
A system of green public procurement will be phased in with an aim to come close
to fulfilling, by 2013, the EU objective to reach, by 2020, the average level attained
by the best performing Member States in 2006. For this purpose the following
specific measures will be taken:
? The development of markets for ecological products and services leading to
better environmental performance resulting from the use of adequate technologies;
? The upgrading of the system used by public authorities and institutions for the
procurement of products, services and contract work that should include, wherever
possible, ecological requirements in tendering documents;
? Consideration of the possibility of working out, in collaboration with the
business associations, a set of voluntarily agreed rules and objectives aimed at
introducing environmental criteria in the procurement activities of private sector
operators;
? Speeding up the procedures to encourage the voluntary participation of
organisations and companies in the Community eco-management and audit system
(EMAS).
Product labelling will be expanded gradually, in accordance with EU norms, to
reflect the environmental performance of goods on sale. Coherent information
campaigns will be organised to inform the consumers (with the assistance of retail
businesses, market regulators and organisations of the civil society) and to promote
the eco-efficient products and services, including those resulting from ecological
farming.
PAGE 55 / 143 In order to ensure sustainable production and consumption in conformity with the EU
objectives the following specific regulations will be enacted:
? The obligation of companies to include in the explanatory notes to their
income and expenditure budgets and financial reports an indicator on «resource
productivity» to be measured by the ratio between gross value added and
intermediary consumption plus the cost of total material consumption. The
introduction of this indicator makes it possible to develop higher performance
standards for managers regarding the efficiency of their purchases of goods and
services, targeting both the technology side and the commercial one; to enable a
more accurate evaluation by stockholders of the quality of management and
administration in terms of sustainable development of the business; to promote
effective investment policies in a medium to long-term perspective, including the
introduction in daily practice of business plans and multi-annual income/expenditure
budgets; to explore in a systematic manner potential ways to reduce material and
energy consumption and to increase productivity through technological upgrading
and renewal of products in tune with market demand.
? To make it mandatory for the firms listed on the stock exchange and, starting
2010, for all businesses in industry, agriculture and transport to provide relevant
information regarding the management of resources, the environmental
performance of processes and activities, and the application of green labelling (the
number and relative share of products carrying environmental labels).
? To improve the capacity of both public authorities and companies to
implement the existing legislation on public procurement, particularly with regard
to the provisions concerning the introduction of clear commitments on eco-efficiency
and observance of environmental protection standards in all tender documents.
? To encourage the national, county and local public authorities to initiate, in
cooperation with business associations, chambers of commerce and industry,
universities and research centres, actions toward raising social awareness and
corporate responsibility regarding sustainable production and consumption. This
can be achieved through publicising best practices (including online posting); direct
exchanges of experience (visits and joint workshops); dissemination of opportunities
in the consultancy business, project design and project management, procurement
and validation of environmental protection equipment and eco-friendly technologies.
? To encourage the establishment, within the envisaged centres of excellence or
as autonomous units, of specialized technological platforms and pilot projects
designed to promote, as a matter of priority, eco-efficient technologies and
production processes; enhanced energy efficiency; development of alternative
sources of energy, including bio-fuels; improved technologies for water, waste and
soil management; green transport; production of ecological materials, etc.
It is also envisaged to introduce a taxation system aimed at encouraging sustainable
consumption (e.g. fiscal incentives, tax exemptions or reductions, taxation of car
purchases, measures to encourage the construction of ecological homes or the
installation of solar panels, etc).
In view of the EU recommendations, which are still under development, it is
envisaged to make certain adjustments to the fiscal system entailing a partial
transfer of taxation from labour to material and energy resource
PAGE 56 / 143 consumption. This can have major positive effects on sustainable development by
encouraging the allocation of investments towards those sub-sectors where resource
productivity is higher and inhibiting the growth of materials- and energy-intensive
sectors that cannot be sustained in the long run with the currently available
resources; promoting the products and services that rely on medium-grade and
highly complex technologies and result in advanced processing and higher value
added; increasing the share of such products and services in overall exports.
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To decouple economic growth from
environmental degradation by reversing the ratio between resource
consumption and creation of value added; to move closer to the average
performance levels of the EU in terms of sustainable consumption and
production.
The main target is to accelerate the overall development of the service sector and to
raise its contribution to the GDP growth to about 60%.
In parallel, it is envisaged to encourage the growth of those economic sectors that
produce higher value-added with a lower consumption of materials and energy in
ways which are compatible with market principles and with the EU regulations.
Romania will come close to the average EU level in the area of information and
communication technology, including broadband coverage and offer of quality digital
services to individual users, public authorities and businesses.
EU practice will be generalised with regard to the application of environmental,
economic and social performance criteria in (sustainable) public procurement, the
development and implementation of eco-efficient technologies and the enhancement
of public awareness about the virtues and the direct benefits of sustainable
production and consumption patterns.
Horizon 2030. National Objective: To come close to the average level
attained at that time by the other EU Member States in terms of sustainable
production and consumption.
1.4. Conservation and management of natural resources
Overall Objective of the EU SDS: To improve management and avoid
overexploitation of natural resources, recognising the value of ecosystem
services.
The successive versions of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (of 2001 and
2006) attached increasing importance to the conservation and prudent use of the
natural capital. Among the contributing factors to this shift of emphasis were the
growing public awareness about the real threats of climate change caused by human
activities and a heightened perception of the benefits of using ecologically clean
goods and services for human health and well-being.
PAGE 57 / 143 Horizon 2013. National Objective: To narrow the current disparities in
relation to other EU Member States in terms of coverage and quality of
environmental infrastructure by providing efficient public services in this
domain, following the concept of sustainable development and respecting
the «polluter pays» principle.
The Operational Sectoral Programme ?Environment? 2007-2013, which was approved
by the European Commission in June 2007, was correlated with Romania?s
development strategies and with the other EU-funded programmes with an aim to
achieving conformity with the relevant EU directives while also reflecting specific
national interests.
Overall, the strategies and national programmes concerning the environment
correspond to the Renewed Sustainable Development Strategy of the EU (2006) in
pursuing the following specific objectives:
(a) To improve the quality of, and access to infrastructure for water supply
and wastewater treatment by providing safe potable water and sewerage services
to the majority of urban areas by 2015 and establishing efficient regional structures
for water and wastewater management.
Considering the current state of water management infrastructure (see Part II,
Chapter 2), Romania obtained, under the terms of the Accession Treaty, transition
periods for compliance with the acquis regarding municipal wastewater collection,
discharge and treatment until 2015 for 263 municipalities having more than 10,000
inhabitants and until 2018 for 2,346 smaller townships having between 2,000 and
10,000 inhabitants; 2015 is the target year for complying with drinking water quality
standards.
Integrated water and wastewater systems will be promoted through a regional
approach in order to provide water services to the population and other consumers
according to the required quality standards and at affordable prices. The targets
proposed for 2015 (under the Directive 2000/60/CE) are: to secure or rehabilitate
the water sources so as to achieve potable quality and to improve water treatment
facilities in 300 townships (compared to 60 in 2006); to expand or rehabilitate the
drinking water distribution networks in order to ensure access for 70% of the
population (compared to 52% in 2006); to expand the sewerage systems in
townships having over 2,000 inhabitants so as to achieve a 69.1% coverage by
2013, 80.2% in 2015 and 100% in 2018 (compared to 48.7% in 2005); to build
wastewater treatment stations and to rehabilitate the existing ones in townships
having over 2,000 inhabitants so as to insure a 60.6% coverage in 2013, 76.7% in
2015 and 100% in 2018 (compared to 34.9% in 2005); to raise the share of properly
treated wastewater to 60% in 2015 (compared to 35% in 2006).
Water infrastructure investments in rural areas will be funded, in correlation with the
investments from structural funds, through the European Agricultural Fund for Rural
Development.
By 2013, it is envisaged to complete the implementation of the Programme
(approved in 2005) for the gradual elimination of discharges, emissions and leaks of
PAGE 58 / 143 hazardous substances in order to prevent the pollution of inland surface water
resources, coastal waters, marine environment and underground aquifers and to limit
threats to aquatic ecosystems (Directive 2006/11/EC). Measures will be taken to
ensure the implementation of Directive 1991/676/EC regarding the protection of
waters against pollution with nitrates originating from farming activities, which was
incorporated into the Romanian legislation in 2000. The preparation of the spatial
planning schemes for the catchment basins and areas will be completed by
December 2009 and of those for the management of flood risks, including flooding
hazard and risk maps by December 2013.
To finance the activities envisaged for the 2008-2013 period a total sum of Euro 3.27
billion has been assigned, of which 85% from the EU Cohesion Fund, while the
estimated required investment amounts to approximately Euro 19 billion until 2015.
The considerable differential between the available funds and those needed to meet
the proposed objectives requires a major effort to identify additional sources of
funding by resorting to more extensive concession of water services and promoting
public-private partnerships.
(b) To develop integrated waste management systems by improving waste
processing and reducing the number of historically polluted areas in at least 30
counties by 2015.
Romania was granted transition periods to achieve conformity with the EU directives
for municipal waste sites by 2017; temporary storage of dangerous waste by 2009;
storage of non-hazardous industrial waste by 2013. A number of 177 sites will have
to be closed down and the amounts of waste deposited in the existing 101
substandard urban sites will be gradually reduced. By 2013, the amounts of
biodegradable waste that is being deposited annually in landfills will be reduced to
2.4 million tonnes (50% of the 1995 level) and measures will be implemented to
reduce considerably the dumping of packaging waste.
The activities in this field will concentrate on the implementation of integrated
projects for waste management at national and regional levels through a hierarchical
allocation of investments in accordance with the established priorities: prevention,
selective collection, recycling and re-use, treatment and elimination. Integrated
management programmes will be expanded progressively to rural areas by setting
up collection services and eliminating the unregulated landfills.
The inventory of historically polluted sites, which began in 2005, will be completed
and the priorities for intervention will be determined on the basis of risk analysis as a
first phase of a long-term strategy for the economic use or ecological restoration and
return of those sites to natural state.
By 2013, it is anticipated to achieve a degree of recovery of useful material from
packaging waste through recycling or incineration for energy generation of 60% for
paper and cardboard, 22.5% for plastics, 60% for glass, 50% for metals and 15% for
wood. Special measures are envisaged, with completion deadlines between the end
of 2008 and 2013, for the recovery of discarded electrical and electronic appliances
and for the closure of underperforming medical waste incineration plants. The targets
proposed for 2015 envisage: to create 30 systems for integrated waste management
at region or county level; to close down 1,500 small waste collection sites in rural
areas and 150 obsolete landfills in urban areas; to implement 5 pilot projects for the
PAGE 59 / 143 rehabilitation of historically contaminated sites; to provide improved waste collection
and management services for 8 million people.
Financing for those activities amounts to Euro 1.7 billion, of which 80% is to come
from the European Regional Development Fund. These investments will be topped
with complementary contributions from the PHARE and ISPA programmes, the
Environment Fund and other sources.
(c) To reduce the negative environmental impact of urban heating
systems and to minimise their effect on climate change in the most polluted
townships by 2015.
Romania was granted transition periods until 2013 and 2017, respectively, for
compliance with the limits for emissions (sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and
particulates) in order to comply with the EU Directives regarding the reduction of
emissions from large combustion installations.
The total annual amount of sulphur dioxide emissions will be reduced from 540
thousand tonnes in 2007 to 148 thousand tonnes in 2013, those of nitrogen oxides
from 128 thousand tonnes in 2007 to 112 thousand tonnes in 2013, and the total
annual emissions of particulates will be reduced from 38.6 thousand tonnes in 2007
to 15.5 thousand tonnes in 2013.
The programmed actions target the rational utilization of non-renewable energy
resources and, wherever possible, the use of renewable or less polluting resources
for urban heating systems. It is proposed to correlate such measures with the water
management programme since the precarious state of the urban heating networks
causes significant losses to the water distribution system.
To rehabilitate the urban heating systems in critical areas, the main targets
envisaged for 2015 include the implementation of the best available technologies for
reducing emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO2) to 15 thousand tonnes (from 80
thousand tonnes in 2003) and of mono-nitrogen oxides (NOx) to 4 thousand tonnes
(from 7 thousand in 2003). Particulate emissions will be reduced and those of heavy
metals will be maintained below 1989 levels. It is planned to rehabilitate the central
heating systems in eight municipalities, resulting in a considerable improvement of
air quality. Studies for the most suitable options will be prepared for another 15
locations, complete with provisions for the rehabilitation of substandard deposits for
ashes and slag and of heating and hot water distribution networks.
The overall cost of compliance with air quality standards required for this sector
according to the Community acquis, identified at the level of 2004, amounts to
approximately Euro 5.2 billion for the 2007-2013 period. Actual co-financing from the
EU Cohesion Fund will amount to about Euro 230 million, with an equivalent
contribution from the Romanian national and local public budgets (up to Euro 460
million). The measures to improve air quality are supported through the Sectoral
Operational Programme ?Economic Competitiveness? (co-financed by the European
Regional Development Fund) providing for investments aimed at reducing polluting
emissions from large combustion installations operating in the national energy
sector. Still, the financial resources that have been identified so far are not sufficient,
and a substantial additional financial input will be required through external
borrowing and promotion of public-private partnerships.
PAGE 60 / 143 (d) To preserve biodiversity and the natural heritage by supporting the
management of protected areas, including the implementation of the Natura 2000
Network.
The main objective for 2008-2013 is to implement adequate management systems
for the protection of the natural environment and the conservation of biological
diversity, natural habitats, and of wild flora and fauna species. The envisaged actions
will focus on the strengthening of institutional capacity at national and local levels
and involvement of public initiatives (with an important role to be played by NGOs)
to comply with the relevant EU directives, particularly those concerning birds and
habitats, in correlation with the development of Natura 2000 networks. The Natura
2000 sites cover 17.84% of the country?s territory, including 273 sites of Community
importance (13.21% of the national territory).
The National Agency for Protected Areas and Biodiversity Conservation, which
becomes operational in 2008, will ensure general coordination of the preparation and
implementation of the management plans for each of the areas designated for
protection. It is also envisaged to complete, by the end of 2008, the registration in
the national cadastre of the protected areas of Community importance and of the
methodological guidebooks for the integration of biodiversity indicators in the
evaluation procedure for environmental impact.
The concrete targets proposed for 2015 include the augmentation of the number of
protected areas and Natura 2000 sites that operate according to approved
management plans from 3 in 2006 to 240 in 2015 and the expansion of such units to
60% of all protected areas.
The proposed measures for the conservation, rehabilitation and development of
forests in accordance with the EU Forest Action Plan are presented in the section on
?Rural development, agriculture, forestry and fisheries? (Part IV, Chapter 3.2) of this
Strategy.
Available financing for the implementation of the envisaged measures amounts to
approximately Euro 172 million of which 80% is covered by EU co-financing from the
European Regional Development Fund.
(e) To reduce the risks of natural disasters affecting the population
through the implementation of preventive measures in the most vulnerable areas.
The main objectives cover the implementation of sustainable systems for flood
control in the most exposed areas and the protection and rehabilitation of the Black
Sea coast.
An adequate level of protection against flooding is required because of the rising
intensity of such natural disasters in the past decade. The floods that afflicted
Romania in 2005 and 2006 had catastrophic consequences affecting more than 1.5
million people (93 dead) and causing severe damage to infrastructure (estimated at
around Euro 2 billion). The proposed priority interventions will be implemented on
the basis of a long-term strategy including measures at national and regional levels
for the gradual development of flood-prevention infrastructure and mitigation of the
PAGE 61 / 143 consequences of flooding, the preparation of hazard maps and of precise
methodologies for project design, management, supervision and public awareness.
The targets proposed for the year 2015 include the preparation and early
implementation of 10 major flood-protection projects for the benefit of about 1.5
million people living in risk-prone areas with an aim to reduce by 30% the risk of
flooding in the areas that are subject to intervention.
For the Black Sea littoral rehabilitation will proceed for 10 kilometres of coastline
resulting in a 30% expansion of the beach areas.
Action will be taken to improve the effectiveness of interventions after floods or other
natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides) by creating specialized units of first
responders and providing them with training and adequate equipment as well as by
upgrading the early warning systems and raising public awareness about such risks.
The available financing for the first stage amounts to Euro 270 million, of which 82%
will come from the Cohesion Fund.
The total investments required to ensure conformity with EU directives regarding
environmental protection, conservation of natural resource and their rational
management during the 2007-2013 period amount to approximately Euro 18 billion.
The estimated costs involved in achieving conformity with the Community acquis by
2018 amount to Euro 29.3 billion, of which Euro 5.4 billion (18%) is expected to be
covered from the state budget and from the budgets of local administration, Euro 9.9
billion (34%) from EU funds, Euro 7.8 billion (27%) from private investments and
Euro 6.2 billion (21%) from other sources (National Environment Fund, international
projects other than those co-financed from EU sources, external borrowing, etc.).
Under these circumstances, it appears necessary for the Romanian side to insist
during the negotiations for the next EU financial programming period 2014-2020 on
the need to obtain supplementary allocations in parallel with local efforts to make
sure that the available investment resources are used efficiently, and to identify
additional sources of financing to support local initiatives by promoting public-private
partnerships, flexible credit mechanisms and encouraging the concession of some
utilities on terms that are attractive to investors.
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To attain the present average EU level for
the main indicators describing the responsible management of natural
resources.
Taking into account the strategic targets of the environmental sector and the
interventions envisaged for 2008-2013, it will be necessary to ascertain, during that
programming period, the requirements for legislation changes, administrative
capacity-building and further reforms, including the establishment of new
government agencies or redistribution of responsibilities in order to enable the
implementation of projects in the following programming period.
To the extent that the financing requirements for water and wastewater
management can be secured in conformity with the objectives undertaken through
the Treaty of Accession of Romania to the European Union, the provision of safe
drinking water and access to sewerage and wastewater treatment systems will be
PAGE 62 / 143 ensured for 100% of the townships having more than 2,000 inhabitants by 2018.
The process will continue with the improvement of water supply, sewerage and
wastewater treatment in smaller rural localities. In 2021, the management and
spatial planning schemes for the catchment basins and areas will be revised. The
plans for flood risk management will be completed by 2015, and a preliminary
evaluation will be made in 2018 to introduce the necessary adjustments. The flood
hazard charts and maps will be revised by December 2019 and updated once every 6
years afterwards. Based on the analysis of results obtained by 2013, the domains of
intervention, priorities for action and financing requirements for the following period
will also be re-evaluated.
Integrated waste management will move gradually from the current practice of
non-selective dumping in landfills to selective collection and increased usage of
recoverable waste that can be recycled, including the transformation of organic
waste into compost and the exclusive utilization of ecological waste disposal in urban
areas. Systems for integrated waste management will be installed in rural areas.
Regarding the improvement of air quality, the rehabilitation of district heating will
continue in order to comply with the limits prescribed by EU directives for the
emissions of SO2, NOx and particulates.
The actions initiated earlier for the improvement of biodiversity and natural
capital heritage will continue through an improved management of protected areas
including enlargement of the Natura 2000 network, better expert studies for
informed project design, the introduction and monitoring of new indicators for
complex performance measurement, the promotion of eco-efficient technologies, the
consistent application of EU regulations regarding maritime zones and the integrated
management of coastal areas.
By 2020, it is envisaged to conclude the preparation of action plans for floodprevention and response in case of natural disasters, including plans for the
rehabilitation of most of the Romanian portion of the Black Sea coastline.
Horizon 2030. National Objective: To come significantly close to the
environmental management performance of the other EU Member States at
that time.
Romania will become broadly aligned with the EU requirements and standards
regarding water and wastewater management. In accordance with preliminary
projections in the management plan for the catchment basins, the environmental
objectives for all Romanian water bodies will be met.
Priority actions will be re-examined in the area of waste management, improved
air quality, conservation of biodiversity and of the natural capital, along with
prevention of natural disasters, on the basis of results obtained in the preceding
period, and new targets will be set in accordance with EU policies and the prevailing
international trends.
1.5. Public health
PAGE 63 / 143 Overall Objective of the EU SDS: To promote equal access to high-quality
health care and to improve protection against threats to health.
Public health was officially recognized as an area falling within the competence of the
European Union, with due respect for the principle of subsidiarity, following the
adoption of the Maastricht Treaty (1992). The Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) stated
that all Community policies in key areas had to consider the requirement to protect
human health. The legal instruments, directives and decisions that the EU institutions
adopted along the way are part of the Community acquis and are mandatory for all
Member States.
The resources allocated to the health sector in the core States of the European Union
amount to as much as 8.5% of GDP, i.e. an average Euro 1,600 per person, with
some variations from country to country. Although only reference models are
available (German, French, British, Scandinavian), while a harmonized European
health system is not yet in place, the tendency to adopt common procedures and
standards of practice is evident for the application and evaluation of medical
treatments, for preventive interventions addressing general public health, inasmuch
as all national health systems in the EU follow the social model based on the principle
of solidarity (all persons covered by social insurance benefit from equal access to
services, although their contributions may vary according to income).
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To improve the structure of the health
sector and the quality of medical assistance and care provided through
medical services; to improve the state of public health and the performance
of the healthcare system.
Romania has not developed yet a strategic outlook in the medium and long run for
attaining the average EU public health performance and for integrating health
policies in the national strategies and sectoral or thematic operational programmes.
The Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Public Health for 2008-2010 offers some
indications about the steps to be taken in order to move the process forward. It also
recommends that a special National Strategy should be prepared to improve public
health and relevant educational programmes and to develop plans for specific
pathologies.
The main envisaged short-term priority actions include:
(a) Improved access to health services
(i) Implementation of national healthcare programmes that should be responsive
to priority public health concerns and to the needs of vulnerable groups:
● To develop the capability for rapid response to public health threats by
improving the effectiveness of existing supervision and intervention structures
dealing with infectious diseases, including the ability to notify and verify events
immediately, round the clock, every day of the year;
● To reduce the impact on public health of major contagious diseases (HIV,
tuberculosis, sexually transmitted infections, in-hospital infections) and of chronic
diseases; to concentrate prevention and provision of basic care services on those
PAGE 64 / 143 segments of the population that are exposed to higher health risks; to establish
minimal assured packages of medical services for vulnerable groups; to introduce
standardized reporting systems and systems for periodical evaluation relying on
specific indicators;
● To promote interventions focused on the determinants of the state of public
health through a differentiated ranking of risk factors by population groups; to
introduce special programmes on health education and awareness about health risks,
including risks related to lack of exercise, nutrition habits, use of tobacco, alcohol
and psychotropic drugs, sanitation standards, household hygiene and food safety; to
evaluate the effectiveness of information and awareness campaigns and to make the
necessary adjustments in order to increase their long-term impact;
● To shift the emphasis towards preventive health services.
(ii) Developing and upgrading the infrastructure for health service providers
through provision of appropriate equipment, installations and specialized means of
transport, construction of 28 new emergency hospitals (8 regional university
hospitals and 20 at county level), rehabilitation of 15 emergency county hospitals;
acquisition of medical equipment and special transport vehicles by open public
tender;
(iii) Development of human resources by seeking solutions to provide
facilities aimed at encouraging medical personnel to work in remote, economically
depressed areas; to deploy mobile medical teams in order to evaluate the health
status and specific risks in such areas and to provide education for health; to develop
and expand the network of integrated community medical assistance; to define the
role of community medical assistants and to ensure their professional training (500
persons to be employed every year, including 50 ethnic Roma); to produce specific
information and educational materials; to implement a system of indicators for the
evaluation of actual performance.
(iv) Establishment of a list of essential medication for public health to be
subsidized entirely or partially through the social health insurance system.
(b) Improved quality of medical services
? To ensure the continuity of medical service by increasing the share of
healthcare provided at patient?s home and of primary care and specialist services
provided to outpatients;
? To achieve compatibility with the healthcare systems in other EU Member
States by adopting standards for medical products, technologies and professional
training and by creating information networks; to introduce and use the concept of
evidence-based medicine and evaluation of medical technologies; to set standards
for patient safety;
? To improve the professional competence of the medical staff, especially for
medical doctors by improving basic professional training; to introduce more
demanding criteria for obtaining a medical license and for the educational standards
applying to certified nurses and medical assistants; to revise the range of
specializations and licensing procedures in conformity with EU standards; to improve
the communication abilities of the medical personnel;
? To introduce harmonized medical practices based on clinical guides and
protocols;
PAGE 65 / 143 ? To evaluate hospitals for accreditation through the establishment of a National
Commission for Hospital Accreditation; to assign specific competencies by type of
hospital; to prepare accreditation procedures, standards and methodologies; to
complete the accreditation of all hospitals within 5 years (by 2012).
(c) Improved healthcare financing through increased transparency in the use of
available funding; introduction of digital records for the entire healthcare system to
reveal the real costs of medical services; strengthening the capacity for evaluation,
statutory audit and financial control; enforcing financial discipline; developing
partnerships for the provision of medical an non-medical services and spinning off
some of the services; overhauling some underperforming units; encouraging
collaboration and partnerships with the private sector, non-governmental
organisations and the civil society; establishing private wards in public hospitals;
building genuine competition among healthcare providers.
(d) Decentralization of the healthcare system through a transfer of competences,
duties and responsibilities to the local public administration; assigning to the local
authorities the responsibility for promotion activities and health education, for the
recruitment, training and evaluation of health mediators and community assistants,
and for the medical assistance, including dental care, provided in schools and other
educational units; transfer to the local authorities and communities of the effective
responsibility for the management of city and township hospitals as well as the
community health centres and subsequently for the municipal hospitals; intermediary
evaluations every 6 months and final evaluation after 1 year to ascertain the effects
of these changes and to operate the necessary adjustments accordingly.
(e) Institutional streamlining of the Ministry of Public Health and of the
structures under its supervision or control.
As it appears from a mere enumeration of the actions that are envisaged in the short
term, although the Plan for 2008-2010 contains ambitious objectives relative to the
conditions prevailing at the starting point, it is mostly focused on narrowing some of
the most glaring gaps still separating Romania?s performance from that of the
majority of EU Member States in terms of indicators that are considered to be
minimal.
Important omissions in relation to the priorities established for the public health
sector in the Sustainable Development Strategy of the European Union can be noted
regarding the responsibility of relevant national authorities for legislative initiatives
and institutional design in such areas as food safety, the use of additives and the
labelling of foodstuffs for human consumption; the regulation of the production and
use of chemicals, including pesticides, that can entail significant risks for human
health and the environment; the influence of pollutants, including natural radiation
and radioactive substances, on human health; the real dimension of mental health
issues and the socio-economic impact of emotional pressures and stress; the
scientific evaluation of the use of genetically modified organisms for human and
animal consumption; the problems and risks that are characteristic for certain
professions, particularly transport, and those that are specific to extreme poverty,
etc.
PAGE 66 / 143 The future programmes in this area will have to to take into account to a greater
extent the worrying demographic trends and to concentrate also on the effects on
public health generated by cross-border population movements, on the resurgence of
transmittable diseases (including strains of antibiotic resistant tuberculosis
associated or not with HIV/AIDS), on changes in morbidity caused by the increased
incidence of cardiac disease, diabetes, obesity, cancer and neuropsychological
diseases.
Particular attention will need to be given to health problems linked to the
consequences of climate change.
It is also necessary to involve the public health services more meaningfully in
activities aimed at improving the quality of the environment so that the level of manmade contaminants should not have a significant impact and should not put human
health at risk by:
? Identifying the risks that various categories of contaminants are posing to
human health; hazardous substances will have to be subject to specific risk
management procedures before they are used;
? Ascertaining and evaluating the conduits whereby contaminants may reach
the human body and establishing the most effective ways to diminish exposure to
such hazards or at least to bring them down to acceptable levels;
? Setting priorities for the relationship between the environment and public
health in the process of designing specific policies aimed at the elimination of
contaminants or the use of non-hazardous substances in products and processes.
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To come closer to the current average
public health standards and the quality of medical services provided in the
other EU countries; to integrate healthcare and demographic factors in all
Romanian public policies.
Taking into account the strategic targets for the health sector and the measures to
be taken between 2008 and 2013, as of 2014 the new institutional structures will be
consolidated to secure especially the quality of medical care services following
decentralisation and programme-based management. Further measures will be
initiated, including legislative initiatives, to make sure that decision making on
healthcare policy rely on an analysis of the system performance in terms of results,
evaluation of technologies and systematic investigation of cost/effectiveness and
cost/benefit analysis.
The implementation of the main healthcare programmes will lead to a continuing
downward trend of infant and maternal mortality and morbidity, incidence of and
mortality from contagious diseases and cancer (a 50% decrease). To this end, a
second wave of preventive screenings for uterine, mammary and colon cancer will be
put into effect.
General coverage for basic services, including emergency care, will continue to
expand, along with access to long-term medical services for the elderly (a 50%
increase), provision of palliative care to 60% of the requirements and of communitybased psychiatric assistance to 70% of the requirements.
PAGE 67 / 143 Horizon 2030. National Objective: To achieve full alignment with the
average performance level of the other EU Member States, also with regard
to healthcare financing.
Romania will meet the main requirement and standards of the European Union
regarding access to basic emergency services, primary medical care, cancer control
and mental health services at community level.
1.6. Social inclusion, demography and migration
Overall EU-SDS Objective: To create a socially inclusive society by taking
into account solidarity between and within generations and to secure and
increase the quality of life of citizens as a precondition for lasting individual
well-being.
The activities of the European Union in the sphere of social protection and inclusion
are regulated by the decisions of the European Council of March 2006 that
established new objectives and operational approaches to encourage cooperation
among Member States using the open method of coordination. The Communication
of the European Commission on Social Services of General Interest set benchmarks
for the responsibilities of government agencies and support organisations in charge
of social affairs. The Member States also have precise obligations under the
European Pact for Youth and the European Pact for Gender Equality.
The second Report, approved on 18 September 2007, that Romania presented on the
implementation of the agreed UN Millennium Goals highlighted the fact that most of
the targets related to social inclusion had been attained, some of them ahead of the
deadlines set in 2003, thus making it possible to expect further substantial
improvements by 2013 and in the following years. The rate of severe poverty went
down from 10.91% in 2003 to 4.1% in 2006 (compared to the proposed target of
5.4%) and allowed for a new target of 3.5% to be set for 2009. There was a more
than 50% increase in the number of ethnic Roma children enrolled in education. A
slight improvement in the employment rate of women (from 52% in 2002 to 52.8%
in 2007) warrants the possibility to attain a level of 55% in 2010 and 60% in 2015.
Nonetheless, the gaps between Romania?s performance and the EU average levels
are still significant regarding the access to social security services and active
measures for the promotion of social inclusion. Serious attention will have to be
given to the subject through a package of public policies also beyond 2013. Such
policies will have to target with equal priority the need to stabilize and redress,
within a realistic timeframe, the demographic situation that has shown alarming
negative trends over the past two decades.
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To create a modern legislative,
institutional and participatory framework for reducing the risks of poverty
and social exclusion, promoting social cohesion, gender equality and
PAGE 68 / 143 cultural diversity, and also for the responsible management of migration
and demographic change.
Specific provisions that are relevant for social inclusion are present in practically all
national strategies and sectoral programmes. The Sectoral Operational Programme
Human Resource Development 2007-2013, which was approved in October 2007,
contains a distinct chapter on social inclusion
The programmes that provide financing for social initiatives cover the entire
population of Romania but are primarily directed toward reducing the risk of poverty,
promoting access to social services for certain underprivileged groups and improving
the access to, and participation in the labour market for vulnerable groups. The
target groups include the Roma population, persons with disabilities, young people
leaving the child-protection state system, women, families with more than 2 children,
single-parent households, children at risk, convicts and former offenders, people
dependent on alcohol and drugs, the homeless, victims of domestic violence,
HIV/AIDS carriers, persons affected by professional diseases, refugees and asylum
seekers. Minors left behind by migrant workers are a recent addition to these
categories; the typical profile for the group are minors left in the care of elderly
relatives or other family members (recent surveys estimate that this is the case of
between 1/5 and 1/3 of all families in some rural areas).
The main envisaged areas of intervention are:
(i) The development of social economy by actively involving all relevant
stakeholders (public institutions, business or professional associations, labour unions,
etc.) and by encouraging the social action of non-governmental organisations and
groups of the civil society (social cooperatives, self-help associations, foundations,
charities and voluntary services, etc.). Such actions will support the development of
strong local communities, will provide useful services to the people, will encourage
citizens? activism and will help the emergence of new businesses resulting in further
employment opportunities for vulnerable groups, while promoting social cohesion
and solidarity.
(ii) Improved access to, and participation in the labour market for
vulnerable groups through measures that are additional to those provided to the
general population, in particular through targeted, personalized approaches,
including awareness initiatives for the problems facing the ethnic Roma population.
(iii) Promoting gender equality on the labour market by facilitating women?s
access to traditionally male occupations, to leadership positions and involvement in
politics by deterring gender stereotypes, combating human trafficking, domestic
violence, sexual discrimination and harassment in the workplace, by creating an
inclusive labour market, securing work schedules adapted to women (work from
home, flexible schedules, etc.), including re-training for alternative occupations of
persons employed in industries at risk of relocation (textiles, garment industries).
(iv) Trans-national initiatives for inclusive labour markets by expanding
the areas of cooperation with the other EU Member States and exchanging
experience and information on primary and secondary legislation, operational
procedures and methodologies for performance evaluation in the sphere of social
protection and inclusion, adaptation of training schemes to address the use of newly
PAGE 69 / 143 emerging technologies. Since Romania has one of the largest segments of Roma
population among the EU Member States, it appears necessary to initiate and
promote concrete actions, including the adoption of uniform legal dispositions and
administrative practices, to be harmonized at EU level, regarding the problems facing
that ethnic group in particular.
The actions envisaged for the following period include:
? The elaboration and adoption of a coherent legislative package addressing
poverty reduction, prevention of social exclusion and implementation of the concept
of social economy, including the establishment, by law, of a Social Observatory and a
documentation centre for social inclusion, a single Law on Social Services and
making the National Agency for Social Services fully operational;
? A re-assessment of the social services available and of the system of family
entitlements, one of the aims being to reconcile family life with professional duties;
? Setting up a streamlined system for the accreditation, authorisation and
licensing of the providers of social assistance services and a single set of standards
for the protection of children, elderly and disabled persons, victims of household
violence and other vulnerable groups;
? Promotion of special programmes to improve the quality of life for senior
citizens through a more active involvement of local public authorities and civic
organisations in the provision of social and health services, outpatient and home
care; development and upgrading of residential centre services;
? Development of alternative services for child care (nurseries, day care
centres, kindergartens) and special programmes for children with disabilities;
awareness campaigns for the rights of children;
? Upgrading and proper equipment of the infrastructure for social and medical
services, in particular for emergency services (social centres, residential services,
multifunctional centres);
? Support to the non-governmental sector for the development of social
services through a single funding scheme and streamlined procedures for supporting
the associations and foundations that provide social assistance services;
? Consolidation of the institutional and administrative capacity of national and
local authorities and encouraging their interaction with charitable foundations and
associations providing voluntary assistance.
? Promoting Romania?s own initiatives in the framework of EU institutions
regarding social inclusion, also by adopting uniform regulations at EU level on issues
that are relevant for the specific concerns of the Roma population.
As a result of such measures, it is expected that the number of social economy
structures will increase from 3 in 2005 to 830 in 2015 (while the number of
workplaces newly created in such structures will grow from 12 to 5,000), the
enrolment in training and retraining programmes for vulnerable groups will increase
from 6,487 in 2005 to 150,000 in 2015 (those addressing the Roma population will
increase from 1,500 to 65,000, those for persons with disabilities from 160 to
20,500, those for young leavers of the state child-protection system from 221 to
5,400 ), the number of alcohol or drugs-dependent persons receiving assistance will
grow from 12,526 in 2005 to 40,000 in 2015, the number of participants in training
PAGE 70 / 143 programmes for specialists in the field of social inclusion will increase from 4,795 in
2005 to 10,000 in 2015.
The current demographic trends in Romania are considered to be worrying,
showing negative trends for the long term. According to converging estimations from
national and international sources, without taking into account emigration but
admitting a considerably higher life expectancy at birth, the population of Romania is
set to diminish from 21.5 million in 2007 to 21.2 million in 2013, to 20.8 million in
2020 and 19.7 million in 2030, and may go down to 16.7 million by the middle of the
century. The consequences of these predictable changes are considerable in all the
spheres of economic and social life (labour force, education and professional training,
social and health services, regional development, etc.).
If we consider the increased mobility of the population and the impact of migration
(a subject not yet adequately researched), according to projections by the UN
agencies and Eurostat, Romania?s population might go down to 20.8 million in 2013,
20 million in 2020, 18.6 million in 2030 and further on to just 15 million in 2050.
The long-term demographic and economic effects of the massive fall in the birth rate
during the former half of the 1990s and the fact that it stayed at a low level
thereafter will become evident after 2025-2030, when the generations that were
born after 1989 will have a central place in the reproductive and economically active
segment of the population. For 100 adults (age 20 to 59) there will be 50 elderly
persons (over 60) in 2030 and 85 by mid-century, compared to just 34 in 2007.
Considering those figures, the setting of sustainable development objectives for the
year 2030 cannot ignore the impact of demographic trends in the long and very long
run.
In view of these facts it is a priority of national interest to prepare a Population
Strategy for Romania taking a long (to 2050) and very long view (until the end of
this century) and containing concrete, science-based proposals for a set of proactive
measures that should be compatible with the principles of sustainable development
and with fundamental human rights aiming to stabilize the situation and reverse the
current trends. Such a Strategy will have to pursue three main goals:
ƒ To improve the state of health, reduce mortality and increase the mean life
expectancy;
ƒ To avoid a significant growth of outward migration;
ƒ To encourage higher birth rates; this requires a thorough evaluation of the
current pro-family policies and the urgent development of measures for family
protection and support through entitlements (financial transfers) and better social
services accessible to all.
The development of such a well-considered Strategy, which will be costly and will
have to cover a long period of time, requires broad consultation with all social actors
and good knowledge of the policies and practices that are being pursued in other
European countries. It is also necessary to establish a highly authoritative
institutional structure having the tasks to monitor the continued implementation of
the Strategy, to evaluate the results periodically and to adjust further measures and
procedures accordingly.
Two demographic scenarios could outline the prospects of future development: an
extrapolation of current trends or the beginning of a moderate but persistent
demographic recovery. The medium and long-term objectives of development
PAGE 71 / 143 programmes and strategies at national, regional and sectoral levels will have to be
readjusted in accordance with demographic projections.
By 2013, it is envisaged to complete the elaboration and to start the actual
implementation of a harmonized legislative framework on workforce migration in
order to promote coherent action ? together with the social partners, local and
regional authorities, educational and training centres, and the civil society ?
regarding the objectives of fair mobility, particularly by deterring illegal employment
and social dumping. The development of instruments that are better suited to the
needs of migrant workers and of the businesses employing them, improved
opportunities for the access of migrant workers to the labour market and
interventions based on the principle of flexicurity will help to enhance the benefits of
geographic mobility for the individuals and the economy as a whole.
It is estimated that, by 2020, the working-age population (15 to 64 years of age) will
decrease by 1.2% compared to 2007, in parallel with a reduction of the inactive
population by nearly 13% due to the effects of economic growth and to a 5.3%
increase of the employment rate of the working-age population. As a result, the
deficit of labour force is likely to persist, which will require an adequate management
of the external mobility of the workforce and the application of special programmes
for the admission of certain professional categories of immigrant labour. Indicative
actions may include:
? Elaboration and adoption of a coherent legislation package on labour
migration;
? Consolidation of the institutional and administrative capacity of the central
and local authorities to manage the migration flows effectively.
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To promote consistently, in accordance
with the new legislative and institutional framework, the EU norms and
standards regarding social inclusion, gender equality and active support to
underprivileged groups; to proceed with the gradual implementation of the
long-term national strategy on demographic change and migration.
The priority operational objectives envisaged for this period include:
(i) Consolidation of institutional capacity in order to ensure the continuous
updating and implementation of social inclusion and solidarity policies; improved
coordination among public institutions, business community and civil society:
? Strengthening the capacity of local authorities to identify priorities correctly,
to administrate the implementation of projects and the funds allocated for that
purpose effectively, and to mobilize active involvement of the communities;
? An integrated approach to the active inclusion of vulnerable groups by
combining personalized assistance services within the community, in residential
centres or at home with insertion in the labour market.
(ii) Development and implementation of a social protection system that is suited
to demographic challenges and support to initiatives that favour the achievement of
this goal:
PAGE 72 / 143 ? Improving and harmonizing the legislative framework in tune with the
foreseeable consequences of demographic developments;
? Developing pension schemes and social assistance systems that follow
demographic trends;
? Halting the decline of the birth rate; reducing maternal and early age
mortality and morbidity;
? Developing a system for the supply of entitlements and social services in
support of child care, early development and education;
? Promoting social policies in support of the family, especially for young families
with two or three children; ensuring equal access to reproductive health services for
the entire population; facilitating the insertion/re-insertion of parents on the labour
market through the diversification of measures aimed at reconciling professional and
family lives;
? Adapting the education and training system to demographic prospects and to
the needs of the labour market; increasing and diversifying the offer for
employment;
? Increasing healthy life expectancy through the development of high quality
healthcare as well as through information campaigns and national programmes
promoting sports, physical activities and a balanced diet;
? Developing a long-term care system for elderly dependents; facilitating access
for the elderly, especially those in rural areas, to quality social and medical care;
? Promoting active ageing and balancing the dependence ratio of the pensions
system; promoting the retention in employment of older workers, including persons
of pension age that wish to continue working; developing flexible work programmes;
adapting workplace conditions and supplying training for elderly workers;
? Limiting the disparities in the territorial distribution of the population;
? Evaluation of the early results of the Population Strategy for Romania and
subsequent revision of the targets and operational modalities for the following
period.
(iii) Adequate management of labour migration
? Elaboration of special programmes for the admission of certain professional
categories of immigrant workers;
? Elaboration and application of an adequate migration policy corresponding to
the objectives of the demographic strategy;
? Promotion of active measures to reduce the number of youth or young
families that emigrate permanently.
Horizon 2030. National Objective: To come significantly close to the average
level of the other EU Member States in terms of social cohesion and quality
of social services.
The following tentative objectives are envisaged in order to ensure a rising quality of
life for Romania?s citizens and other residents and to reduce and reverse
demographic decline:
PAGE 73 / 143 ? To secure a steady trend toward the reduction of demographic decline;
? To reduce the poverty rate to a level comparable with the EU average of that
year;
? To ensure the access of all citizens and residents to quality healthcare,
education and social services;
? To ensure non-discriminating access to the labour market for all persons;
? To integrate all persons that are fit and willing to work in the system of
continuous education and training, including the population over 50 years of age.
1.7. Global poverty and the challenges of sustainable
development
The European Union and the EU Member States are among the foremost supporters
of the drive to expand the application of the principles and practice of sustainable
development to a global level with an aim to reduce poverty and socio-economic
disparities and to promote responsible policies regarding the conservation and
rational use of natural resources. The EU has undertaken precise obligations towards
this goal, in tune with the strategic documents that were adopted at the highest level
by the United Nations and the World Trade Organisation with regard to a substantial
increase, in qualitative and quantitative terms, of its contribution to development aid
and to the improvement of international governance for environmental protection.
Regarding the volume of official development assistance (ODA), the European Union
and its Member States represent the largest world donor, with about 60% of the
total international contributions.
The renewed Sustainable Development Strategy of the European Union (2006)
reconfirms those commitments to international solidarity by integrating global
sustainable development concerns in the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy
(CFSP) as an objective for multilateral and bilateral collaboration with a view to
increasing the effectiveness, coherence and quality of foreign aid in the following
period.
Overall Objective of the EU SDS: To promote sustainable development
globally, and to insure the coordination of the internal and foreign policies
of the European Union with the principles of sustainable development and
its related engagements.
The European Council of June 2008 endorsed an agenda for action outlining the EU?s
role as a global partner in meeting the Millennium Development Goals; it reiterated
the continued commitment of the EU to be the most important donor worldwide and
to take further steps in support of the implementation of the Millennium Goals.
In accordance with those commitments, the European Union collectively will have to
allocate 0.56% of the gross national income, i.e. Euro 66 billion, by 2010 (as against
Euro 46 billion in 2006), with the possibility to go as far as Euro 84 billion by 2015,
PAGE 74 / 143 assuming that the Member States will abide by their obligations in keeping with the
European Consensus for Development of 2005.
Romania, just like the other Member States which joined the EU after 2002,
undertook to strive to increase the amount of official development assistance, within
its budget allocation process, to reach the target of 0.17 of the gross national income
(GNI) by 2010 and 0.33 of the GNI by 2015.
The Member States that joined the European Union before 2002 committed
themselves to raise the volume of official development aid to 0.51% of their gross
national income by 2010 and to 0.7% of the GNI by 2015.
The EU agenda for action emphasizes the need to enhance efforts in such areas as
education, environment, health, water and sanitation, agriculture, fight against
poverty, development of infrastructure and promotion of gender equality with a
special focus on Africa.
The EU agenda for action also states that meeting the Millennium Development Goals
while abiding by the principles of sustainable development is the common
responsibility of all partners, in particular the developing countries, which will also
have to honour their commitments.
The coherence of development policies will be pursued as a principle enshrined in the
founding Treaty of the EU and further reconfirmed in the European Consensus for
Development of December 2005. The main challenges to be dealt with are to
enhance capacity and awareness, particularly among the actors responsible for
sectoral policies, to ensure the balanced management of various policies and
interests and to adjust them properly both at the EU level and in the partner
developing countries. Policy coherence supports the horizontal integration of the
development cooperation objectives in all the 12 sectoral policy areas (commerce
and trade, environment, climate change, security, agriculture, fisheries, social
policies and employment, migration, research, the information society, transport,
and energy) that are likely to have an impact in the developing countries.
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To implement the required legislative and
institutional instruments pertaining to Romania?s status as a donor of
development aid according to its obligations as an EU Member State; to
establish the priorities and means of action and to allocate for this purpose
approximately 0.25% of the gross national income (GNI) by 2013 and
0.33% by 2015, with the intermediary target of 0.17% of GNI by 2010.
Following EU accession, Romania has become a donor of development assistance.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs is the agency responsible for the coordination and
management of the national policies concerning international cooperation for
development. Development cooperation has been integrated in the overall objectives
of the foreign policy of Romania. As an EU Member State, Romania is in a position to
extend assistance to the developing countries that are included in the list that was
compiled by the Development Assistance Committee of the OECD. This will be done
both as a matter of national policy and by associating itself to the relevant EU
policies and financial efforts.
PAGE 75 / 143 The principal objective of the national policy for international development
cooperation is to support efforts toward poverty reduction in the countries that are
recipients of assistance in the wider context of worldwide action to meet the
Millennium Development Goals.
Concurrently, Romania has joined the EU commitments on development funding (The
Monterrey Consensus) and those regarding the enhanced effectiveness of
development assistance (in its capacity as a signatory of the Paris Declaration on
effective assistance), including the undertaking to increase substantially the amount
of official development assistance (ODA).
In keeping with European practice, Romania adopted a National Strategy concerning
the national policy on international cooperation for development and an Action Plan
for the implementation of that Strategy by a Government decision on 31 May 2006.
The Strategy sets the geographical priorities (Eastern Europe, Western Balkans and
South Caucasus, while the list of recipient States can be expanded to Central Asia,
Africa and Latin America) and the priority areas for targeted assistance (good
governance, consolidation of democratic institutions and the rule of law, economic
development, education and training, employment, health, infrastructure
development, and environment).
Also in 2006, Romanian Parliament passed a law concerning the funding of
assistance under the national policy on international cooperation for development; in
2007, a Government decision was taken to regulate the specific actions for the
financing of such operations.
In 2007, Romania reported an ODA contribution amounting to 0.07% of the gross
national income (circa Euro 80 million), which included Romania?s contribution to the
Community budget devoted to development cooperation and humanitarian assistance
(Euro 54 million), contributions from the special budget of the Ministry of Foreign
Affairs earmarked for development assistance, and contributions from the budgets of
other agencies (the largest share being the scholarships offered by the Ministry of
Education and Research). The actual contribution of Romania to support the efforts
toward meeting the Millennium Development Goals (Euro 4.67 million) was directed
through multilateral channels, namely the UN agencies and the funds under their
administration.
Although substantial discrepancies still exist between Romania?s performance and the
EU average, particularly in comparison with the core EU Member States with regard
to certain important sustainable development indicators, the robust GDP growth
between 2001 and 2007 qualifies Romania for the status of development aid donor.
This was confirmed in the country Report on the Millennium Goals (2007), which
noted the fact that Romania had met, in some cases ahead of schedule, the targets
set in its first Report, in 2003. The progress made enabled Romania to set more
ambitious targets for 2015 and provided opportunities for the application of the
relevant acquired experience and expertise toward solving problems that are specific
to countries still at an earlier stage of modern development.
In the following years, it is envisaged to increase the budget allocations for ODA, to
meet the existing commitments, gradually to expand bilateral assistance, to
strengthen institutional capacity and coherent action at a national level both in the
governmental and the non-governmental sectors with a view to consolidating
PAGE 76 / 143 Romania?s profile as a donor country in close cooperation and coordination with other
international donors.
At a regional level, Romania will continue to provide assistance for the priority areas
described in the National Strategy, in which it has acquired, during the process of
accession to the European Union, the kind of experience that may prove useful to
partner countries. Romania will also work in support of wider cross-border
cooperation based on the objectives of sustainable development in the Black Sea
Region through rational and efficient use of the funds made available for this purpose
by the Romanian Government and other European and international partners,
through the implementation of the Bucharest Convention on the protection of the
Black Sea against pollution (1992), in correlation with the complex objectives of the
maritime policy of the European Union, and through the concrete application of the
joint Romanian-Austrian initiative to enhance cooperation in the Danube basin.
Action will be taken to enhance the citizens? awareness about the importance of
Romania?s involvement in programmes assisting the implementation of the practice
and principles of sustainable development at a global level, not only as a moral
obligation of international solidarity but also as a concrete way to promote national
interests, particularly in the economic sphere.
Romania will support, alongside the other Member States of the European Union, the
strengthening of the role and competencies of the United National Environment
Programme headquartered in Nairobi and its transformation into a specialized UN
agency as a principal means to integrate the concerns for environmental
conservation and rational use of natural resources at a global level with the general
objective to advance the principles of sustainable development.
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To define the specific areas in which the
expertise and resources available in Romania can serve the aims of
development assistance, and to allocate for this purpose around 0.5% of
gross national income.
The actions to consolidate the international profile of Romania as a donor country,
will include increasing the budget allocation for official development assistance in
order to meet its European and international obligations; creating a National Agency
for the implementation of development cooperation policies and for promoting
Romanian expertise as a donor state in those areas where Romania has comparative
advantages.
Romania will promote better coordination and complementarity among donors
through joint multi-annual programming based on strategies for poverty reduction,
the establishment of shared implementation mechanisms, the development of joint
studies and donor missions and efficient utilization of co-financing mechanisms.
In line with the Paris Declaration on aid effectiveness (2005), Romania will strive to
develop a sense of ownership over the development process in the partner states, to
make assistance more responsive to their real needs and to emphasize a resultoriented approach and two-way accountability.
PAGE 77 / 143 Horizon 2030. National Objective: To fully align Romania with the policies of
the European Union in the sphere of development cooperation also in terms
of budget allocations as a percentage of gross national income.
Romania will continue to increase the budget allocations for official development
assistance, to pursue full alignment with the EU policies on development cooperation
and to support joint EU initiatives in that sphere.
Steps will be taken to align Romania?s performance with the OECD requirements in
order to obtain the status of member of the Committee for Development Assistance.
Romania will continue to promote its expertise as a donor country in those areas
where it has comparative advantages and to encourage coordination and
complementarity among donors, while duly observing the basic principles of the Paris
Declaration on effective assistance.
2. Cross-cutting policies
For this particular section the renewed Sustainable Development Strategy of the
European Union (2006) does not set precise quantitative or qualitative objectives in
addition to those that were included in the Lisbon Agenda and the agreed sectorspecific directives, programmes and instruments. The targets for each timeframe
have to be determined, therefore, in accordance with national priorities, while taking
into account the current EU dispositions and practice.
2.1. Education and training
It is now widely recognized that the radical improvement and diversification of the
opportunities offered by the Romanian educational and training system are priority
objectives of strategic importance and basic preconditions for an effective
implementation of the principles of sustainable development in the medium and long
run. This also takes into account the fact that a comprehensive reform of the system
and investments in terms of effort and resources that are required to this end have a
high degree of inertia. The ability to absorb additional inputs is a key factor, and the
expected rate of return is small in the short run, while tangible results become
evident only after a number of years.
Broad segments of Romanian society are now aware that education represents the
strategic prerequisite for future national development, that its contribution is
essential for the multidimensional, forward-looking endeavour to shape the country?s
human capital for the future. Education is perceived as the way to achieve
sustainable development, which is, after all, a process of societal learning in search
of innovative solutions.
The preparation of a comprehensive package of legislative and institutional
measures, conceptual guidelines and realistic projections of financing requirements is
still under way. This complex process is informed by the Lisbon Strategy, the
strategic guidelines on cohesion, the European Commission Communication
PAGE 78 / 143 regarding the information society, the working programme on education and training
for 2010 and the integrated action programme for life-long learning 2007-2013,
together with the provisions of the Bologna Declaration (1999), the Millennium Goals
(2000), the UN Decade on Education for Sustainable Development 2005-2014 and
the related Strategy which was approved in 2005, in Vilnius, under the aegis of the
UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE).
The Sectoral Operational Programme for the Development of Human Resources
2007-2013, which was approved in November 2007, derived its objectives and
envisaged actions from the National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013. It
was built around seven priority axes, of which at least 3 are directly relevant for the
future of the national education and training system. The National Reform
Programme for the Lisbon Agenda 2007-2010 also includes the development of
education and training among its strategic priorities. In 2007, Romania prepared a
Strategy on Education for Sustainable Development, which followed the
recommendations of the UNECE Strategy and detailed the objectives and specific
actions to be undertaken in that area.
The elaboration by national consensus of a medium to long-term strategic vision
based on general principles and priorities of the National Education Pact, which was
signed by the main political parties in February 2008, will be finalized in 2009 ? the
year when the EU post-Lisbon Strategy will be agreed and the allocation of financial
resources for the programming period 2014-2020 will be negotiated.
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To develop human capital and increase
competitiveness by linking education and life-long learning to the labour
market and ensuring better opportunities to participate in a modern,
inclusive and flexible labour market.
The target is, therefore, to provide training and retraining for skills matching the new
requirements of the national labour market and the competitive demands of the EU
Single Market for 1.65 million people, or as much as 18% of the total employed
population of 2006. Considering the unsatisfactory results obtained in 2000-2006, it
becomes obvious that some of the targets set in the Lisbon Strategy (an average
employment rate of 70% for the population between 15 and 64 years of age; the
reduction of drop-out rate to under 10%; raising to 85% the share of high-school
graduates in the population aged 15 to 64) cannot be attained, in Romania?s case,
until 2010. This will require a realistic rescheduling suited to the prevailing
conditions. Sustained efforts will be necessary even to meet the target set under the
Millennium Goals to make sure that, by 2012, at least 95% of the children in rural
areas should complete their primary and secondary education cycles. Under these
circumstances, the main emphasis of the policies and actions to be pursued until
2013 will be placed on maintaining and stepping up the current trends toward
catching up with the current performance of the other EU Member States.
In order to guarantee access to quality education and training and to maintain high
educational standards, the following specific objectives will be implemented
according to the established priorities of the Sectoral Operational Programme for
Human Resources:
? To improve the system of assured quality standards for pre-school, primary
and secondary education and for initial vocational training by providing support to
PAGE 79 / 143 pre-university educational establishments with a view to upgrading their
management and ability to teach skills that are relevant on the labour market;
? To improve the quality standards in higher education by supporting
universities to upgrade their management and ability to provide relevant
qualifications;
? To improve the qualifications of teachers, tutors, trainers and other categories
of educational personnel by supporting their initial and continued professional
training;
? To broaden the framework for life-long learning by supporting training
providers in order to develop systems of quality standards and management of
quality;
? To support young researchers in their quest to acquire superior knowledge
and competences through expanded opportunities for doctoral and post-doctoral
studies.
In order to ensure access to, and participation in quality education and initial
professional training, action will concentrate, at an early stage, on
decentralisation, support for schools to implement quality control systems and
building a quality culture, while ensuring equal access to education. An in-depth
reform of early education will proceed on the basis of the existing National Strategy
for early education, along with the expansion of the network of preschool units
(kindergartens). Specific educational support will be given to disadvantaged groups
to continue the ?second-chance? programmes. Steps will be taken to ensure good
management of pre-university educational units, to enlarge the scope of school
transport services and to strengthen collaboration with local authorities on the basis
of well-defined responsibilities. Schools will be equipped with the necessary teaching
aids to deliver personalized support for students with special educational needs.
Improved quality of education calls for the development of specific methodologies for
performance evaluation, ways to encourage enrolment, monitoring of truancy and
graduation rates, special training of evaluators and accreditation agents; support to
educational services providers through initial training for the use of new teaching
instruments and application of new professional standards; development of
managerial skills for targeted groups (school principals, inspectors, other relevant
decision-makers, officials involved in the formulation of educational policies, and
teaching staff). The educational offer will include curriculum updating, introduction of
new teaching techniques suited to individual student learning requirements and
styles, promotion of innovation in teaching and learning, development of abilities and
competences that are needed for new occupations, including computer skills and
access to Internet. The share of supported schools that receive accreditation (or reaccreditation following periodic evaluations) in line with the new quality standards
and quality control is expected to grow to 80% by 2015.
Since the extension of compulsory school-years from 8 to 10 resulted in additional
pressures on pre-university education infrastructure, some of the existing units will
be rehabilitated and upgraded in parallel with the establishment and development of
educational campuses endowed with complex facilities (classrooms, boarding,
cafeterias, libraries, workshops, indoors and outdoor sports facilities). It is estimated
that 480 campuses will be required to provide especially vocational and technical
training centred on the arts-and-crafts schools. The adaptation of professional
PAGE 80 / 143 qualifications to the current and projected demand of the labour market and to
specific regional requirements will be ensured.
The development of counselling and professional guidance services for students as
well as for parents will concentrate in particular on rural areas, on the Roma
communities and other disadvantaged groups. In order to promote entrepreneurial
culture through education, special courses will continue to be developed, including
extra-curricular activities to foster useful abilities and skills for further insertion in
society and on the labour market.
Several projects nearing completion aim at making the teaching career more
attractive by improving recruitment and encouraging the best university graduates to
stay on in the educational system, ensuring the access of teaching staff to bachelor
and master programmes, including the pursuit of pedagogical and inter-disciplinary
degrees, promoting new educational professions (learning developers, quality
auditors, educational assistants for children with special needs, etc.). In order to
improve the quality of pre-university education at all levels, a single system of
certification and transferable professional credits will be established, along with
networks for the dissemination of best practice and benchmarking. In view of the
fact that the use of information technologies in the teaching and training processes in
Romania is still well below the performance of other EU countries, all programmes for
the training and retraining of educators, teachers and trainers will include
compulsory study modules for the acquisition of computer skills.
In order to manage the impact of negative demographic trends on the teaching staff,
special programmes will be developed for conversion to other activities such as
professional guidance and counselling, extracurricular activities and increased
geographical and occupational mobility.
A substantial improvement in the quality of higher and post-graduate education
will come about as a result of the implementation of the National Higher Education
Qualifications Framework. It will introduce transparent standards and practices
describing the qualifications and validation procedures, the development of solutions
relying on information technology for process management, the training of a
contingent of evaluators of educational processes and of their impact on the results
of higher education. The share of universities that are expected to receive
accreditation according to the new quality standards will reach 90% by 2015.
Following the recommendations made in the course of public debates on this
Strategy regarding the ways to overcome the resistance to change of existing
ossified structures, it appears necessary to invite independent experts from Romania
and from abroad and to use their expertise for peer reviews of auditing, evaluation
and certification operations in accordance with internationally accepted quality
standards for higher education.
Increasing the relevance of higher education for the labour market requires the
adjustment of existent curricula or, on a case-by-case basis, the introduction of new
bachelors and masters programmes. For this purpose, the interaction between
universities, the business community and the research, technological development
and innovation sector will be strengthened, including the establishment of complex,
inter-disciplinary clusters.
PAGE 81 / 143 To meet the demands of the knowledge-based society, the offer of post-graduate
education options both in Romania and abroad will be broadened and diversified to
include partnerships with universities in other EU countries that have wellestablished traditions and performance standards. This will imply a re-adjustment of
available funding, considering that of the total budget allocated to higher education
in 2006, only 0.16% was earmarked for doctoral studies, while post-doctoral
programmes have not benefited from public funding. By 2015, it is envisaged that
the share of assisted doctoral students who acquire a degree should grow to 90%.
Promoting the principle of life-long learning represents a priority for Romania,
given the significant shortfalls in terms of enrolment rates in various forms of
training, retraining, professional upgrading or specialization (more than 5 times
below the EU average), as well as in terms of social and personal development. To
do better in this area is essential for personal, civic and social development, and also
for the likelihood of obtaining better paid employment based on knowledge acquired
through learning, from early education to post-graduate studies and other forms of
adult education in formal and non-formal settings. The rationale for the development
and diversification of these forms of education and training (formal, non-formal and
informal) lies in the growing relevance on the labour market of the competences thus
obtained. Sectoral Committees will establish the actual requirements for the
professional training of human resources on the basis of strategic priorities for socioeconomic development by defining the qualifications and competences that may be
in demand on the labour market in the short and medium term.
The development of pre-university education campuses and of high-performance
technology parks, along with other facilities created for this purpose will offer the
logistical base for refresher courses, retraining and acquisition of a new occupational
status corresponding to labour market demand for adult workers.
The programmes and forms of permanent education address all age groups and
qualification levels but are particularly relevant for the young people, especially those
that have dropped out of school (the rate of unemployment for this category is 3.5
times higher than the general unemployment rate), for the elderly people still able to
work, for the underprivileged or other vulnerable groups. The magnitude of the
problem observed in Romania as well as the positive experience acquired in other EU
countries call for a coherent approach at national level, involving coordination
between sectors and cooperation with social partners.
Compared to the number of 187 thousand participants in training and professional
reorientation programmes in 2004, it is envisaged that the total enrolment should
count at least 360 thousand persons in 2015, of whom 160 thousand women; the
share of students who get assistance for transition from school to work and have
obtained a job or participated in further courses will grow to 65%, while the number
of those who benefit from career counselling services will increase from
approximately 86 thousand in 2005 to 400 thousand in 2015.
The entire educational and training system will internalize the principles and
objectives of sustainable development as an integrator of the knowledge,
aptitudes and skills that are needed for personal and socio-cultural performance in
the modern world. Education for sustainable development will be integrated laterally
in all syllabuses, either as sets of subjects or as modules, from nature sciences to
PAGE 82 / 143 civic responsibility to sustainable production and consumption patterns relative to
available resources to the principles of cultural diversity, good governance and the
rule of law. Promotion of sustainable development through education transcends the
boundaries of the education paradigm allowing the classification of formal, informal
and non-formal modalities. Education for sustainable development requires
cooperation and partnership among many decision-making factors: central and local
authorities, education and research units, public health system, the private sector,
manufacturing industries, transport, agriculture, commerce, the labour unions, massmedia, non-governmental organisations, local communities, citizens and international
organisations.
Education for sustainable development must not be limited to an environmental
perspective. It should develop as a broad, inclusive concept, bringing together
interconnected environmental, social and economic aspects. Tackling the broad and
diverse array of topics associated with the principles of sustainable development
requires an inter- and trans-disciplinary approach through integrated, crosscurricular and mutually reinforcing educational forms, which should also take into
account specific local, regional and national conditions, as well as the global context.
The training and education system will encourage pro-active participation and
voluntary contributions expressing the civil values acquired during school years.
Through the measures that are being envisaged, Romania?s educational system will
combine the traditions of the national school with the principles of education for
sustainable development. The thematic substance is thus integrated in the formal,
informal and non-formal educational systems through a three-dimensional approach:
socio-cultural, environmental and economic.
? Socio-cultural educational content embracing local and universal concerns:
human rights, peace and security, gender equality, cultural diversity, inter-cultural
education, education for health and the quality of life, education for leisure, good
governance (transparency, free expression of opinion, freedom of speech,
participation in policy-making), appreciation of national heritage and local history;
? Education about and for the environment: the objectives of environmental
protection in the processes of development, environmental quality, conservation,
protection and improvement as development goals, education for the regeneration of
the natural environment, education for recycling and re-use of material resources;
? Technological and vocational training: acquisition of competences and
proactive attitudes (to understand the real world as a common good; to possess
general knowledge and to specialize in a given field; to go on learning and to pursue
education throughout one?s life in a learning society), abilities and aptitudes (to work
individually or as part of a team with integrity and honour; to be honest, punctual
and responsible; to adapt to changing circumstances; to know and understand
problems and difficulties; to apply creative, critical thinking to problem-solving; to
resolve conflicts without recourse to violence); ethical approach to development in a
sustainable society.
In this general framework, the syllabuses will be differentiated for the urban and
rural areas to cultivate the pro-active involvement of the younger generation and the
teaching community in the preparation and implementation of projects and schemes
that are compatible with the objectives of sustainable development (for example, in
the framework of the Local Agenda 21).
PAGE 83 / 143 In order to make sure that the implementation of the established objectives and
operational targets has the desired impact, it is necessary that the educational and
training policies currently under development should include provisions directly
relevant for Romania?s sustainable development prospects. By correlating the
educational policies with the national strategies and sectoral programmes, while
taking into consideration the foreseeable demographic developments, forward
planning will have to ascertain what kind of human resources Romania will need.
Those needs will have to be explicitly identified for each educational level, thus
providing the logic for the restructuring of the system and the preparation of
adequate curricula and syllabuses based on the expected results of the educational
process. Such a systemic approach will generate optimum effects in the medium and
long run.
The allocations for financing the human resource development programme (cofinanced through the European Social Fund) for 2007-2013 amount to Euro 3.5
billion, representing 85% of the total requirements, with an additional national
contribution of Euro 613 million.
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To attain the average performance level
of the EU in education and training, with the exception of services in rural
areas and for disadvantaged groups, where the EU targets for 2010 will
apply.
For this timeframe, subject to further planning developments, the following
strategic directions are envisaged:
? Restructuring of the educational cycles according to specific training profiles
and re-formulation of syllabuses in keeping with the reference levels to be set by the
National Qualifications Framework, so that the transparency of the life-long learning
system and occupational mobility are ensured. Restructuring operations must ensure
access to all forms of education and a substantial improvement of the quality of the
educational offer through the acquisition of competences that could support personal
advancement, competitiveness and sustainable development;
? Development of institutional capacity and innovation relying on knowledge
management; establishment of cooperation networks, including public-private
partnerships, while promoting decentralization of the educational system and
upholding university autonomy;
? Professional upgrading of educational governance and school management
through human resource development for effective leadership, promotion of
participative, pro-active and anticipatory attitudes, and development of specific
competences, while giving equal priority to social and personal aspects;
? More openness in the formal education system by recognising the knowledge
acquired through informal or non-formal training. It is expected that effective access
to centres for the validation of competences acquired through such forms of training
will be achieved by 2020. This will acknowledge the importance of life and work
experience and the relevance of a diverse educational offer both to the learners?
personal aspirations and to the needs of social and economic development;
? The development of the institutional and logistical foundation of the national
educational system, including opportunities for physical education, sports and
PAGE 84 / 143 recreation activities, will go hand in hand with the diversification of the non-formal
and informal training offer. The enrolment in life-long learning systems, re-training
and professional recycling will rise to a minimum of 15% in the 25-64 age group;
? The improved quality of initial and continued training of teaching staff and
managers using flexible systems for the renewal of knowledge will emphasize
attitudes specific to a ?reflexive practitioner? who is able to promote inter-disciplinary
approaches in support of knowledge acquired through learning, particularly those
skills that fit the socio-cultural, economic and environmental requirements of
sustainable development;
? Enhanced preparation of young people for life-long learning in order to
acquire the social and emotional intelligence and the versatility that are required to
become competitive on the labour market of the European Union;
? Development of syllabuses that are differentiated according to regional
characteristics and students? needs, providing for a broad and balanced coverage of
the fields of knowledge, making it possible to acquire a deeper understanding of
correlations and linkages between economic, social and environmental aspects of
development, including learning of foreign languages, using the opportunities for
inter- and trans-disciplinary learning, acquiring abilities for planning and research
through individual effort and team work, participative involvement in community
services, enhancing the sense of responsibility toward shared global issues, respect
for universal values, multiculturalism and specific identity; promoting creative
curiosity and continuous self-interrogation;
? Expansion of quality education and training to rural areas, promotion of
gender equality and bringing young people from underprivileged groups into the
education system;
? Expanding international cooperation through the initiation of, and
participation in European, bilateral and cross-border projects and programmes;
promoting the presence of Romanian educators in representative European and
international institutions; encouraging the participation of the Romanian scientific
diaspora in educational projects implemented in Romania and in the evaluation of
those projects, programmes and policies that are relevant for sustainable
development.
Horizon 2030. National Objective: To bring the Romanian educational and
training system in line with the best performing EU countries; to come
significantly close to the average EU level regarding the offer of educational
services provided in rural areas, to members of the disadvantaged groups or
to persons with disabilities.
? The principles and practice of sustainable development will be incorporated
organically in all educational policies. On the basis of the strategic directions to be
agreed in 2009, foresight exercises will be carried out every 5 years for comparative
evaluation of the results; the deadline for the relevant projection targeted on the
year 2030 is 2019;
? The internal and external effectiveness of the education system, from preschool education to post-doctoral studies, from formal to non-formal education, from
initial and continuous training to equal access to quality education will continue to be
the primary objective. Effective learning will remain a priority, while the forms and
methods of teaching will be characterised by diversity and flexibility in their
PAGE 85 / 143 pedagogical approaches and will concentrate on building habits for learning and
accumulation of useful knowledge and the capacity to apply those skills in a broad
range of fields;
? The evaluation, certification and attestation methodology for the quality of
educational activities and their relevance to the labour market will be aligned with
the EU benchmarking procedures and with the best practices worldwide;
? International cooperation will be further expanded.
2.2. Research and development, innovation
The research and development sector in Romania suffered probably the most from
the collateral damage inflicted by transition to a market economy. Deficiencies
already evident in the 1980s were exacerbated over almost 15 years by chronic
under-financing (three times less then the EU average as a percentage of GDP) and
belated restructuring of that sector leading to the drastic reduction of the number of
active researchers (by some 30%, i.e. 2.6 researchers per 1,000 employees,
compared to the EU average of 7.8) simultaneously with an increase in their average
age (64% over 40 years of age). The survival strategies dictated by the penury of
resources gravely diminished the attractiveness of a research career, which led to
the massive migration of highly-performing researchers to other sectors of the
economy or abroad; at the same time, the influx of young talent dried up as a result
of poor remuneration and lack of clarity and transparency about the prospects of
professional advancement.
The persistence of this situation had an unfavourable impact on the maintenance and
development of the research infrastructure as well as on international collaboration
even in those fields where the existent performance and equipment placed Romanian
research in a competitive position at European level. Consequent to this combination
of factors, the number of researchers relative to the population of Romania now
represents only a third of the EU average. From a qualitative point of view, the
number of scientific studies produced by Romanian researchers and quoted in
leading international publications as well as the number of Romanian patents
registered or submitted for registration in Romania or overseas are very low (ranking
69
th
worldwide), much below the current potential.
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To attain the EU average for the main
indicators that describe the structure and performance of the research,
development and innovation system.
The National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation 2007-2013, which
was prepared following broad stakeholder consultations under the aegis of the
National Authority for Scientific Research in December 2006 and was subsequently
approved by the Romanian Government in 2007, includes a critical evaluation of the
current situation, an overall vision for the future, detailed strategic objectives,
applications for exploratory and cutting-edge research, priorities for public
investment, promotion of innovation, and concrete measures for the implementation
and monitoring of the Strategy. During the preparation of the Strategy, due attention
was given to coherence with the main relevant EU documents (particularly with the
PAGE 86 / 143 revised Lisbon Strategy of 2005, the Seventh Framework Programme for science and
technology, and other specific collaboration instruments) and to complementarities
and synergies with Romania?s general policies, sectoral strategies and operational
programmes adopted at a national level.
For this purpose three strategic objectives were defined:
(a) Creation of knowledge by obtaining cutting-edge scientific and
technological results, increasing the international visibility of Romanian research,
promoting the transfer of results into the economy and society, substantially
improving, in qualitative and quantitative terms, the performance of human capital,
also through the development of centres of excellence;

(b) Increasing the competitiveness of the Romanian economy by
promoting innovations that have an actual impact on the activity of companies,
accelerating technology transfers, shifting the emphasis towards exercises in
complex problem-solving with direct applications, encouraging partnerships with
manufacturing and service companies on a competitive basis, creating centres of
competence and technological platforms;
(c) Improving the social quality of research by generating conceptual and
technological solutions that have a direct impact on the preparation and
implementation of public policies, and correlating research with social requirements,
particularly in such fields as public health, environmental protection, infrastructure,
land use and spatial planning, and sustainable management of national resources in
an ecologically responsible fashion.
For the implementation of this strategic vision, specific objectives were
established, some of which have quantitative targets with reference to the EU
average levels:
? To improve performance so as to place Romanian research in the leading
group of 35 countries ranked by the number of titles in ISI-indexed publications
(from the 48
th
position between 1995 and 2005), to increase 10 times over the
number of EPO patents per one million people (from 1.72 in 2003, compared to the
EU average of 137), to triple the number of nationally registered patents compared
to 2006 and to increase the share of high-tech patents, to double the number of
innovative companies (19% in 2002-2004);
? To develop the resources of the system by tripling the number of
researchers while reducing their average age to under 40 years, providing an annual
average of 2,000 doctoral scholarships, achieving a proportion of 50% of doctorate
holders and doctoral candidates in the total number of researchers, increasing the
attractiveness of research careers and applying performance criteria for professional
promotion, involving in the work of Romanian research centres or in projects
implemented in Romania more foreign researchers and scientists from the Romanian
diaspora who have outstanding achievements or creative potential, facilitating the
researchers? access to high-performance research infrastructure in Romania and
abroad, particularly in the EU;
? To involve the private sector by increasing private spending for research
and development to 1.5% of the GDP, motivating private companies to incorporate
research outcomes in the production of goods and services, developing public-private
partnerships in science and technology and specialized interfaces between supply
PAGE 87 / 143 and demand, simplifying the access of innovative companies to sources of cofinancing in cooperation with public universities and research centres;
? To enhance institutional capacity by reducing the fragmentation of the
current system and encouraging participation in national and international research
networks, promoting Romanian higher learning and research centres as actors in the
international knowledge market and viable commercial partners, improving the
professional standards of research management, independent evaluation (preferably
international) of the performance of research financed from public sources,
consolidating the role of science in society by promoting ethical standards, gender
equality, and communication and dialogue between science and society;
? To expand international cooperation through participation in cross-border
programmes and projects and initiation of new ones, a better representation of
Romania in representative European and international organisations, encouraging the
participation of the Romanian scientific diasporas in projects that are implemented in
Romania and in the evaluation of projects, programmes an relevant public policies.
The Strategy offers an integrated outlook for research in a knowledge-based
economic system and for its multiple interfaces with society and with financial,
information and political structures. It states the necessity to evaluate research
according to its capacity for innovation and underlines the importance of professional
administration and management of research with an emphasis on the administration
of contracts, financial resources and intellectual property rights. On the basis of a
comprehensive foresight exercise, the first of its kind in Romanian science and
research, the Strategy indicates the priority areas for publicly funded research and
development activities: technologies for the information society, energy,
environment, health, agriculture, food security and safety, bio-technology, materials
science, innovative products and processes, space and security, socio-economic
research and the humanities.
With regard to innovation, the proposed objective is to make sure that, despite the
current disparities, the share of Romanian companies that come up with innovative
products and services gets closer to the EU average towards the end of the reference
period. With an aim to promoting coherent policies for innovation, it is planned to
introduce a system for cross-sector coordination at a national level, to develop a
portal for companies, particularly small and medium enterprises, to launch partially
subsidized training programmes for innovation management, and to develop
technology transfer units (from patents to products, services or processes) attached
to universities or research centres, which would further evolve into science and
innovation clusters. The Strategy provides for flexible instruments to link up with the
current trends in the EU regarding innovation in the services sector, regulation of
state aid for research and development, patent procedures at a European level and
protection of intellectual property having digital content.
By accomplishing these objectives, the research, development and innovation sector
will contribute to the implementation of the principles of sustainable development by
building new compatibilities and synergies in a complex, multi-disciplinary approach.
The adoption and organic integration of the principles and objectives of sustainable
development will incrementally lead to the emergence of new ideas in theoretical and
applied science at the interface between traditional fields of research resulting in a
higher degree of synthesis.
PAGE 88 / 143 The measures aimed at ensuring an adequate institutional framework for the
implementation of the Strategy include the continued activity of the National Council
for Science and Technology Policy, with the mission to oversee the correlation of
relevant policies at inter-departmental level, and of the National Authority for
Scientific Research, an executive body that is responsible for strategic planning,
preparation, implementation and monitoring of policies and programmes, particularly
the National Plan for Research, Development and Innovation. Three new public
institutions will be created: the Research Council, the Council for Technological
Development, and the Innovation Council. The Romanian Academy, the line
ministries and the branch academies are responsible for the preparation of their own
plans for the implementation of the Strategy.
The overall financing from public and private sources for research, development and
innovation activities is foreseen to reach 2.3% of the GDP by 2013 (2.5% in 2015),
thus getting close to the EU target (3% in 2010). Public financing for this sector
showed an upward dynamic in recent years aiming to reach the target of 1% of the
GDP in 2010. Additional fiscal measures combined with flexible use of structural
funds and state support in ways that are compatible with EU regulations are
envisaged to encourage investment in technology transfer and to promote
innovation, particularly by small and medium-sized businesses.
In addition, the Sectoral Operational Programme ?Increasing Economic
Competitiveness? includes support for research, technological development and
innovation through the promotion of partnerships between universities, research
centres and companies with an aim to obtaining results that are applicable in the
economy, securing further investment in the infrastructure for research,
development and innovation, improving administrative capacity and the access of
companies to research results. To develop such investments, the Programme
allocated Euro 646.5 million, of which 83% from the European Regional Development
Fund to be supplemented from private contributions to the tune of Euro 180 million.
Monitoring and evaluation are to be based on the performance indicators included
in implementation plans. Each year, a public report on the completion of established
objectives will be issued. An independent mid-term evaluation report will be
published in 2010. In 2013, a post-implementation impact study will be completed,
and the Strategy will be adjusted to fit the requirements of the following period on
the basis of an evaluation of the results obtained, an analysis of the system?s
functionality and proper consideration of prospective developments in science and
technology.
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To connect Romanian research to the
mainstream scientific and technological developments within the EU; to
expand innovative activities; to support the emergence of centres of
excellence having an international impact.
It is envisaged to continue the improvement of the legislative, regulatory and
institutional framework, the development of collaboration with innovative enterprises
and the promotion of co-financing with private capital. Public spending for researchPAGE 89 / 143 development-innovation in universities and specialized units will rise to at least 3%
of the GDP.
Horizon 2030. National Objective: To establish the key elements of a society
and economy based on knowledge; to produce essential contributions of
Romanian research towards the complex objectives of sustainable
development.
3. Financial and Economic Instruments
At this stage, it is not envisaged to have a separate budget dedicated to the
implementation of the National Sustainable Development Strategy. Future revisions
of the Strategy, starting with that of June 2011, will consider the necessity and
feasibility of such a step. The objectives and targets of this National Strategy and of
its future revised versions will provide the reference points for the drafting of
national and local budgets (annual and multi-annual) and for the formulation and
promotion of Romania?s proposals toward the preparation and approval of allocations
under the next EU financial programming periods (2014-2020 and 2021-2027).
The planning of expenditure and the assessment of realistic prospects to gain access
to various financing sources will also consider the current trends within the EU
regarding market transparency and prices that reflect economic, social and
environmental costs, the shifting of the fiscal burden from labour to resource and
energy consumption or/and pollution, and the reform of state aid and subsidies (to
be decided until the end of 2008).
The financing sources that are potentially available for the implementation of the
objectives of the National Sustainable Development Strategy in accordance with the
National Development Plan, the Operational Programmes and the specific action
plans that have already been approved, are:
? The EU contribution through structural instruments (European Regional
Development Fund, European Social Fund, European Cohesion Fund) to the
?Convergence? objective and the ?European territorial cohesion? objective, plus
national co-financing from public sources (state budget, local administration budgets,
foreign borrowing, other public sources) and corresponding private sources;
? Other structural funds of the EU (European Agriculture Fund for Rural
Development, European Fisheries Fund) and corresponding national co-financing
from public and private sources;
? Funds from the state budget and the local budgets dedicated to investment
for development programmes having objectives that are similar to those
programmes that are co-financed from the above-mentioned Community funds;
? External borrowing for investment from international financial institutions
(European Investment Bank, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development,
World Bank, etc.) and other sources (sovereign funds, private investment funds,
PAGE 90 / 143 etc.) to support national projects that are congruent with the objectives of the
National Sustainable Development Strategy and with the EU SDS;
? Other financial instruments such as continued encouragement of foreign
direct investment, active utilization of capital markets, especially by launching initial
public offers (IPOs), enlarging the lending base of the banking sector by encouraging
domestic savings, developing long-term saving and investment instruments,
concession of infrastructure and public utilities projects, promoting public-private
partnerships, etc.
The financial programming for the National Development Plan 2007-2013 estimates
investment requirements to the amount of Euro 58,673.10 million, in precise
compliance with the EU objectives for the allocation of structural and cohesion funds,
as well as agriculture and fisheries funds. Out of this total, about Euro 32 billion can
be financed through the structural instruments and the EU agriculture and fisheries
funds, which have precise and certain destinations, provided the highest possible
national absorption capacity is ensured. The balance is covered from the state
budget, external borrowing and other sources.
Additional financing for the objectives of the National Sustainable Development
Strategy can be tapped on a competitive basis for projects submitted by EU Member
States, individually or through participation in consortia, by applying directly to the
European Commission or to other EU funds that are not part of the structural or
cohesion funds, such as:
? The EU Solidarity Fund, which provides financial assistance in case of
disasters, including those due to climate change, with a total amount of Euro 1 billion
per year for the entire Community;
? «Marco Polo II», a programme supporting the connectivity of different
transport modes, enhanced environmental performance in transport and
decongestion of urban traffic and of traffic on trans-European road networks, with a
total allocated amount of Euro 450 million;
? The programme for competitiveness and innovation supporting the objectives
of sustainable production and consumption, with a total financial allocation of Euro
3.62 billion;
? «Progress: Employment and Social Solidarity», a programme supporting the
introduction of benefits and facilities to reduce unemployment, to curb
discrimination, to encourage gender equality and to promote social inclusion, with a
total allocated amount of Euro 743 million;
? The European fund for adjustment to globalisation supporting professional
conversion and repositioning on the labour market of employees affected by changes
in global trade, with a total financing ceiling of Euro 500 million per year;
? The Life-long Learning Programme designed to facilitate the mobility of
teaching staff and to strengthen links among continuing education and training units
through programmes such as «Comenius», «Erasmus», «Leonardo da Vinci» and
«Grundtvig», with an allocation of Euro 6.97 billion;
? The Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) designed to expand capacity for
scientific research, technological development and innovation within the EU space as
PAGE 91 / 143 well as cooperation with partners in other regions, with a total allocation of Euro
53.272 billion;
? The programme for the Trans-European Networks aimed at facilitating
mobility and free, sustainable circulation of citizens, goods, capital and energy
among the Member States of the European Union, with a financial allocation of Euro
8.168 billion.
In addition to these EU programmes, Romania may also access funds allocated
through the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area, which brings
together the West-European States that are not part of the EU (Iceland, Lichtenstein
and Norway); the funds are mainly targeted on the strengthening of institutional and
administrative capacity, and on projects for environment protection and training. The
total financial allocation amounts to Euro 50.5 million between 2008 and 2011, of
which the share of grants varies between 60% and 90%. Additional financial
assistance can be obtained from bilateral schemes operated by EU Member States or
other European countries (Norway, Switzerland).
4. Communication, mobilising actors and multiplying
success
The adoption of the Romanian National Sustainable Development Strategy marks the
beginning of a long-term process leading, in successive stages, to the establishment
of a new development model in accordance with the worldwide strategic guidelines
that were agreed in the framework of the United Nations and with the directives of
the European Union. Considering the importance of these commitments, it is
imperative to bring the principles of sustainable development, the need to accept a
new development model, the major problems currently confronting Romania today
and the way in which they are reflected in the objectives of this National Strategy to
the attention of all decision-makers and the public at large. This process is not
limited to a one-off publicity campaign. It must become a matter of continuing
concern and must involve the active participation of all relevant actors: central and
local authorities, political parties, business and professional associations, social
partners, the educational and research systems, the civil society and the mass
media.
Following the adoption of the National Strategy, a programme of concrete action will
be drafted, including precise responsibilities, available resources and implementation
deadlines with regard to information, communication and dissemination of best
practice from Romanian experiences and from those of other EU Member States that
are relevant for the implementation of sustainable development objectives. The
orientation and coordination of the governmental Communication Programme and
the administration of the public funds to be allotted to this end will be entrusted to
the Interagency Committee (see Part V) in close collaboration with the Consultative
Council for Sustainable Development.
During the period immediately following the adoption of this Strategy, the following
actions will be taken that have assured financing from the funds allocated for the
preparation of the Strategy:
PAGE 92 / 143 ? The Romanian version of the National Sustainable Development Strategy will
be published in book format and circulated to central and local authorities, political
parties, parliamentary commissions, business and professional associations, labour
unions, educational and research units, non-governmental organisations and other
groups of the civil society, printed and audio-visual mass media. A sufficient number
of copies will be made available to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to be distributed to
the Romanian diplomatic and consular offices for the information of Romanian
residents abroad.
? The Strategy will be translated and published in English for presentation to
the European Commission and distribution to the European Parliament and other EU
institutions, and also to other interested governmental and non-governmental
institutions and organisations.
? The dedicated interactive websites that have operated exclusively for the
preparation of the National Strategy will continue to function for at least three more
months at the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development and at the
National Centre for Sustainable Development / UNDP in Bucharest, until that task is
taken over by the future Interagency Committee and the Consultative Council that
will develop their own portals for this purpose.
? The institutions, organisations and persons that have participated in the
preparation of the National Strategy will continue to be actively involved in the
presentation of its objectives through public meetings with target groups (youth,
business associations, labour unions, non-governmental organisations, etc.) and
academic events (conferences, symposia, seminars) at national, regional and local
levels, and through articles and interviews in the printed and broadcast media.
According to the specific recommendations of the EU Sustainable Development
Strategy, the following measures are submitted to the attention of the Interagency
Committee and the Consultative Council for Sustainable Development to be included
in the Communication Programme:
? To produce a layman?s guide explaining the concept of sustainable
development and presenting the principal objectives of the renewed EU Sustainable
Development Strategy and the Romanian National Sustainable Development
Strategy;
? To conclude agreements with the public radio and television networks
targeting in particular the programmes having an educational content with an aim to
include presentations and debates on sustainable development; to buy advertising
space on private radio and TV stations for broadcasting brief messages of public
interest on subjects related to sustainable development;
? To use actively the regional and local networks that were formed during the
implementation of Local Agenda 21 programmes and the methods of public
consultation employed in that process for the dissemination of successful initiatives
and best practice in the realisation of concrete projects at community level for the
application of the principles of sustainable development;
? To encourage university senates to include among the recommended topics
for bachelor, master and doctorate dissertations subjects that promote directly or
indirectly the idea of sustainability and ecological responsibility, and to facilitate the
publication of the best works of that type;
PAGE 93 / 143 ? To encourage local authorities and communities in Romania to participate in
the EU campaign for sustainable municipalities and towns in order to promote
exchanges of best practice and the preparation of qualitative standards, indicators
and instruments (such as impact evaluations) for the concrete application of the
principles of sustainable development at a local level; to award annual prizes for the
most successful initiatives;
? To promote in Romania, with support from business associations, social
partners, chambers of commerce and industry, the goals and practices of the
European Alliance for Corporate Social Responsibility in order to launch voluntary
initiatives of the business community going beyond minimal legal requirements.
? To undertake specific actions to ensure the complete and consistent
application in Romania of the Aarhus Convention on access to information and public
participation in decision making and recourse to justice with regard to environmental
issues.
PAGE 94 / 143 P A R T I V . I S S U E S A N D C O N C E R N S
S P E C I F I C T O R O M A N I A
A number of aspects regarding the implementation of sustainable development
principles are not tackled in the renewed EU Sustainable Development Strategy since
those problems were basically resolved by the countries belonging to the original
core of the EU many decades ago and thus are no longer object of priority concern.
In Romania?s case, certain indicators (e.g. structure of farmland property, access to
drinking water distribution and sewerage networks, transport infrastructure, energy
efficiency and resource consumption per GDP unit, labour productivity, general state
of health, quality of professional training, etc.) are still inferior to the level of the
majority of EU Member States. This section is intended to clarify precisely such
problems that must be solved in parallel and simultaneously with the effort to
achieve full conformity with the rules and standards of the European Union.
1. Risks and vulnerabilities caused by domestic and
external circumstances
The implementation of the objectives of the Romanian National Sustainable
Development Strategy may be affected by deviations caused by domestic and
external factors. Some are foreseeable, although their impact is difficult to evaluate,
quantify or place in time.
The model proposed for the long run is one of potentials, as the dynamic of
development depends to some extent on resource availability and the overall
conjuncture. Major deviations of national policies from the stated objectives and from
the commitments undertaken by Romania as an EU Member State are improbable,
but delays and lack of coordination in their implementation are possible.
The following can be regarded as main endogenous risk factors:
? Opportunistic adjustments of economic policies as a result of political
instability and/or disregard of sustainable development principles, depending on the
composition of parliamentary majority or the doctrines of political parties then in
office;
? Delays in the implementation of an improved decision-making system and
failure to enforce the accountability of public institutions for the results of the policies
pursued by them, to use impact analyses and to apply systematic, proactive
monitoring techniques;
? Continuation of negative demographic trends, steeper population decline and
the occurrence of structural imbalances with far-reaching economic and social
implications;
PAGE 95 / 143 ? Further growth of public mistrust with regard to the impartial, transparent
and expeditious administration of justice;
? Formalistic and ineffective cooperation of public institutions with the private
sector (business associations), professional associations and social partners in the
preparation and implementation of public policies and measures to enhance
competitiveness through improved resource and labour productivity, export
promotion and efforts to ensure macroeconomic balance;
? Patronage-based selection of priorities in the allocation of public funds at the
expense of projects that have a potentially major, positive socio-economic and
environmental impact and are based on a competent evaluation of the ratio between
financial effort and effects in the medium-to-long term;
? Delays with regard to decentralization and to measures aimed at substantial
improvement of administrative capacity, of the potential to generate projects that
are eligible for financing in terms of economic, social and economic efficiency, and to
execute such projects within the deadlines and on the terms set in the feasibility
studies; further procrastination may reduce the rate of access to EU funds and may
jeopardize the ability to cover the current account deficit;
? Limited effectiveness of policies aimed at continuing the disinflation process,
which may have a severe negative effect on the macroeconomic balance and
sustainable economic growth;
? Poor ability to anticipate the incidence of extreme weather events resulting
from climate change (long periods of drought, floods, pandemics) and to take
measures toward limiting their potential effects on public health and well-being,
farming and food prices;
? Unsustainable upward trend of consumer debt and imports for current
consumption;
? Income growth decoupled from productivity growth as a result of populist
policy decisions taken during pre-electoral periods and of tensions on the labour
market due to the deficit of experienced workers in certain areas;
? Belated implementation of adequate policies to reduce energy intensity and to
cover energy requirements for economic activities and private consumption in a
sustainable manner;
? Ineffective use of public funds earmarked for initial and continued training of
human resources and for supporting research-and-development and innovation
activities, which are key areas for sustainable development.
Some of the external risk factors to be taken into account are:
? The expansion of external migration beyond the limits of sustainability
following the adoption by certain more advanced countries of immigration policies
that have not only an economic dimension related to a workforce deficit in particular
sectors, but also a demographic dimension, namely to mitigate the impact of low
birth rates and population ageing;
? A stepped-up trend toward higher oil, natural gas and uranium prices that can
have a severe impact on inflation rates and energy security;
? Uncertainties about the attitudes of foreign investors toward the emerging
markets that are likely to be caused mainly by current account deficits and
unpredictable fiscal policies, with negative effects on the amounts and quality of
PAGE 96 / 143 investment in the productive sectors of the economy, and on the ability to use such
sources in order to cover the current account deficit;
? Increasing cost of external financing as a result of international financial
turbulence and of a possible downgrading of country risk rating, which may have
undesirable effects on the exchange rate of the national currency and on inflation
rate.
In order to identify risk factors and develop crisis management capacity it is
recommended:
? To build up a roster of risk evaluators and crisis management experts to be
inserted in decision support structures;
? To develop, through foresight exercises, appropriate instruments for crisis
prevention and management and for the mitigation of effects;
? To integrate Romanian specialists in the EU expert networks for crisis
management on the basis of professional competence;
? To prepare contingency plans in anticipation of system vulnerabilities and
their potential effects in crisis situations, including portfolios of alternative solutions.
2. Sustainable growth: structural change and
macroeconomic balance
This National Strategy is built on the premise that accelerated development in the
medium and long run in its three essential components (economic, social and
environmental) is not just one of the possible options, but an essential precondition
for gradually closing the gap which still separates Romania, in terms of quality of life,
from the EU average level within the shortest possible time and for ensuring real
cohesion both nationally and in the broader EU framework.
The economic developments in Romania over the past 7 years (2001-2007), with an
annual growth rate of the gross domestic product of more than 6% compared to the
EU average of under 2%, demonstrate that it is possible to attain this objective. The
fact that Romania joined the Single Market of the European Union, the improved
business environment and ability to face competitive pressures, the consolidation of
the private sector and the rising rate and quality of investment are encouraging signs
that support the notion that this process will continue.
Continued growth of the GDP at average annual rates of 5.6-5.8% between 2008
and 2013, 4.8-5% between 2014 and 2020 and 3.8-4.2% between 2021 and 2030 is
a realistic target. The figures are close to the estimated potential GDP levels for each
period and compatible with the convergence criteria that Romania needs to meet in
order to adopt the common European currency.
At a time when the free movement of goods and services and the effects of
globalisation become more widespread, eco-efficiency and competitiveness will be
key factors of sustainable economic growth. The continued performance of the
Romanian economy in the medium and long term requires, therefore, effective
PAGE 97 / 143 economic policy instruments that should make it possible better to manage and turn
to account the existing potential in certain key areas that are essential for
sustainable development in a competitive environment.
The main medium-term economic objectives that have been set in the national
development programmes in line with the targets of the revised Lisbon Strategy, the
General Economic Policy Guidelines and the Stability and Growth Pact of the
European Union, are:
? To maintain macroeconomic stability, to continue the process of disinflation
and to limit current account deficits;
? To improve the predictability and performance of fiscal policy, to attract and
use more efficiently the available European grant funds;
? To continue and deepen structural reforms, to provide improved healthcare,
education, training, research and development services, and to pursue the necessary
reforms in order to increase accountability and efficiency;
? To ensure the long-terms sustainability of public finances;
? To improve the business environment, to promote entrepreneurial culture, to
increase flexibility and participation in the labour market and to promote harmonious
regional development;
? To pursue public administration reform.
An essential condition for meeting the objectives of sustainable development is to
implement an adequate combination of coherent macroeconomic policies that
should ensure the sustainable use of physical and energy resources for economic
growth, the provision of financial resources for those investments that are strictly
necessary for the modernization and increased competitiveness of economic sectors
producing goods and services and of infrastructure, the continued training and
improved performance of the labour force enabling it to respond to the demands of
technical and technological progress. The analysis of Romania?s economic progress
during the past 18 years warrants the conclusion that, to this end, it is also
necessary to address a series of crucial issues:
? An optimal combination of private initiative with rational public interventions
relying on flexible policies aimed at correcting market dysfunctions. State
intervention in the economy must target only those areas where market forces alone
are more likely to waste resource or take longer to resolve the problems. Such
interventions should be based on preliminary investigations and evaluations
conducted in an impartial, independent and transparent manner;
? A significant improvement of the structure and functionality of central,
regional and local public institutions, a more precise definition of their responsibilities
and ability to cooperate in order to enable an accurate evaluation of their
performance and to single out those areas where further measures to increase
administrative efficiency at all levels are required;
? Stepped-up decentralisation in line with the principle of subsidiarity to be
accompanied by measures to enhance administrative capacity and decision-making
competences;
PAGE 98 / 143 ? Systematic pursuit of the objective of social cohesion as a precondition for
sustainable development; periodic reviews, with this aim in mind, of wage, fiscal and
social policies.
Without claiming to offer a substitute to the existing development programmes for
Romania, this Strategy offers an outlook that is focused on long-term objectives
which transcend the current planning timeframes and electoral cycles. It follows the
logic of sustainability standards stipulated in European directives and mainstream
global trends.
2.1. Long-term sustainability of energy and material
consumption within the support capacity of natural capital
The data presented in Part III, Chapter 1.1, indicate that primary and final energy
intensities are at least three times higher in Romania than the current EU average. It
follows that Romania has a significant potential to reduce energy consumption,
mainly by increasing energy efficiency in the production and service sectors and by
diminishing the considerable technical losses in the residential sector.
According to the national programmes for energy efficiency, it is anticipated that
primary energy intensity could be reduced by approximately a third, from 0.555
tonnes oil equivalent (Toe) in 2006 to 0.377 Toe in 2013 per Euro 1,000 of GDP at
constant prices (Euro 2000), and by an additional 23-24% (0.26 Toe) in 2020, thus
attaining the EU average of the year 2006.
It follows that the estimated average annual rates of GDP growth from 2008 to 2020
can be achieved by decoupling economic growth from that of primary energy
consumption.
To ensure the sustainability of the total physical resource consumption in step with
the responsible management of the natural capital, a significant improvement of
resource productivity appears to be the key priority. It is expected that relevant
primary and secondary EU legislation may evolve towards setting more ambitious
targets and more demanding regulations in accordance with the renewed Lisbon
Agenda.
An analysis of the performance of Romanian manufacturing industries in recent years
shows, for example, that the energy and materials intensive sectors (iron and steel,
oil processing, chemicals, building materials), which are also big polluters and
account for some 25% of total production, reveals a downward trend in resource
productivity as a result of increased intermediary consumption. The total resource
consumption in the iron-and-steel industry increased by 48% from 2000 to 2005,
while the value added went down by 2.6%. In the oil processing industry, a 12.4%
growth in value added entailed a 50% increase in resource consumption. In 2005,
total resource productivity was only 0.18 in the iron-and-steel industry and 0.34 in
the downstream oil industries, compared to 0.55 for all manufacturing industries.
PAGE 99 / 143 Similar examples of declining resource productivity can be found in agriculture and
forestry. These sectors also have a significant potential for improvement within a
reasonable timeframe through policies aimed at encouraging technological upgrading
and increasing the share of high-value processed products for domestic consumption
and for export.
The negotiation, at an early stage, of voluntary agreements with business
associations (which is already common practice in some EU countries) and
subsequent enactment of regulations providing for a partial transfer of the labour tax
burden to the taxation of consumption of material and energy resources could
motivate companies to increase resource productivity. This would eventually have a
positive impact on costs, competitiveness and sustainable use of resources.
Taking into account the anticipated considerable future increase in the import of
primary energy and material resources, it appears necessary to prepare a special
strategy aimed at diversifying the sources and ensuring the security of supply
through long-term agreements.
2.2. Upgrading the economic macro-structure to accommodate
social and environmental requirements
The enhanced share of services in GDP formation from 48.8% in 2006 to
approximately 55% in 2013 and 60-65% in 2020 (close to the current EU average)
and improved quality of services will also increase economic efficiency and
competitiveness in the other sectors of the economy and will have positive social
effects in terms of vertical mobility of the workforce, better skills and higher pay. The
development of research, consultancy, expert advice, information technology,
financial services and management training will contribute directly toward increasing
the productivity of resource use in the economy as a whole due to the fact that the
ratio between gross value added and intermediary consumption is significantly higher
in the services sector then it is in agriculture, manufacturing or construction
industries.
The adjustment of inter-sector structures will result mainly from the priority
development of those sub-structures that produce high value added with lower
resource consumption, with an emphasis on the use of renewable or recycled
resources.
The manufacturing industries will focus on the acquisition of high and medium-grade
technologies and on domestic production of such technologies, which bring about
beneficial effects in upstream and downstream industries and can contribute
significantly toward increasing the volume and efficiency of exports. Eco-efficiency
and the use of the best available technologies (BAT) will increasingly become
essential considerations in investment decisions, not only for public procurement but
also in other sectors of the economy.
The most profound changes will take place in rural areas following the replacement
within a single generation of archaic structures, farming practices and the very look
of the Romanian village, while preserving its local identity and specific culture. The
PAGE 100 / 143 development of ecological agro-industry, the engagement of local communities in
environment rehabilitation and conservation, the motivation of those communities to
be involved in the preservation of historical monuments and cultural heritage sites,
the assured access to basic utilities and social services, the reduction and elimination
of poverty, the improvement of communications and of market relations will
contribute toward gradually bridging the urban-rural disparities in terms of quality of
life.
Considering the need to take care of regional development, to absorb EU funding and
to bring in supplementary investment, particularly for upgrading the utilities,
transport and farming-support infrastructure, an enhanced effort is required to
assemble and permanently to update a portfolio of viable projects, complete with
professionally done pre-feasibility studies, which can muster the active support of
decision makers and local communities.
2.3. Labour productivity growth and higher employment
Labour productivity in the entire Romanian economy (GDP per employed person) as
well as at sector and enterprise levels (gross value added per employee) is still
vastly inferior compared to the EU average. The relatively low level of Romanian
wages, particularly at the lower end of the scale, can be explained in part by this
productivity gap, which is reflected in approximately the same ratio between the
quality of employment and the amount of disposable income.
The sluggish renewal of the technological base, poor quality of infrastructure, chronic
under-financing, weak contribution of national research and development,
substandard performance of the domestic products and services on the market,
inadequate ability to adjust to globalization have been the main causes of
unsatisfactory labour productivity and poor returns on the resources used. Although
the rate of labour productivity growth in Romania, especially in the processing
industries and construction business, has been higher than the EU average in recent
years, the difference is still very high.
Since resource productivity (amounts used versus returns) and labour productivity
are the main determinants of efficiency and competitiveness and, implicitly, of the
sustainability of economic and social development, significant efforts will be required
in terms of investment and managerial expertise to remedy the present situation and
to match the current EU standards. The urgency of such measures is underscored by
the unfavourable demographic developments which tend to get worse in the case of
Romania.
Concurrently, it is necessary to improve the employment rate of the potentially
active population; between 2002 and 2006, Romania had a rate of 57.9% compared
to the EU average of 63.1% for the same period.
Focused investment in human capital development can produce an estimated
employment rate for the population aged between 15 and 64 of more than 62% in
2013 and continue on an upward trend in the following period (up to 64-65% in
2020).
PAGE 101 / 143 2.4. Better micro- and macro-economic management
In the following period, it is crucial to achieve considerable improvements in the
quality of economic management at all levels - from national to regional to enterprise
to farm ? in order to make sure that the available capital resources are used
efficiently and completely and to attract supplementary financing resources for
investments in modern technology, training and professional upgrading of the labour
force, scientific research, technological development and innovation. Inasmuch as
the sustainable growth of the gross domestic product relies on the value added that
is created by individual businesses, better managerial performance is crucial in every
unit producing goods and services and has to cover all the key links: administrative,
technical, technological, financial, logistical, commercial, and human resources
management.
It is appropriate, therefore, to set specific performance benchmarks for public sector
managers and to encourage the application of high standards in the private sector.
The stockholders and management boards will have to take responsibility for
monitoring management performance relying on a minimum set of standards such as
the increase of value added, competitiveness and profit.
It is also envisaged to re-evaluate the procedures concerning the depreciation of
physical assets in correlation with technological progress in every branch of the
economy in order to prevent the technical obsolescence of equipment, which causes
increased consumption of energy, materials and labour resources and has a negative
impact on competitiveness.
The implementation of multi-annual budgeting, at least in the medium term, as
standard practice for companies appears to be necessary in order to provide a longterm development perspective, to formulate efficient investment policies, and to
adjust production volumes and structure to anticipated market trends.
2.5. Investment policy and diversification of financing
resources
The specific development needs of Romania, combined with the need to achieve full
compatibility with the EU mainstream in terms of economic, social and environmental
policies call for an active and responsible involvement of central and local public
authorities, the private sector, professional associations, social partners and the civil
society in maintaining a business environment that is favourable to native and
foreign capital investment for the modern, sustainable development of the country.
Keeping up investment rates that are higher than those in the mature economies of
the EU is absolutely necessary in Romania?s case in order to achieve convergence in
real terms. The upgrading of energy, transport and urban infrastructure (safe water
and sewerage, waste management), educational and public health services, rural
development and bridging the technological and digital gap require a considerable
investment effort. While in most EU countries such problems were resolved decades
ago, for Romania they represent essential priorities today.
PAGE 102 / 143 In order to increase the investment rate in the medium and long run it is necessary
to continue the current policies aimed at attracting foreign direct investment, with a
particular emphasis on those types of investment that are likely to contribute
substantially to export capability, so that exports become the main vehicle of
economic growth. The progress of foreign direct investment in the past four years
(2004-2008), showing an annual average of Euro 6.2 billion, is likely to keep steady
at comparable levels during the following period, even in the absence of large
privatisations, by focusing primarily on greenfield investments.
To secure the required financial resources for public and private investment it will be
necessary to increase the national savings rate gradually, from 15.3% in 2007 to
over 20% in the following period, as a result of a levelling off of consumption trends.
The development of saving instruments, in line with the practices that have been
successfully applied in other EU countries, may include: a free market for tradable
government securities, public and corporate bond issues, long-term investment funds
accessible also to physical persons, a regulated mortgage market allowing for free
trading of titles and collaterals, support for collective investment instruments such as
private pensions and life insurance funds that could mobilize important financial
resources through long-term commitments (15-20 years), encouraging savings
banks to expand their activities in rural areas.
It is also useful to consider the costs and benefits of resorting to fiscal instruments in
order to encourage saving.
Expanded use of the capital market by listing those companies in which the state is
still a significant shareholder and improved market regulation can bring in
considerable amounts of capital to provide additional financing for the timely
completion of large infrastructure projects, with positive social and economic effects
that would also support regional development.
The development of public-private partnerships must not be limited to concessions,
although they must be further encouraged, provided the economic and financial
terms fit the requirements of sustainable development. The establishment of new
companies to be capitalized partially through initial public offers (IPOs), in which the
central or local authorities still have a minority stake in the company that finances
and operates the business, but which could be further capitalized though public
listing on the stock exchange, may provide an additional solution for diminishing the
initial expenditure from the state budget and the maintenance costs after
commissioning, especially when it comes to infrastructure investments. A lower
share of public money is also likely to curtail the opportunities for corruption and to
enhance the economic effectiveness of investments.
Complete and efficient use of funding coming through EU programmes can
substantially increase the investment rate and help reduce the current account
deficit, considering the fact that the contribution of European funds amounts to 2.5%
of the Romanian GDP in 2008 and will grow to above 3% between 2010 and 2013,
while Romania?s contribution to the EU budget is only 0.98% of GDP in 2008 and will
go down to between 0.7% and 0.8% by 2013. It is estimated that the complete
absorption of structural and cohesion funds will contribute an additional 15%-20% to
GDP growth by 2015.
PAGE 103 / 143 It is necessary to improve substantially the ability to produce eligible projects and to
provide consultancy services and expertise at regional and local levels through such
measures as: enhancing the role of existing regional and local development
agencies; bringing into such structures and motivating highly qualified experts in
areas that are relevant to the specific opportunities in each region; producing an
inventory of existing projects, evaluating their feasibility and adding to the project
portfolios, besides investments in infrastructure and basic public utilities, also
projects initiated by the private sector; engaging the research and development units
and universities in the development of such projects, including the involvement of
graduate and post-graduate students who could submit dissertations on such
subjects in order to develop their entrepreneurial spirit and to encourage them to
start their own businesses after graduation; producing analytical studies aimed at
enhanced project management performance, better evaluation of the future
workforce requirements by types of skills and abilities, and ways to meet the
demand through initial and further training.
2.6 Maintaining macroeconomic balance
Sustainable economic growth, defined by the annual average growth rates of the
gross domestic product and by the ability to meet the operational targets of this
Strategy within the time horizon of 2030, is conditional on the implementation of a
coherent set of adequate economic policies in keeping with the agreed objectives at
EU level, in particular those of the revised Lisbon Strategy.
For the period 2008-2013, the objectives regarding the progress of basic indicators
and macroeconomic balances were included in the Convergence Programme, which
gives priority to the fulfilment of performance criteria required for the adoption of the
common European currency by 2014. The Programme evaluated the possible impact
of certain external factors (turbulence in international financial markets, rising food
prices, the highest increase of oil prices in the past 25 years, the relatively small
changes in the forecasts for economic growth globally and in the EU) as well as
domestic developments (lower agricultural output because of drought, higher
disposable incomes insufficiently supported by productivity growth, larger consumer
credit, continued growth of imports, low savings rate). Those factors had negative
effects on the sustainability of disinflation, the trade balance, the current account,
the stability of the national currency and the cost of external financing. In this
context, economic policies had to be reconsidered with an aim to keep
macroeconomic balances within reasonable limits and to meet the requirements for
real and nominal convergence until 2012.
Monetary and exchange rate policies will aim at reducing inflation from the
second half of 2008 onwards. Inflation targets for 2008 are between 3.8% and 4.8%
and for 2009 between 3.5% and 4.5%. It is envisaged that inflation rates will fall
within convergence limits in 2012 to 2013 and stay in that range afterwards. Higher
exchange rate stability is expected in the medium term as a result of anticipated
compliance with convergence criteria.
Considering the significant GDP growth, increasing labour productivity and productive
capital inflows in the past six years as well as the projections for the next period, it
can be anticipated that the appreciation of the national currency against the Euro will
continue, but within moderate limits and without shocks.
PAGE 104 / 143 By managing the liquidity on the monetary market, the National Bank of Romania
will seek to consolidate the role of base-rate as an instrument of monetary policy and
to enhance its ability to influence inflationary expectations by the time of Romania?s
entry in the Euro zone (2014), when the main responsibility for monetary policy will
be transferred to the Central European Bank.
The national budget and fiscal policy will be maintained within prudent limits in
order to reduce external imbalances and to sustain disinflation. It is anticipated that
the continued promotion of a favourable business environment and the increased
flexibility of the labour market will further enhance investment, labour productivity
and competitiveness.
The national budget policy will give priority to programmes aimed at eliminating
structural weaknesses in areas such as infrastructure, education, health, research
and development and innovation, while maintaining budget deficits within
conservative levels through improved tax collection and more efficient spending of
public money.
Structural budget deficit will go down to 0.9%-1% of the GDP in 2011, thus falling
within the provisions of the revised Growth and Stability Pact, with a sufficient safety
margin to avoid reaching the 3% limit under possible unexpected pressures.
In the sphere of infrastructure (for energy, transport, environmental services) and,
through differentiated approaches, in other sectors the financial and fiscal policies
will mirror accepted EU practice for encouraging investment and enhancing its
economic and ecological efficiency. Fiscal policy will be focused on simplifying the
system by reducing the number of taxes and imposts, and on encouraging
employment through fiscal measures and partial transfer of taxation from labour to
energy and resource consumption.
The current account deficit and the policies to secure financing resources will
continue to be matters of primary concern, at least for the short and medium term.
The unfavourable record of the balance of payments during the past few years was
mainly caused by a negative trade balance as a result of a much higher growth rate
of imports compared to exports. Although exports showed a satisfactory trend, with
annual rates of growth between 15.4% in 2002 and 14.7% in 2007, exceeding
substantially the dynamic of production of goods and services, imports grew at an
even faster rate. As a result, the current account deficit rose from 3.3% of the GDP
in 2002 to 10.4% in 2006 and 14% in 2007.
Taking into account the stability at a low level of the budget deficit together with the
much lower share of external public debt as related to the GDP in comparison with
other countries, it can be estimated that, by applying adequate economic policies,
the current account deficit (as percentage of the GDP) could be reduced in the
following years. The main ways to cover the deficit, while avoiding more volatile
financing methods (direct borrowing or portfolio investment) that could expose the
national economy to risks resulting from possible global shocks, are: to increase
substantially the absorption rate of EU funds from Euro 1.5 billion in 2007 to over
Euro 4 billion in 2009 to 2013; to maintain the contribution of foreign direct
PAGE 105 / 143 investment at levels that are close to those of the past two years; to reduce the
trade deficit through active measures to encourage exports and moderate the growth
of imports.
It is estimated that, by reducing the negative influence of net exports on GDP
growth, which amounted to 6.2% in 2006 and 8.7% in 2007, that figure will go down
to maximum 3.5-4% in 2013 and will stay below this limit throughout the 2011-2030
period.
3. Regional development and local action; specific
rural development issues
According to the European Commission regulations of 2003 regarding the
establishment of a common system for the statistical classification of territorial units,
which was transposed into the Romanian legislation as early as 1998 and further
adapted in 2004, Romania comprises 8 development regions, each including 4 to 7
counties (except Bucharest-Ilfov region). In Eurostat classification, these regions are
NUTS II level units and represent the spatial framework for statistical data collection.
The Regional Development Councils are formed of representatives of the county and
local authorities and have the Regional Development Agencies as executive bodies.
All development regions of Romania, including Bucharest-Ilfov, have a GDP per
capita below 75% of the Community average and are eligible for financing from the
EU Structural Instruments under the Convergence objective.
Viewed from the angle of sustainable development principles and objectives, regional
trends are of crucial importance. In Romania?s specific circumstances this importance
is even higher considering the growing territorial disparities in terms of economic and
social development, rational use of resources and the quality of environmental
infrastructure.
Thus, against the national average (100), the GDP/capita in the North-East region
was 79.8% in 1998 and 68.4% in 2005, as compared to the Bucharest-Ilfov region
(162,2% in 1998 and 212,5% in 2005); in the South-West region the unemployment
rate was 104,8% in 1998 and 125,4% in 2005 compared to 47.1% in 1998 and
40.7% in 2005 in the Bucharest-Ilfov region, while the share of rural population
increased in the South Region from 129% in 1998 to 129,3% in 2005, but it
decreased in the North-West region from 83.8% in 1998 to 80.7% in 2005. Of the
overall foreign investments that had come in by 2006, 64.3% (Euro 22.2 billion out
of a country total of Euro 34.5 billion) were registered in the Bucharest-Ilfov region,
as compared to only 2.7% in the South-West region and to 1.2% in the North-East
region.
In comparison to the other European Union Member States, including those which
acceded in or after 2004, Romania has the highest share of rural population (45.1%
of the total in 2005), out of whom one third were employed in farming. The
population employed in agriculture is subject to an advanced process of ageing:
33.7% over 55 years, 36.3% between 35 and 54 years and only 30.0% between 15
and 34 years old in 2006.
PAGE 106 / 143 The draft Post-Accession Strategy of Romania (2007) listed the characteristic
features of the current state of Romanian agriculture and rural areas: wide
fluctuations in farming output and generally low performance excessively dependent
on weather conditions; perpetuation of an agrarian structure dominated by
fragmentation of land property and a permanent shortage of working capital;
extremely low opportunities for capitalization; poor market access of the vast
majority of farms; a significant surplus of labour force in individual farmsteads; the
level and spread of poverty in the rural areas; the state of infrastructure, health care
and formal and continuing education and vocational training system in the rural
areas. By way of consequence, Romanian agricultural producers have continued to
occupy a peripheral position in a European context with respect to economic
performance, while their competitiveness in international exchanges has constantly
gone down, as attested by the dynamics of trade balance in farming and food
products.
3.1 Regional development
The debates on the successive drafts of this Strategy that took place in the eight
development regions of Romania confirmed the findings of the Regional Operational
Programme 2007-2013, which was adopted in April 2007, regarding the weak points
identified at region level:
? Concentration of economic growth under the impact of foreign direct
investments in and around the city of Bucharest and increasing disparities between
the Bucharest-Ilfov region and the other seven regions, and the emergence of
congestion problems in the capital city;
? Socio-economic decline of a significant number of large cities and their
diminished role in the development of the adjacent areas and of the regions;
? Increasing demographic imbalances at regional level, with severely altered
age structure and population ageing, showing an alarming trend especially in the
southern part of the country;
? Loss of urban functions in many small and medium towns, especially in monoindustrial localities that were affected by restructuring, frequently associated with a
deterioration of social problems;
? Re-emergence of the historical development imbalance between the eastern
and the western parts of the country, economic decoupling of traditionally underdeveloped areas in the eastern and northern parts of the country as well as in the
areas along the Danube;
? Poor accessibility of certain areas, with a negative impact on local
development;
? A labour force deficit in large areas, due to decreasing population, massive
temporary migration and ageing, adding pressure on social and health services;
? Potential economic stagnation in mountain areas;
? Low competitiveness of many businesses, especially in tourism, poor level of
labour productivity, shortage of capital investments, lack of managerial skills, low
degree of modern technology use;
PAGE 107 / 143 ? Poor quality of public infrastructure, degradation urban utilities, inability to
preserve historical and cultural assets;
? Limited experience and ability of local public authorities to manage complex
sustainable development programmes including the economic, social and
environmental components.
The strategic targets of the Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 are meant
to offer concrete and effective answers to the above-mentioned weak points by
mobilising regional and local resources and potential toward producing the greatest
possible impact on regional and local development. They provide the rationale for the
measures to be taken by regional, county and local authorities with a view to remedy
and significantly improve the situation in the short and medium term.
The specific objectives of the Programme were set on the basis of economic and
social analyses conducted at a national level as well as in the eight development
regions, SWOT analysis and the strategic outlook of the National Development Plan
and the National Strategic Reference Framework in accordance with the EU priorities.
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To support sustainable and territorially
balanced economic and social development of the Romanian regions
according to their specific needs and resources by concentrating on urban
poles for growth; improving infrastructure and business environment so as
to make Romanian regions, especially those lagging behind, more attractive
places to live, visit, invest in and work.
For the purpose of meeting this overriding objective the main emphasis will be on
enhancing the economic and social role of urban centres by taking a polycentric
approach leading to a better balanced development of the regions.
The sectoral interventions at a national level will be supplemented by specific
regional, subregional and local actions in support of the principles of sustainable
development. The balanced development of all regions will be achieved through
integrated action combining public investment in local infrastructure with proactive
policies aiming to encourage business activities and to support the rational use of
local resources along the following priority axes:
(i) To support the sustainable development of urban centres as poles of
growth
Envisaged actions will concentrate on improving the quality of life and creating new jobs
through the rehabilitation of urban infrastructure, improvement of urban services, including
social services, and development of support structures for businesses and entrepreneurship.
In order to achieve a balanced spatial development and to avoid the widening of disparities
among regions, investments will be focused on those cities that play the role of regional
and/or local poles of growth and are able to project development into adjacent areas; priority
will be given to the growth poles located in the regions and counties having a lower
development level in terms of GDP per person and unemployment rates.

Considering the current condition of Romania?s cities and towns, it is envisaged that
the funds allocated to urban development be spent as follows: 60% for urban public
PAGE 108 / 143 infrastructure, 25% for social infrastructure and 15% for improving the business
environment.
The experience acquired in the European Union through the implementation of Urban
I and Urban II programmes showed that an integrated approach to economic, social
and environmental issues in depressed urban areas was successgul in ensuring the
sustainable development of those areas. The implementation of integrated urban
development plans, which will have to be prepared in a broad participative
framework, will assist such activities as physical renewal of urban environment,
rehabilitation of basic infrastructure, economic development, improved
competitiveness and job creation, integration of ethnic groups and underprivileged
categories, while ensuring the conservation and adequate protection of the
environment. The integrated plans shall comprise projects addressing the following
types of activities:
? Rehabilitation of urban infrastructure and improvement of municipal services,
including in-city transport, by means of: physical and functional renovation of
buildings having historical, cultural or artistic value; planned demolition of
abandoned structures or badly deteriorated buildings that are not listed as belonging
to the national heritage; modernisation of public areas and related infrastructure
(street network, pedestrian areas, sidewalks, public lighting, etc.); rehabilitation of
polluted sites (abandoned industrial areas, vacant lots); regulation of car traffic in
order to reduce city congestion (traffic lights, street signs, parking lots) and
sustainable modernisation of urban transport.
? Development of the business environment by cultivating entrepreneurship,
improving business infrastructure and supporting economic activities that make
optimal use of the local human and material resources.
? Modernisation of social infrastructure by means of physical and thermal
rehabilitation of multi-family housing owned by the city administration and support
for house owners? associations to undertake such work; provision of premises and
proper endowment for social services (child-care centres, old people?s homes,
centres providing assistance to disabled persons, youth centres, etc.); measures in
support of public order and citizens? safety.
(ii) To improve access to regions by upgrading regional and local transport
infrastructure
The development of transport infrastructure linking the urban centres and providing
connections to the neighbouring areas is an essential requirement for meeting the
objectives of European territorial cohesion and those of the Lisbon Strategy for
growth and jobs. The establishment of a modern national transport network is vital
for the development of counties and regions, location of companies, improved
business climate and tourism.
Increased investment in infrastructure upgrading will facilitate the mobility of
persons and goods between and inside the regions, reduce transport costs for freight
and persons, improve access to regional markets, enhance the effectiveness of
business activities, save energy, reduce travel time and encourage trade and
productive investment.
PAGE 109 / 143 The envisaged priorities focus on the rehabilitation and upgrading of rail, river and
air links and county roads, including the construction or rehabilitation of ring roads.
Besides the targets mentioned in Part III, Chapter 1.2 (Sustainable transport), the
county road network will be rehabilitated and upgraded over a length of 877
kilometres and the urban street network (411 km) by 2015, ring roads (up to 219
km) will be built or upgraded, leading to an increase of road freight and passenger
traffic by 10%, while improving safety conditions.
Taking into account the specific needs and the development level of each Romanian
region and considering that the regions have an insufficient and uncompetitive
transport infrastructure, which does not meet the requirements of the EU Single
Market, it is expected that the profitability, value added and lateral benefits of
investments in infrastructure will be considerable.
(iii) To improve the social infrastructure of the regions.
Further steps will be taken to provide essential public services with a view to meeting
the EU objectives on economic and social cohesion by improving the infrastructure
for health, educational and social services, for public safety and emergencies. The
measures and targets that are envisaged in the short and medium term in order to
decentralise health and education services, to improve their effectiveness and to
strengthen the accountability of regional, county and local authorities are detailed in
Part III, Chapter 1.5 (Public health), Chapter 1.6 (Social inclusion, demography and
migration) and Chapter 2.1 (Education and training).
Investments in that area will be aimed at improving the quality of services and
raising them to European standards so as to have a positive impact on the personal
accomplishment, well-being and access to the labour market for all citizens, while
enhancing the attractiveness of the regions.
(iv) To strengthen the regional and local business environment
Action will be taken to establish and develop business structures at regional and local
levels, to rehabilitate industrial sites and to assist entrepreneurial initiatives suited to
the requirements of each region, in particular in the less developed areas and in
those that experience economic decline.
? Development of sustainable business support structures of regional and local
importance, drawing on the positive experience of the industrial park projects,
business centres and logistical platforms: building, rehabilitation or expansion of
buildings devoted exclusively to production and service activities, except for those
hosting business incubators; rehabilitation and expansion of the street networks
within the business structures and of access roads; provision of basic utilities (water
treatment plants, energy and gas supply, sewerage systems) and broadband cabling
and connection; demolition of redundant buildings inside business areas, rubble and
waste removal, garbage collection services; promotion activities.
? Rehabilitation of unused polluted industrial sites and preparation of such sites
for new activities (brownfield development): clean-up and ecological rehabilitation;
demolition of unusable buildings and levelling the ground; rehabilitation and
expansion of buildings that can be used for production or services; making the public
utility infrastructure fully operational; cabling and Internet connection, etc.
PAGE 110 / 143 ? Support for the development of micro-enterprises in order to revitalize the
underdeveloped areas, especially small and medium-size towns, with a view to using
the specific potential of the regions (natural resources, raw materials, human
resources) and promoting new technologies and innovation by facilitating the
acquisition of state-of-the-art technologies for production, services and construction,
as well as of digital equipment and software; re-locating the micro-enterprises into
business structures; providing logistical services.
(v) Promotion and sustainable development of tourism
The envisaged measures are aimed at turning to good account those elements of
the cultural heritage and natural resources that have a potential for tourism, and
improving the quality of accommodation and leisure infrastructure in order to
increase the attractiveness of the regions, to develop local economy (trade,
construction, transport, catering, small industries and crafts) and to create new jobs.
In this way the zones and localities acquire and reinforce their own identity and
improve their competitive advantages in sectors that yield higher value added,
quality and cognitive effects on both traditional and emerging markets. To a
significant extent the newly created jobs offer better opportunities for the
employment of women and persons belonging to underprivileged groups.
? Restoration and promotion of cultural heritage and development or upgrading
of related infrastructure;
? Development and upgrading of tourism infrastructure in order to capitalize on
natural resources and to improve the quality of travel services by opening access to
natural sites that have a tourism potential (canyons, gorges, caves, glacial lakes, the
Danube Delta and other wetlands, etc.), while constantly monitoring the pressures
on the environment in compliance with the management plans for natural protected
areas, including Natura 2000 sites; enhancing the commercial value of mountain
tourism by improving access ways, camping sites and alpine shelters, signposting
hiking paths, setting up mountain rescue posts (Salvamont); development of spa
tourism; establishment, upgrading and expansion of accommodation and leisure
facilities, as well as of the related utilities;
? Promotion of tourist potential and development of the necessary
infrastructure in order to increase Romania?s attractiveness as a travel destination by
projecting a positive image of Romania, shaping and promoting the national tourism
brand, developing domestic tourism through a more diversified offer of services and
specific marketing activities, including the establishment of an integrated national
tourist information service and statistics system online.
In addition to the specific provisions of the Programme for spa tourism, it was
suggested to expand and diversify the offer of natural therapy procedures in spas, to
develop a network of spa centres offering complex wellness services, to promote the
original Romanian medication and treatment procedures for senior citizens.
In order to accomplish the objectives of the Regional Operational Programme 2007-
2013, the eligible expenditures may be financed up to 85% (about Euro 3.7 billion)
from the European Regional Development Fund, with national public co-financing of
Euro 657.56 million and an estimated financial contribution from private funds of
Euro 184.76 million.
PAGE 111 / 143 Horizons 2020 and 2030.
Existing strategies and programmes regarding the development of the regions do not
indicate specific projects beyond the current EU financial programming exercise for
2007-2013, except for some specific targets for the year 2015.
3.2. Rural development, agriculture, forestry and fisheries
The legal dispositions, programming documents and executive decisions in these
areas are correlated with the EU directives and Community regulations, as well as
with Romania?s national strategies and sectoral programmes.
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To enhance the economic vitality of
Romania?s rural areas while maintaining the social balance by means of the
sustainable development of agriculture, forestry and fisheries, including the
related processing industries to meet optimally the demand for food and to
preserve and improve the natural resource base.
By 2013, Romania is expected to implement the European agricultural model, which
is characterized by viable, market-based production structures, while supporting
rural development and environmental protection. Measures will be taken to support
producers so as to enable them to adapt farming practices to the consequences of
climate change inasmuch as these changes will affect the level and variability of crop
yields and the numbers of livestock. Production chains will be established, including
chains for the sustainable production of biomass and biofuels.
Special attention will be given to the development of food production for niche
markets, as well as ecological and traditional products in those areas that offer
favourable conditions. Measures shall be taken to protect the brands of specific
Romanian products, recipes and preparation procedures on the EU Single Market
complying with the food safety regulations and to ensure appropriate promotion.
The main objectives for the following period are:
? Developing a competitive environment in agriculture, forestry and fisheries
based on knowledge and private initiative;
? Reducing the proportion of the population employed in agriculture along with
strengthening the economic viability of farming units;
? Reducing the fragmentation of farmland property and stimulating the
concentration of small farms;
? Maintaining quality and diversity of rural space and forest estates in ways that
maintain a proper balance between human activities and the conservation of natural
resources.
The provisions of the National Strategic Plan for Rural Development 2007-2013 will
be implemented following the following main directions for action:
PAGE 112 / 143 (i) To improve competitive strengths of the agricultural, forestry and
fisheries sectors:
? To enhance the competence of farmers and other persons involved in
agriculture, forestry and fisheries so as to encourage better management;
? To improve the competitive performance of commercial and semi-subsistence
farms, to encourage cooperation and association among them in line with sustainable
development principles, to support the pooling of producers into integrated
production chains; to speed up the structural adjustment of semi-subsistence farms
and to encourage them to enter the market; to promote modern farming practices;
to facilitate the emergence of young farmers and the replacement of the current
generation of managers of agricultural or forestry units by resorting also to early
retirement; to increase the ability of farms to adjust to market conditions and
environmental requirements;
? To restructure and upgrade the processing and marketing of agricultural,
forestry and fisheries products so as to enhance added value while ensuring
sustainability and relative stability of prices; to support integrated development by
means of setting up and strengthening food production chains, improving product
quality and effective performance of food industries; to improve forest management
and wood processing efficiency; to ensure rational and responsible exploitation of the
fisheries.
(ii) To improve environment quality in rural areas, consolidating the
application good practice in agriculture, forestry and food industries in order to
ensure consumer safety:
? To ensure continued use of suitable farmland in depressed areas and to
promote sustainable agriculture in order to maintain the vitality of rural settlements
in the mountain areas and in other less propitious locations;
? To preserve and improve the condition of natural resources and of habitats by
encouraging the use of farming methods that are compatible with environmental
protection, conservation of biodiversity, improved quality of water, soil and natural
landscape; to grant compensation payments to farmers for the disadvantages
resulting from the implementation of Natura 2000 network in keeping with the EU
directives on the protection of birds, and on the conservation of natural habitats and
wildlife;
? To promote the sustainable management of forests by enlarging the wooded
areas that have an important role in protecting the water and soil resources and
biodiversity against destructive natural or man-made impacts; to develop the
recreational functions of the forest; to provide compensation to the owners of forest
estates for the disadvantages caused by conservation measures in protected areas.
(iii) To encourage the diversification of rural economy and to improve
the quality of life in the countryside:
? To maintain and develop economic activities and to increase the number of
jobs by diversifying non-agricultural employment and encouraging small-scale
entrepreneurship in the countryside; to set up, improve and diversify economic
development facilities and tourist attractions;
PAGE 113 / 143 ? To increase the attractiveness of the rural areas and reduce the migration of
young people to urban centres by developing modern physical infrastructure; to
improve social, economic and environmental conditions; to protect and preserve
natural and cultural heritage in the countryside; to diversify the offer of travel
services;
ƒ To develop the skills and competences of the local actors for good
management, local spatial planning and modern development of villages.
(iv) To start the implementation of local development initiatives:
? To introduce the bottom-up concept of action in the administration of rural
communities, which should ensure a high degree of spatial economic and social
integration, supported by the organisation of local action groups;
? To promote the participation of rural communities in the drafting and
implementation of local development strategies and to encourage innovative actions;
to encourage local actors to work together with other local communities in Romania
or abroad for the accomplishment of joint projects;
? To improve local administration by means of developing abilities to prepare
and manage projects, including projects implemented in partnership, and to mobilize
citizens? participation in the decision-making process; to capitalize on the potential of
the LEADER programme and on the financial resources allocated in this framework
for rural development and for supporting local action groups.
The ?Farmer? Programme, which was started in 2005, will be continued for some
time to support investments in agriculture and in product processing, storage,
preservation and marketing.
The harmonization of national legislation with the relevant Community acquis will be
completed by 2013; the appropriate national structures corresponding to the EU
ones will become fully operational.
Besides the objectives included in the National Rural Development Plan 2007-2013,
the following additional measures are recommended:
? To prepare, in collaboration with the academic community, and to implement
a National Programme for Sustainable Forest Management with a view to
prohibit the reduction of the total forest areas, to increase the total wooded area by
at least 200,000 hectares through reforestation, particularly on degraded or
abandoned land. Additional interventions are needed to develop a national system of
tree belts especially in drought-prone areas at risk of desertification; to promote
intensive treatments based on natural regeneration that are best suited to preserve
the valuable native species of trees and to enable the forests to fulfil their multiple
economic, social and ecological functions in a sustainable manner.
Active intervention is required to enforce the legal dispositions banning razed
logging, to expand the area of woods that serve to protect watersheds, soil, climate,
landscapes or biodiversity in the system of protected natural areas; to adjust the
practice of forestry to the effects of global climate change; to apply optimal age
standards for logging and to combat the harvesting of younger trees in order to get
an artificial increase of timber production; to preserve biodiversity at all levels:
genetic, species, ecosystems and complexes of ecosystems; to integrate virgin and
PAGE 114 / 143 quasi-virgin forests in protected natural areas; to proceed with the reconstruction of
damaged and economically or ecologically dysfunctional forests; to tend to young
forest growth and to conserve dead wood within prescribed limits according to EU
practice; to develop an integrated and participative management of torrent basins in
mountain areas; to increase the accessibility of forests; to compensate the owners of
forested areas for the disadvantages that may result from the inclusion of forests in
the categories having special protection functions or those that are designated as
protected natural areas; to provide public support for the sustainable management
of privately-owned forest areas of under 30 hectares.
? To speed up the preparation of a medium to long-term programme for
the upgrading of irrigation systems through the rehabilitation of the existing
ones and building new systems based on the best available technologies; to establish
the required investment resources for each stage and to identify funding sources.
Such actions have acquired priority status in the context of global climate change,
higher frequency and intensity of drought and expanding desertification, in parallel
with increasing scarcity of available water resources. The programme will need to
contain provisions to optimize water use in agriculture, which accounts for
approximately 70% of the total water consumption.
? To prepare a National Programme for the protection and conservation
of soil in accordance with the principles of sustainable development as an essential
component of the strategic goal to ensure food security and safety.
? To implement the Strategy for the sustainable development of
Romanian mountain areas, which are ecologically fragile and face significant
natural and social challenges; farming in those areas requires strenuous efforts,
imposes restrictions on certain economic activities and land uses and entails higher
operational costs due to altitude, steep gradients and harsh climate conditions with
shorter vegetation periods. The protection and responsible use of mountain
resources, taking into account the effects of climate change, together with the
implementation of the objectives established in the relevant Strategy, which was
approved by the Romanian Government as early as 2004, are designed to prevent
the depopulation of those areas and the degradation of specific traditions, crafts and
cultural features. State support will be required in order to provide the means for
the balanced development of high mountain zones on a par with other areas in terms
of income and living conditions.
In order to finance the objectives of the National Strategic Plan for Rural
Development Romania can use the funds allocated for 2007-2013 amounting to a
total Euro 8.02 billion, of which 80.46% come from EU co-financing through the
European Agriculture and Rural Development Fund. Additional Community funding
for 2007-2013 includes Euro 5.5 billion for direct payments to farmers, Euro 248
million for market-support measures in 2008, and Euro 230 million for fisheries.
Between 2007 and 2013, about Euro 14 billion will be transferred from the
Community budget for agriculture, fisheries and rural development in Romania.
Significant amounts will be added to this from the Romanian state budget.
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To strengthen production structures in
agriculture and forestry while promoting the economic and social
development of the rural areas in order further to reduce the existing
disparities and to attain the current average performance level of the other
EU Member States; to establish Romania as a stability factor for food
security in South-East Europe.
PAGE 115 / 143 To this end, a new action programme for 2014-2020 shall be prepared during the
preceding period; it will be based on the principles of sustainable development and
will set specific targets for the improvement of environmental conditions (measures
to combat soil degradation, to protect the areas at risk of flooding, to maintain an
adequate and sustainable level of the crops, to support depressed areas, to improve
landscape quality), the increased competitiveness of certain sectors that have an
impacting on the environment (to make use of renewable energy sources, to improve
the management of water resources, wastewater, solid waste, fertilizers, pesticides
and herbicides), the improvement of rural life quality (higher incomes resulting from
better performance in agriculture, forestry and fisheries, expansion of public services
and utilities, diversification of non-agricultural activities and entrepreneurship).
The programmes for sustainable forest management will continue with additional reforestation and ecological reconstruction of damaged forests and forested land
affected by degradation.
Measures shall be further taken to improve farmers? training and their management
abilities, to enhance the capitalization of local natural resources, to improved work
security standards, to encourage environmental initiatives and to secure better
animal hygiene and welfare.
The envisaged actions will take into account the possible changes in the
implementing mechanisms of the EU Common Agricultural Policy after 2013.
Horizon 2030. National Objective: To achieve full implementation of the
Community policies and practices in agriculture, forestry and fisheries; to
complete the restructuring and modernisation of these sectors and of the
rural areas.
During that period, a high level of competitiveness will be reached in the agriculture
and food sectors; they will become compatible with the Western European farming
model following the establishment of viable agricultural structures, the modern
development of rural economy, the diversification and improved quality of products.
Romania will overcome the productivity gaps in the farming sector and will come
close to the European standards in the food processing industries. Food safety rules
will be fully observed in accordance with the Community eco-conditionality
requirements.
Following the application of a coherent multi-annual forestry programme, the share
of wooded areas will grow to 34% of the national territory in 2030, opening the
prospect to reach the optimum level of 45% further on.
The measures to be taken and the necessary financial resources will be determined,
following the evaluation of the results obtained in the preceding period, on the basis
of specific studies that will consider various possible scenarios, including the amount
of required investments for each programme and objective.
3.3 Implementing Local Agenda 21
PAGE 116 / 143 The systematic application of the principles and practices of sustainable development
began in Romania already in 2000 through the implementation of concrete projects
at a local level, which were initiated and co-financed by the United Nations
Development Programme ? Romania within the framework of Local Agenda 21.
This process was instrumental for strengthening the capacity of local administrations
in the regions and localities taking part in the programme to draft and implement
concrete policies and plans aimed at promoting sustainable socio-economic
development by means of:
? The establishment of a participatory framework involving all local actors in the
decision-making process for the sustainable development of their communities.
Alongside the local authorities, representatives of the public sector, including the
decentralized agencies, of the private sector, professional associations, educational
establishments and research units, trade unions, non-governmental organisations or
other groups of the civil society, and the media were also involved in structures that
remained functional even after the completion of each project.
? The development of local networks and partnerships, which enabled them to
concentrate resources and better to capitalize on the local potential. This was made
possible by the use of the participatory mechanism, but it also involved an effective
communication and information system.
? The preparation of three main types of instruments aimed at orienting and
promoting a realistic and responsible view of the local development prospects: (i) a
local strategy for sustainable development setting out medium and long-term
objectives; (ii) an action plan describing the sequence of steps to be taken in the
short and medium run for the accomplishment of strategic objectives and comprising
an evaluation of costs, the identification of financing sources and the means for
gaining access to funding, and (iii) a portfolio of projects that were viewed by the
entire community as priorities to ensure the sustainable development of the locality
or the region.
? Building the institutional and administrative capacity at the level of local
authorities and the civil society for the promotion of sustainable development.
The Local Agenda 21 programme was initially implemented at the level of medium to
large municipalities and was further diversified both through expansion to county
level and through restricting the scope of projects to township or rural community
level.
Between 2000 and 2003, the project methodology was developed and the first LA 21
documents were drafted for 9 pilot municipalities. The results of that phase were
appreciated both at the level of local authorities and communities and at the level of
central government, especially due to the quality of the contributions that resulted
from public debates, which were taken into account in the drafting process for the
National Development Plan of Romania.
As a result, the Romanian Government decided to expand the Local Agenda 21
programme nation-wide, so as to cover 40 more localities or territorial units until the
end of 2007. For this purpose a collaboration agreement was signed by
representatives of the Government, the Romanian Federation of Local Authorities
and the United Nations Development Programme, through the National Centre for
PAGE 117 / 143 Sustainable Development. This time, the projects completed between 2003 and 2007
also included 6 counties (macro scale) and 2 villages (micro scale).
The programme benefited from the technical assistance rendered by experts of
several UN and EU agencies and the International Institute for Sustainable
Development (Canada) as well as of various international development agencies
based in Europe and America.
The drafting of sustainable development strategies and plans mainly relied on local
expertise; more than 2,000 persons were involved in the Local Steering Committees,
Working Groups and LA21 Local Offices. 90 public debates, bringing together over
10,000 participants were organised to finalize the relevant sets of documents.
Six training sessions for the participants in the drafting, implementation and
monitoring of the LA21 documents tackled a variety of subjects, following a careful
evaluation of the training needs and the specific local requirements: the principles of
sustainable development, the techniques of integrated environmental evaluation, the
methodology for identifying local priority projects and for accessing EU funds or other
financing sources. Two National Forums and ten workshops were organised to
disseminate information about the LA21 programme and the results obtained after
each phase. These actions, together with the effective teamwork for the
implementation of LA21, helped improve the institutional capacity of the local
authorities and raise the awareness of the civil society about practical ways to apply
the tenets of sustainable development to local projects.
The portfolios of projects that were agreed upon by all actors at a local level and
considered as priorities comprised in excess of 1,200 proposals covering a wide
range of fields, ranging from urban or rural infrastructure to access to basic utilities
or the regeneration of abandoned industrial sites, to actions for the protection of the
environment and the preservation of biodiversity or for the preservation of historical
and cultural heritage. The final documents that were adopted following the public
debates were published in more than 40,000 copies, in Romanian and English.
An extensive information and communication campaign on the results of the LA21
programme also produced a constructive emulation among other localities that were
seeking to be included in the programme. At the same time, the project portfolios
that were made available to Romanian and foreign investors provided a useful
instrument for business decisions, based on the certainty that the project proposals
had the support of local communities.
The accumulated experience from the implementation of the Local Agenda 21
programme, the established vertical and horizontal networks and the progress made
as to the generalization of good practice have, in the case of Romania, a high degree
of relevance for the successful accomplishment of the National Sustainable
Development Strategy.
The next implementation phase of Local Agenda 21 will rely on a structured intersector approach by correlating the objectives agreed at community level with the
available resources and operational mechanisms.
PAGE 118 / 143 4. Spatial planning and zoning
From the perspective of sustainable development, the planned and inhabited
geographical space ? comprising physical, natural and man-made elements ?
represents a functional complex that supports the people?s quality of life and
represents the part of national wealth which offers benefits to all citizens.
The objective to achieve territorial cohesion throughout the European Union is
mentioned in the draft Reform Treaty of Lisbon (13 December 2007); it gradually
gained prominence in the documents adopted at ministerial level ever since 1983
and acquired a more precise, systematic shape in the Leipzig Charter (May 2007).
Territorial cohesion implies the adjustment of existing resources (natural and manmade) to the socio-economic development needs in order to eliminate the disparities
and dysfunctions among various spatial units while preserving the natural and
cultural diversity of the regions.
Even in the absence of a specialized, permanently functioning authority at the EU
level, the agreed guidelines have had a visible impact by promoting territorial
cohesion through a better coordination of sectoral policies according to spatial
planning concepts and techniques. EU documents specifically highlight the notion
that national territorial planning and zoning policies should become a crucial
dimension of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy as well as of the revised
Lisbon Strategy.
Human settlements as subsystems of the inhabited territory represent the space
where specific economic, social and environmental issues have to be coordinated on
different spatial scales. The main implementation mechanisms are spatial and urban
planning. The territory, viewed as inhabited geographical space, includes not only
physical, natural and man-made elements but also institutional and cultural features
that are integrated in a functional complex focusing in terms of purpose and resource
on human population. Human settlements as functional, physical, institutional and
cultural entities provide the framework for a better quality of life. For that reason the
localities, especially the urban ones, have to be seen as both consumers of resources
and generators of well-being and potential sources of creativity.
Spatial planning has an eminently strategic character; it establishes, within a certain
territorial dimension, the development goals that are determined on the basis of
multidisciplinary analysis and synthesis. The documents resulting from this process
are both technical ? in terms of spatial coordination relying on the principle of
maximizing potential synergies among sectors in the process of development ? and
legal, considering that, once such documents are approved, they become mandatory
for the spatial development in a given location. The technical, legal and political
aspects that are integrated in the approved spatial development plans thus become
the foundation for regional development plans and represent the expression,
coordinated in space and time, of development policies.
The spatial planning blueprints provide the technical foundation and assure the
political and legal commitment for the implementation of strategies aimed at gaining
access to financing for programmes and projects from national and European
sources, in particular from the Regional Operational Programme and sectoral
operational programmes. By September 2008, five sections of the national spatial
PAGE 119 / 143 planning master plan were passed into law: transport networks, water management,
protected areas, localities, and zones that are prone to natural hazards.
In Romania?s specific circumstances, the clarification of the legal status of land
property ? both within urban perimeters (suitable for building) and outside them
(used for farming, forestry or included in protected natural areas) ? by developing an
adequate cadastre system represents the main prerequisite of sound spatial
development and has to precede the establishment of the technical and economic
regime of land use through spatial planning.
4.1 Spatial Planning
The concept of spatial planning is an aggregate of methods, programmes, projects
and actions aimed at the focused development, guided by explicit strategies, of the
physical space in order to balance the economic, social, cultural, historical, landscape
and natural environment features of a given territory. Spatial planning uses
interdisciplinary approaches and comprises various levels of analysis and planning. It
provides the conceptual framework for regional development policies and for
interventions aimed at correcting the anomalies and dysfunctions that may occur in
the process of their implementation.
The integrated spatial planning strategies, programmes and plans for zones and
localities in Romania have to incorporate the common guidelines for the European
planned space, with particular emphasis on maintaining a rational balance between
private and public interests in strict compliance with the legal status of real estate
property rights. Special attention is to be paid to avoiding the dispersion of
residential areas (urban sprawl), ensuring intra-urban social and cultural diversity,
controlling the speculative games that encroach on public spaces and landscapes,
providing for the best mix of functional and social elements. Thus, the balanced
development of localities, in combination with a respectful attitude toward the
cultural and natural environment, will significantly help to improve the quality of life
in harmony with the environment, to ensure proper use of resources and to prevent
the emergence of irreversible negative trends.
For the entire period until the year 2030, current plans envisage the following
objectives for the improvement of housing conditions, including multi-storeyed
buildings in urban areas, in line with the principles of sustainable development:
? Adjustment of the housing dynamic and technical features to the current and
future requirements of the people;
? Setting precise guidelines for the future development of housing (construction
principles, materials and structures adapted to specific conditions);
? Controlled development of residential areas (assured access to utilities,
transport, public services and social assistance);
? Provision of housing policies designed to integrate vulnerable groups and to
ensure an adequate social mix;
? Building sufficient reserves of real estate in various locations by promoting
coherent local policies related to land use;
? Assured access to safe and healthy housing for persons who are unable to
purchase their own homes at market prices.
PAGE 120 / 143 Horizon 2013. National Objective: To integrate the scientific precepts of
spatial planning in the regional development programmes; to upgrade the
legislative and regulatory framework in line with the EU territorial cohesion
guidelines and with the requirements of sustainable development.
To this end, the following priority actions are recommended, in addition to the
measures envisaged in the Regional Operational Programme (see Part IV, Chapter
3.1) and in agreement with the provisions of the National Spatial Development
Concept ? Romania 2025:
? To improve the existing legislative framework so as to incorporate the
strategic vision provided by spatial planning and zoning into the regional
development programmes, to clarify the incongruities regarding the relation between
private and public property, to strengthen legal provisions against derogatory city
planning (leading to the annulment of the strategic character of the city master
plans) and to preserve the physical integrity of sites that have symbolic or heritage
value, historical and art monuments, and landscapes;
? To determine the future urban centres that will serve as polar points for the
development of rural areas in order to improve the access of the rural population to
quality services (health, education, social services);
? To enact the legal framework and to set the technical standards for a multiannual programme for the relocation of the households situated in high-risk areas
(prone to earthquakes, floods, landslides, avalanches, chemical or radioactive
pollution);
? To draft, endorse and enforce the regulations for the obligatory consultation
of the population with regard to city-planning and community development
decisions;
? To set legal restrictions against urban sprawl for a period of ten years in order
to favour the restructuring (recycling) of the existing in-city real estate for new
investments;
? To prepare strategic development plans for the large cities and endorse them
as guidelines for the city master plans to be updated in accordance with the evolving
EU recommendations concerning integrated and sustainable urban development;
? To prepare, for each locality, a local plan for sustainable development (Local
Agenda 21) with a broad and active involvement of the local community;
? To make it compulsory for the strategic outlooks and master plans for the
large cities to be drafted and endorsed in correlation with those for the adjacent
territorial-administrative units;
? To design and implement plans for the development of green-yellow belts
(wooded areas and farmlands) around the larger cities; to expand the green areas
within cities by 10% in order to achieve a quota of minimum 15 square meters per
person;
? To start implementing the projects aimed at significantly expanding the
parking space in the large cities;
? To promote the EU strategic guidelines regarding the European territorial
cooperation by means of implementing joint operational programmes within the EU
borders (with Hungary and Bulgaria) and along the EU external border (with Serbia,
Ukraine-Moldova, Hungary-Slovakia-Ukraine, the wider Black Sea area), the transPAGE 121 / 143 national cooperation operational programme for the South Eastern European Space
(SEES) and the EU inter-regional cooperation programmes INTERREG IVC, URBACT
II, ESPON 2013 and INTERACT 2007-2013. To this end, the positive experience
acquired in Romania during the implementation of the Local Agenda 21 will be used
also for cross-border projects.
Between 2007 and 2013, Romania will be involved in the implementation of
European objectives for territorial cooperation under eleven programmes to be
financed from the European Regional Development Fund, European Neighbourhood
Partnership Instrument and Pre-accession Assistance Instrument, including action
inside the European Territorial Cooperation Group.
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To complete, according to the spatial
planning strategies, a polycentric regional system of functional urban areas
(urban agglomerations) and urban corridors along the transport routes of
European interest (polycentric networks).
Alongside the continuing implementation of the actions envisaged under the
programmes to be launched in 2007-2013, the following indicative targets will be
pursued:
? To cover the entire demand for new building sites solely through recycling the
built-up and non-built-up areas that have been designated in the strategic plans or
through restructuring the underused or abandoned property, and further to limit
urban sprawl;
? To develop the physical and institutional structures allowing the upgrading to
urban status of the future polarization centres for the surrounding rural areas;
? To redesign the spatial configuration of communes (clusters of villages) so as
to reduce the number of territorial-administrative units;
? To complete the polycentric and balanced spatial development of the
metropolitan areas (Bucharest and Timisoara, then Constanta and Iasi) and to
prepare the accession of four more cities having over 300 thousand inhabitants to
metropolitan status (Brasov, Cluj-Napoca, Craiova and the urban system GalatiBraila);
? To complete the development of green-yellow belts around the larger cities
(rank I); to reach a green area indicator of 26 square meters per person for rank I
and II cities;
? To reach a national average housing space of 15 square meters per person;
? To reduce to 40% the number of households using stoves with solid fuels by
replacing the existing installations and introducing modern heating systems;
? To develop high-quality public spaces in all the main areas of cities;
? To resolve the problem of parking lots availability in the larger (rank I) cities,
including Bucharest; to develop functional pedestrian walks and bicycle trails in rank
I and II cities;
? To ensure an optimal functional and social mix of localities so as to avoid the
establishment of social and economic enclaves;
PAGE 122 / 143 ? To continue and expand cross-border, trans-national and inter-regional
cooperation programmes in order to meet the European Union territorial cohesion
objectives and to improve connection and interaction with neighbouring areas.
Horizon 2030. National Objective: To structure and develop the enlarged
urban and rural networks as a premise for turning the Romanian regions
into dynamic, attractive and competitive entities and for ensuring their
complete integration in the European space.
The following indicative targets are envisaged:
? To raise the urbanization level to 70% by fulfilling those indicators that will
enable the inclusion of about 650 rural localities in the category of towns and by
implementing the standards of integrated urban development;
? To put in place the main elements of the national structure for the functional
interconnection of the Romanian regions (including trans-Carpathian corridors) to
support their sustainable development and reliable links to the European system;
? To use zoning policies and instruments to restore the wooded areas, to return
the Danube river flood plains to their natural state; to re-create the natural water
retention basins and to rehabilitate the seacoast area;
? To develop the green-yellow belts around medium-large (rank II) cities; to
reach a green area indicator of 35 square meters per person in rank I and II cities;
? To complete the programme for the relocation of the households situated in
areas that are exposed to natural or man-made hazards;
? To ensure a national average indicator of 17 meters per person of housing
space.
4.2. The Cadastre
The general cadastre is the single comprehensive and mandatory system of
technical, economic and legal records, which identifies, describes and registers real
estate and buildings in cadastral documents covering the entire territory of Romania
regardless of the land use and ownership for the purpose of registration in property
records.
Unlike the vast majority of the EU Member States, Romania has not yet developed a
general cadastre of the real estate containing essential and complete information for
the entire territory of the country, showing the boundaries of the territorialadministrative units, land ownership, areas used for business purposes (including
buildings and utilities), housing, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems (including
protected areas), sites of historical value (including archaeological sites) or those
belonging to the cultural heritage.
A form of real estate records (Property Register) for technical and fiscal purposes
existed in the present territory of Romania as early as the 19
th
century in the
provinces then incorporated in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (i.e. Transylvania, Banat
and Bucovina). After the Union of the Romanian Lands in 1918, appropriate
PAGE 123 / 143 legislation for the organisation of the cadastre and the introduction of the property
register covering the entire national territory was promulgated in 1933, then further
amended in 1938. The establishment of the communist regime (1948-1989)
interrupted the implementation of that law, and real estate records were kept merely
for the economic uses of land by type of use and ownership, but without producing
the legal effects that the publication of property records usually entails.
In order to meet the new requirements of a functional market economy and to
achieve gradual harmonization with the legal dispositions and current practice in the
other EU countries, the National Agency for Cadastre and Real Estate Publicity was
set up following the Government decision 41/2004 regarding the amendment of law
No.7/1996, further enacted by law 499/1004. The National Centre for Geodesy,
Cartography, Photogrammetry and Tele-detection and the offices for cadastre and
real estate publicity at the level of counties and Bucharest Municipality operate under
the authority of the National Agency for Cadastre and Real Estate Publicity.
The debates on the draft of this Strategy at a national level ? and in particular those
held in the eight development regions of Romania - as well as numerous signals
received from experts and from various groups of the civil society highlighted the
need to speed up concrete action toward completing the General Cadastre by means
of realistic phasing of the required complex operations.
The urgent nature of this undertaking is underscored by the existence of a large
number of property litigations (many of them due to boundary ambiguities) currently
pending in law courts and by the immediate need to perform accurate direct
payments to farmers.
It is imperative to be able to use the cadastral system for the delimitation of those
areas that are of special interest in terms of ecological, historical or cultural value in
order to protect such sites against aggression from real estate speculators and
developers and from diversion to various other uses (infrastructure, industrial parks,
water reservoirs, etc.).
Estimates suggest that the implementation of national cadastre based on standard
plans can be accomplished by 2020 so as
? To provide a real base for guaranteed property rights;
? To support the development of the real estate market and mortgage lending;
? To establish a realistic tax base;
? To ensure transparency and access to public information.
To this end, an Action Plan will be adopted and implemented so as to accomplish a
set of specific objectives in successive stages.
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To upgrade the legal framework, to
consolidate institutional capacity and to carry out preliminary work for the
implementation of general cadastre.
? To improve the legal framework; to develop operating manuals following the
implementation of a pilot project for the introduction of the general cadastre in a
cluster of villages (commune) (2007-2008);
PAGE 124 / 143 ? To strengthen the institutional capacity of all actors involved in the process of
implementing the general cadastre; training programmes (2007-2012);
? To expand the existing digital information system to a national level (2007-
2008) and to upgrade the system (2007-2010);
? To convert the real estate registers (11 million) and existing maps (4 million)
into digital format (2007-2010);
? To complete the aerial photographic survey and digital maps for 24 cities that
are county seats at 1:1,000 scale and for Bucharest Municipality and adjacent areas
at 1:500 scale;
? To introduce the general cadastre in about 10 counties (2009-2012);
? To complete the aerial photographic survey and digital maps at 1:5,000 scale;
to review the digital mapping for the entire country (every 5 years), usable also for
LPIS;
? To conduct awareness campaigns with regard to the implementation of the
general cadastre (2009-2012);
? To purchase and equip appropriate office space (20) at national and local
levels (207-2012).
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To complete the basic framework of the
general cadastre of Romania; to ensure the system?s transparency and
accessibility.
? To finalize the general cadastre and the real database, including the opening
of property registers for 100% of the national territory;
? To implement the geographical information system for the real estate and
urban assets in the cities and commune seats; for the surface waters (water
cadastre) including natural conditions and engineering works for water use and
quality protection; and for wooded areas (forestry cadastre) by compiling an
inventory and accurate records of forest cover in order to ensure the rational
exploitation and continued vitality of forests and associated ecosystems;
? To complete the geographical information system for the land-based transport
network (cadastre of county and commune public roads, cadastre of secondary
railways) and the delimitation of the areas of special ecological, historical and
cultural interest;
? To maintain (update and manage) the general cadastre and the specific
geographical information systems by type of land use (specialized cadastres) as open
systems in order to make sure that the records do not become obsolete.
Horizon 2030. National Objective: To ensure compatibility and full interoperability between the Romanian cadastre system and the systems in place
in the other EU countries in terms of reliability and data safety standards.
? To finalize the general cadastre for the entire territory of Romania;
? To develop the geographical information system for real estate and urban
assets in the remaining rural townships within communes;
PAGE 125 / 143 ? To develop the information system of the cadastre and real-estate publicity
for all administrative-territorial units, counties and for the country as a whole, and to
ensure regulated access to the system for all potential users.
5. The cultural dimension of sustainable development
The preservation of cultural heritage, contemporary creative work and cultural
diversity as a premise for European cohesion and solidarity is specifically mentioned
in the EU Sustainable Development Strategy as well as in the main policy documents
of the European Union, including the Lisbon Treaty and a number of multilateral
conventions under the aegis of UNESCO or the Council of Europe. The importance
that is attached to the cultural dimension at European level is illustrated by the fact
that approximately six million European citizens are engaged in creative activities or
cultural services, a number that amounts to 3.1% of the total number of jobs in the
EU.
Topics related to the protection and dissemination of cultural goods (immobile,
mobile and immaterial, cultural landscapes) are frequently debated in the European
Parliament, generating important initiatives such as the introduction of a logo for
items of European heritage, additional measures for the protection of intellectual
property, including online works, striking a rational balance between free access to
information and combating digital piracy, promotion of fiscal facilities for culturerelated industries. The debates also stress the intrinsic and perennial value of
cultural diversity and creativity and caution against a mechanical application of
strictly market logic in the sphere of culture.
Sustainable development as a fundamental strategic objective relies on the adoption
of practices and diverse instruments for free access to education and knowledge, to
the cultural heritage of one?s own nation and of humanity, to resources that can
develop creativity and a drive for innovation. This means ensuring a chance for all
individuals to become producers of culture and to overcome the status of simple
consumers of entertainment.
In essence, the principles of sustainable development equally apply to the cultural
heritage as they do to the natural capital, since we have to do with a legacy of
resources that future generations should also be able to benefit from. Since those
are non-renewable resources, their potential loss, out of ignorance or negligence,
thus becomes irrecoverable and irreversible.
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To set up and maintain a coherent
legislative, regulatory and institutional framework for the cultural domain,
consistent with existing EU regulations and practices; to implement the first
phase of the action plan for the listing, preservation and promotion of the
national cultural heritage and contemporary cultural assets, and for closer
links with the European and universal space of cultural values; to enhance
access of all categories of people from all regions and social environments
to information and culture, and to improve the social and economic
condition of artists.
PAGE 126 / 143 The activities concerning the national cultural heritage are currently regulated in
Romania by 43 normative acts (laws, including those for the ratification of relevant
European or international conventions, Government decisions or ordinances and
orders of the Minister of Culture and Religious Denominations). Those activities are
coordinated by the line ministry and carried out by other relevant agencies, local
public authorities and subordinated units (research institutes, museums, creative and
performing arts units, culture centres) in cooperation with professional associations
and non-governmental organisations and universities.
On 18 April 2008 a Presidential Commission for Listed Buildings, Historical and
Natural Sites was established by Presidential Decree. The Commission has a multidisciplinary composition and has to submit within six months a comprehensive report
on the present state of affairs, to draft a medium to long-term strategy for the
protection and promotion of the cultural heritage and to propose effective
institutional measures for better coordination and implementation of priority policies.
The Commission is also charged with the preparation of a Guide of listed buildings,
historical and natural sites. A coherent national approach is thus envisaged, in
accordance with the relevant EU dispositions and practice.
The Strategy for National Cultural Heritage 2008-2013, which was drafted in
February 2008, defines the national heritage as a set of inherited resources,
identified as such irrespective of ownership, which are witness to, and expression of
the perpetually evolving values, beliefs, knowledge and traditions, and comprise all
elements resulting from the interaction between natural and human factors in the
course of time. The Strategy highlights the basic cultural rights, as defined at the
European Union level, and establishes the following general principles: citizens?
participation, improved administration of the cultural heritage sector, development
and sustainable use of cultural resources.
The general priorities that have been identified in the Strategy are to complete the
inventory and the code of the national cultural heritage and to make operational an
effective information system connecting in a transparent manner the central and
local authorities with the relevant institutions and the civil society groups that have
activities or interests in the sphere of culture.
(a) For the conservation and better use of the national cultural heritage, the
main focus is placed on the following main areas of intervention:
(i) Immovable heritage (archaeological and architectural monuments,
including fortresses, princely courts, fortified churches, castles, manors, palaces,
fortified towers, urban civil buildings, wooden churches, open-air ethnographic
museums, cave shrines, churches and monasteries, industrial architecture, samples
of folk architecture, as well as Palaeolithic, Neolithic and Aeneolithic complexes,
settlements and necropolises dating from the Age of Bronze, fortifications and
settlements dating from the first Iron Age, Dacian fortifications, ancient cities and
edifices, mediaeval monuments, archaeological reservations):
? To maintain a coherent legislative framework by reducing excessive regulation
and achieving better correlation with the objectives of spatial planning, to stabilize
secondary legislation and decentralise the mechanisms for technical approval of
projects by involving the experts in monument protection and restoration in the
process;
PAGE 127 / 143 ? To set priorities and provide for multi-annual financing of the restoration,
promotion and revitalization of historical monuments, complexes and sites, focusing
on those which are more attractive to the public and promise a faster return on
investments;
? To draft integrated plans for the protection of the cultural and natural
heritage with the direct involvement of specialists in spatial planning, city zoning,
preservation and restoration of monuments, tourism industry, landscape architects,
ecologists, sociologists, etc.; to decentralize decision-making regarding the use of
immovable cultural assets;
? To develop a mechanism for the sustainable development of protected areas
based on integrated conservation of the immovable cultural heritage;
? To give high priority to the training of experts in all the required professions
from research and record keeping to the physical maintenance of restored and
revitalised monuments by means of revising the post-graduate education system,
attachments abroad and continued training;
? To enhance the awareness and responsibility of various social groups about
the importance of the immobile cultural heritage for the preservation of the national
and local identity and for social cohesion;
? To ensure the proper conservation of those monuments that are listed as
parts of the world heritage through consolidation measures in case of imminent
degradation, to retrace the roads and access routes in order to safeguard authentic
landscapes, to locate tourist facilities in places that do not affect the integrity of the
monuments and protection areas, to undertake promotion campaigns;
? To develop joint programmes with partners in the EU and other countries for
the purpose of preserving the immovable cultural heritage and the landscapes,
especially in the border areas, by involving also the local authorities within the
Euroregions; to make use of the experience and lessons learned from the
programme «Sibiu ? Cultural Capital of Europe» (2007) and from the Regional
Programme for Cultural and Natural Heritage in Southeast Europe 2003-2008
(RPSEE);
? To review certain provisions of the financial legislation in order to encourage
the use of additional sources of funding for the protection of historical monuments
and for increasing independence from budget subsidies;
? To complete the immovable heritage inventory by identifying non-listed
cultural assets, correcting past errors and including new categories of protected sites
(industrial, spa, 20
th
century buildings, etc.).
(ii) Mobile heritage (museums, archives, collections of art, historical and
archaeological artefacts, science history, ethnography and anthropology, other
specialised collections):
? To improve the relevant legislative and regulatory framework;
? To ensure wider access of the public to museums and collections by means of
adequate promotion activities and early planning of exhibitions (at least two years
prior to the event);
? To introduce specific modules at graduate and post-graduate level for the
initial and continuing education and training of museum custodians and experts in
cultural management and marketing;
PAGE 128 / 143 ? To preserve the exhibits in good condition and to develop programmes with a
clear order of priorities for the required maintenance and restoration work;
? To diversify the activities of the museums so as to take over certain functions
of the cultural centres as cultural mediators and suppliers of cultural services;
? To develop substantially the exchanges of exhibitions with museums in other
European Union countries and in other states and to undertake joint research
projects;
? To include museums and collections into cultural complexes that should
become points of attraction for visitors; to develop the appropriate infrastructure;
? To take additional steps to ensure the physical security and integrity of
museum exhibits against theft, destruction, deterioration or other natural or human
risk factors.
(iii) Immaterial and ethnographic heritage (oral traditions and expressions,
visual and performing arts, social practices, rituals and festive events, folk customs,
knowledge and practices about nature and universe, traditional craftsmanship):
? To identify, collect evidence, research, catalogue and constantly update the
various elements of the immaterial heritage with the support of specialists,
communities and civil society organisations;
? To preserve, promote and bring the heritage to public knowledge through
national and regional programmes and to provide support to relevant projects and
initiatives from public resources;
? To convey the specific contents of the immaterial heritage in authentic forms
via the formal and informal educational system and through the media;
? To implement special training programmes for village craftsmen and creative
artists to acquire knowledge about traditional techniques, materials and forms of
expression with a view to preserving the genuine essence of folk arts and
encouraging creativeness and innovation; to establish proper procedures for the
accreditation or authorisation of trainers and issuance of trainer certificates;
? To ensure the legal protection of the intellectual property rights of individual
craftsmen and folk artists, as well as of the communities where such works were
generated over the traditional art forms which they produced and which express
their spiritual identity;
? To design a multifunctional network at national and local levels (ethnographic
museums, folk art schools, folklore ensembles, voluntary associations) aimed at
enhancing creative abilities and supporting initiatives to promote the immaterial
heritage and to re-establish its vital presence in community life.
(b) In the area of contemporary creation and cultural diversity the Single
National Development Plan 2007-2013, in its section on Culture, Religious Affairs,
Cinematography, set a number of strategic objectives and main directions for future
action:
(i) Performing arts:
? Diversifying the offer and the forms of artistic expression by rendering
support to projects such as tours and micro-seasons of performing arts troupes and
PAGE 129 / 143 roadshows in areas where there are no permanent artistic establishments, and by
organising festivals, galas, creation and interpretation contests at national, regional
and local levels;
? Strengthening and diversifying institutional structures through continued
administrative and financial decentralization, developing the infrastructure of
establishments for performing arts and providing them with modern equipment;
? Targeting the artistic offer in order to increase the expected audience;
cultivating the distinctive traits of performing arts in different areas and
communities;
? Promoting and encouraging the creative and performing arts; supporting the
professional mobility of artists;
? Encouraging inter-cultural communication through exchanges of artistic tours
and supporting the participation of Romanian artists in international events.
(ii) Public reading and libraries:
? Updating and expanding library collections; modernizing the premises and
services on offer;
? Reshaping the role of public libraries by connecting them to the requirements
of information and technology-based society, developing their functions as multimedia centres by enriching their collections with new types of material in video,
audio and digital formats;
? Improving the quality of services provided by librarians and enhancing their
capacity to initiate complex cultural programmes, including projects for the
preservation of the collective memory of local communities.
(iii) Visual arts (sculpture, painting, engraving, lithography, monumental arts,
scenic and costume design, tapestry, ceramics, glass and metal arts, drawing,
decorative or industrial design, other forms of applied art, photography and
associated techniques):
? Stimulating the creative potential of the artists by consulting them and
involving them directly in the drafting of policies and regulations concerning their
work:
? Protecting intellectual property rights and supporting the professional
associations or unions of free artists to provide for the social security, employment
and occupational safety of their members;
? Enhancing public interest in the visual arts by increasing the number and the
functional diversity of exhibition spaces, supporting the development of a specific
market and providing programmes on ?education through art? in formal and informal
educational systems.
(iv) Cultural industries
? Increasing the profitability and competitiveness of Romanian cultural
industries on the EU and international markets by supporting the small and medium
enterprises that are active in this field, reviewing the mechanisms for the award of
state aid, identifying and using supplementary sources of financing, including the
encouragement of public-private partnerships;
? Improving the social and economic status of creative and performing artists;
PAGE 130 / 143 ? Promoting effective mechanisms for the protection of intellectual property,
including labelling systems for the works of art both in classical and in digital or
virtual forms; combating piracy and counterfeiting;
? Facilitating access to cultural products, also by awarding commissions and
acquisitions from public funds.
(v) Cultural establishments (culture centres, popular universities, arts-andcrafts schools, culture clubs, performing art groups and professional troupes, area
centres for adult education, the National Centre for the Conservation and Promotion
of Traditional Culture and its county branches):
? Ensuring system coherence at community level by leveraging the synergies
among local stakeholders and avoiding duplication, increasing the accountability of
local authorities for the proper operation of cultural establishments;
? Rehabilitation and development of the infrastructure of cultural
establishments, including endowment with modern equipment;
? Re-defining and expanding the traditional functions of cultural
establishments; setting up resource and assistance centres for the preparation of
programmes and projects and for gaining access to additional sources of financing.
Horizons 2020 and 2030.
It appeared impossible to set national objectives for more distant timeframes since
the available documents and studies produced to date do not identify specific
priorities for the cultural sector.
6. Administrative capacity and quality of public
services; sustainable development as a measure of
good governance and quality of public policies
Already in the early days of transition to pluralistic democracy and functional market
economy, it became obvious that in Romania, much like in other post-communist
countries, a radical improvement in the quality of governance by means of increased
effectiveness, credibility and transparency was essential for the success of political,
economic and social reforms and for enhancing the citizens? trust in the public
administration.
The requirements concerning the development of administrative capacity are
highlighted in the EU strategic guidelines on cohesion, in the revised Lisbon Strategy
and the renewed EU Sustainable Development Strategy of 2006.
Romania began to pay growing attention to administrative reform in 1992-2001, with
support from the EU PHARE programme, but progress was uneven and proved
insufficient to meet the complex needs of a modern and effective public
administration. A national strategy for public administration reform was adopted in
2001 and updated in 2004 in order to speed up the necessary changes during the EU
PAGE 131 / 143 pre-accession period. For a fundamental change in the relationship between the
political and the administrative positions in public administration, and considering the
low quality of public services actually provided, the poor motivation of civil servants,
the effects of corruption within the system and the unfavourable public image of the
public administration, the following medium-term objectives were set:
? To establish proper procedures for the recruitment, career management and
training of public servants by setting norms and rules that can be effectively
implemented;
? To reform the wage scale in order to ensure the homogeneous and fair
treatment of all categories of public servants;
? To improve the image of public administration by increasing the transparency
of administrative procedures and enforcing stern anti-corruption measures with high
public visibility.
The subsequent actions focused primarily on the enactment, in 2006, of a legislative
package for the implementation of administrative reforms and on setting up the
necessary institutional framework in the context of decentralization and deconcentration of responsibilities. As early as 1999, new institutions were created: the
National Agency of Public Servants for the general management of public service and
the National Institute of Administration for the initial and continuing training of public
servants and contract employees in the public administration. The Operational
Programme for the Development of Administrative Capacity 2007-2013, which was
approved by the European Commission in November 2007, includes a range of
measures intended to improve substantially the effectiveness, transparency and
accountability of administration at all levels.
Horizon 2013. National Objective: To put in place a more effective public
administration that is able to produce appropriate public policies and to
manage them efficiently for the implementation of sustainable development
principles.
The national strategies and the relevant legal dispositions in the sphere of public
administration address the following specific objectives for this reference period:
(i) Increasing administrative capacity through structural and processoriented improvement of the public policy management cycle.
The envisaged measures proceed from the observation that weaknesses still persist
in the system of central and local administration with regard to the ability to manage
the planning, drafting, implementation and evaluation of public policies, to define
clear objectives and to coordinate inter-sector actions resulting in a low effectiveness
of the public services. While some expertise has been acquired for planning and
management, the evaluation and feedback mechanisms are still very poor. It is also
necessary to overcome the existing deficiencies with respect to the evaluation of the
environmental impact of the proposed programmes or projects.
The target groups under this objective are the ministries, the agencies operating
under the authority of the Government or various ministries, local public authorities
and their associative structures, relevant non-governmental organisations, higher
education and research institutions. The main areas for intervention are:
PAGE 132 / 143 ? To improve political and administrative decision making through a set of
improved instruments and methods and the establishment of an effective
institutional framework specifically designed to implement public policies, including
the strategic planning and budgeting of programmes, which should lead to better
operational performance and cost reduction in public administration; acquiring
knowledge about the best practice available in other EU countries and implementing
the lessons learned; providing training for the experts involved in the formulation of
public policies; implementation of training programmes on strategic planning for
executives in the administration, including training of trainers; development of
appropriate mechanisms for the promotion and implementation of partnerships at all
levels so as to ensure the involvement of interested parties in the formulation of
public policies;
? To increase the accountability of public administration by developing
methodologies and tools to improve the systems and procedures for performance
measurement and reporting, including feedback mechanisms, taking into account the
inputs coming from the civil society and the citizens; provision of training to improve
the quality and frequency of performance reporting to the recipients of public
services and to citizens groups; training in performance measurement and reporting
techniques by using monitoring and evaluation indicators and procedures; developing
a national database for collecting, reporting, analyzing and publishing relevant
statistics regarding the performance of local public administration; preparing
adequate methodologies and institutional tools for expanding the evaluation of
policies and programmes at the level of central and local administration.
? To improve organisational effectiveness with a view to introducing a new kind
of administrative culture in all public structures, while focusing in particular on
health, education and social services, through a review of the current structures and
the implementation of modern management instruments in each sector,
establishment of new structures and making them operational; introduction of
procedures for the evaluation of quality management in the administration;
implementation of a human resource performance management system;
development of managerial skills as part of the training for public administration;
special post-graduate management training programmes for senior executives;
special training modules on topics such as public procurement, foreign languages,
project development, tendering and project management, etc.
Following the implementation of these measures, it is envisaged to prepare as many
as 19 guidebooks, methodologies or working procedures by 2015 (as compared to 3
in 2007); to conduct about 380,000 days of training for administrative staff at all
levels also until 2015 (compared to 1,000 in 2006), to certify the competence of
75,000 persons, to reduce administrative costs by 20% in 2015 as compared to
2007, to render operational 287 new or streamlined structures by 2015.
(ii) Improving the quality and effectiveness of the delivery of public
services on a decentralised basis.
The actions to be undertaken are meant to remedy the remaining deficiencies in such
areas as the unclear distribution of responsibilities among institutions and
administrative levels, incomplete transfer of decision-making power and financial
means to the decentralised units and services, and the quality and expediency in the
provision of public services. The implementation of decisions will be brought closer to
the citizen by shortening response deadlines, introducing adequate instruments for
PAGE 133 / 143 performance monitoring from the point of view of costs and quality of the services
provided to the citizens. In this respect, the main areas of intervention are:
? Support for the decentralisation process through training and technical
assistance for the structures involved in the planning and coordination of the
decentralisation process; development of procedures for cooperation between central
and local administrations, and between the local authorities and the decentralised
health, educational and social services; training for the civil servants engaged in the
local public administration and for the managers of the newly decentralised services;
evaluation of the pilot phase of the decentralisation of public services and
implementation of the resulting recommendations; streamlining the structures of the
newly decentralised services; elaboration of studies and strategies to support
decentralisation initiatives;
? Improved quality and effectiveness of public services by addressing the
complexity of processes and regulations from the perspective of the citizens and
businesses with a view to simplifying and reducing administrative barriers;
monitoring the expeditiousness of the delivery of services with a corresponding
reduction of costs; introducing a system for the evaluation of the quality of services,
including measurable targets for services rendered to the citizens; developing,
testing and implementation of cost and quality standards for public services;
elaboration of mechanisms, tools and procedures for the improvement of tax
collection, including the interfacing of existing data bases; implementation of
initiatives aimed at expediting the delivery of services (e.g. one-stop-shop, portals
and other electronic services, document management, use of the silence-is-consent
rule, etc); training for the evaluators of performance in public services;
implementation of citizens? charters for public service provision setting out clear
performance standards (equal treatment, impartiality, continuity, regularity,
transparency, freedom of choice, civility, promptness, consultation, value for
money); introducing and applying evaluation systems for managerial performance in
relation to the environment of EMAS type (Eco-management and Audit Scheme).
? Development and promotion of electronic means for accessing the available
public services with a view to increasing the transparency and effectiveness of public
administration in relation to citizens and businesses by implementing electronic
alternatives to public services, developing the required human resources for the
efficient operation of the new solutions, implementing instruments and mechanisms
for the promotion of digital services in order to make sure that they are used by the
largest possible number of agencies, institutions, companies and individual citizens.
At least 50% of the funds allocated for the implementation of the measures to
address this objective will be directed to the three public service sectors that have
been identified as priorities (health, pre-university education and social assistance).
By 2015, structural revisions will be conducted in all 41 counties and in 100
municipalities, so that those services become operational in a decentralised mode;
25 manuals, studies and reports supporting the decentralisation process will be
prepared, about 42,000 training days will be provided for civil servants at all levels,
250 analyses for administrative streamlining will be produced (as compared to 7 until
2006); quality and cost standards will be introduced in the 3 priority sectors of the
administration, and the level of the tax collection by local public administration will
increase to 95% (as compared to 84% in 2006).
The administration reform programme is correlated with other national strategies
and operational programmes to accomplish the principles and objectives of
sustainable development. This includes the incorporation of specific subjects on
PAGE 134 / 143 environmental protection and rational use of natural resources in all training modules
and the inclusion of eco-efficiency standards in the selection of publicly funded
projects and in public procurement.
Horizon 2020. National Objective: To complete the process of public
administration reform and to reduce significantly the existing disparities in
comparison with the average performance level of the central and local
administration and of public services in other EU Member States; to
strengthen the citizens? trust and satisfaction with respect to the central
and local public administration authorities.
Since the consolidation of the central decision-making structures and of the recently
decentralised public services will continue during this period, it is necessary to reevaluate the projected objectives beyond the targets set for 2015.
Horizon 2030. National Objective: To come close to the average level in the
other EU Member States regarding the performance of central and local
public administrations in providing public services.
7. Foreign and security policy: General guidelines and
specific contributions of Romania to the Common
Foreign and Security Policy and to the European
Security and Defence Policy as relevant to sustainable
development requirements
The priority lines of action of Romania?s foreign policy are aimed at upholding and
promoting the national interests, which are permanent and non-partisan, while
continuously adjusting to the ongoing changes in the system of international
relations, gradually shaping the international profile of Romania and dealing with the
consequences of its particular geographical position at the eastern border of the EU
and NATO.
The following key elements are introduced as benchmarks for success to measure
the viability of the general objectives and the actual performance of Romania?s
external action:
? The multi-dimensional character of Romania?s participation in the process of
building a new global order, based on respect of international law, democratic values
and sustainable development principles; this is accomplished through a combined
use of political and economic instruments, both formal (treaties, international and
regional institutions, diplomatic demarches) and informal (public diplomacy, direct
bilateral and multilateral contacts, functional ad-hoc alliances, public-private
networks or partnerships);
? The integration of sustainable development priorities (political, security,
economic, social and environmental) by ensuring coherence and complementarity in
PAGE 135 / 143 the collaboration among state institutions, by involving extra-governmental actors
at a national level, and by reflecting those priorities in foreign policy actions;
? Maintaining a balance of interests and values by steadily upholding the
democratic principles, the rule of law and human rights in ways that are consistent
with the promotion of Romania?s economic and geo-strategic interests.
Looking ahead at the next decade, the foreign policy of Romania will focus on the
following priority objectives and actions:
(a) Building a predictable and stable security environment for Romania, in
keeping with the national interest.
(i) Consolidation of Romania?s role in NATO:
? Promoting NATO reform and its enlargement to States in Romania?s
neighbourhood;
? Strengthening NATO?s relations with partner States that have convergent
interests and values with those of the Alliance;
? Continuing the reform process, the professionalisation and modernisation of
the Romanian military, insuring full interoperability with the military forces of allied
countries;
? Keeping Romania?s commitments in NATO theatres of operation, in close
political and operational cooperation with its strategic partners and with the national
authorities of the respective countries, including participation in the post-conflict
reconstruction process;
? Active contributions, in conceptual and practical terms, toward the resolution
of sensitive issues on the NATO agenda (arms control and disarmament, including
the CFE Treaty, the anti-missile shield, ?frozen? or latent conflicts, energy security,
protection of critical infrastructure, etc.);
? Consolidation of the Transatlantic dimension of the Alliance.
(ii) Enhancing Romania?s contribution to the adjustment of the international
security system to the demands of globalization:
? Development of a multi-functional civil defence capability comprising units
that can be deployed for missions in various theatres of operation, including a corps
of experts in post-conflict rehabilitation and reconstruction;
? Participation in UN peace-keeping missions, subject to the determination of
the zone of interest and availability of resources, in post-conflict stabilization
operations and in civil or military crisis management;
? Enhancing Romania?s capability to contribute toward fighting the nonconventional threats to international security, especially terrorism-related risks,
including measures targeting the root causes of terrorism.
(b) Contributions to the sustainable development of Romania:
PAGE 136 / 143 ? Integrating economic information and analysis in the process of foreign policy
decision-shaping for the purpose of attracting foreign investment, promoting
Romanian investments abroad and improving trade flows;
? Rendering support to Romanian economic and commercial interests and
promoting the principles of sustainable development in the internal EU debates on
future policy guidelines and sectoral regulations;
? Active participation in the process of shaping the EU positions and upholding
those positions in the international debates on sustainable development, including
the negotiations in the framework of the World Trade Organisation;
? Involvement in the shaping and implementation of the EU energy policy and
promoting Romania?s potential as an energy producer, consumer and transit country,
in parallel with Romania?s own actions through bilateral relations to secure the
necessary supplies of imported energy resources and other commodities.
(c) Shaping and promoting Romania?s profile within the European Union
(i) Active involvement in shaping the EU common positions on foreign,
security and defence policies and promotion of Romania?s specific national
interests in that framework:
? Support to the EU institutional reform in line with the Lisbon Treaty and with
the process aimed at improving the instruments of the Common Foreign and Security
Policy (CFSP) and the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP);
? Promoting further EU enlargement and keeping the commitments made to
candidate countries as well as to partner countries in the context of the European
Neighbourhood Policy (ENP);
? Development of effective development assistance policies in accordance with
the EU general guidelines and based on Romania?s foreign policy priorities;
? Promoting and expanding special partnerships, bilateral cooperation
mechanisms and political dialogue with the other EU Member States;
? Enhancing, through specific instruments, cooperation with the countries in
Romania?s immediate neighbourhood, be they EU Member States, candidate or
partner countries;
? Strengthening bilateral relations and multilateral cooperation with countries of
the European Economic Area;
? Cooperation with European partners in fighting cross-border crime, illegal
migration and all forms of illicit trafficking;
? Preparation of a National Strategy for Conflict Prevention and of a related
Action Plan, in line with the European Council decisions of Goteborg (2001);
? Establishment of a Post-Conflict Reconstruction Centre in Romania to provide
advanced research and training programmes, focused on the interface between
sustainable development and international security requirements; promoting the
international stature of the Centre;
? Valorising, in agreement with the European allies and partners, Romania?s
capabilities to promote regional cooperation in the Black Sea area, in the Balkans
and in the Danube basin.
PAGE 137 / 143 (ii) Strengthening the transatlantic link:
? Support to the special relationship between the European Union and the
United States by means of promoting an active, intensive and constructive dialogue
at all levels and in appropriate forms on all major issues on the international agenda,
including the challenges of globalization and sustainable development worldwide;
? Enhancement, at bilateral level, of the strategic partnership with the United
States and of the special relation with Canada.
(iii) Active participation in building a space of democracy, stability, security and
prosperity in Romania?s neighbourhood:
? Rendering support, within the EU institutions, to the demarches and efforts
undertaken by Western Balkans countries to meet the targets of the Stabilisation
and Association process aiming at EU accession; participation in EU initiatives and
missions in the area; involvement in large-scale regional projects, especially those
regarding transport and energy infrastructure; support to effective operation of the
Southeast Europe Free Trade Area (CEFTA+);
? Promoting multilateral cooperation in the wider Black Sea region by means of
connecting it to the European integration processes, developing specific EU policies
and instruments for that area and capitalizing on the synergies with the intergovernmental organisations, as well as with informal initiatives and consultation
mechanisms that exist at regional level;
? Support to the European and Atlantic vocation of the Republic of Moldova,
both directly and by shaping coherent policies at the EU level, in order to help
Moldova regain sovereignty over its entire territory and gradually to connect with the
EU economic, political and legal space; establishment of a strong bilateral
partnership, based on the community of culture, language and traditions;
? Enhancing the relations with Ukraine in the spirit of good neighbourhood and
support to its European and Euro-Atlantic aspirations;
? Developing the bilateral relations with the Russian Federation and making
them more functional on a pragmatic basis; promoting in a constructive spirit a
single EU voice in relation to Russia;
? Deepening bilateral relations with the countries of the Southern Caucasus
and expanding multilateral cooperation at regional level;
? Increasing Romania?s involvement in the countries of Central Asia in line
with the objectives of the EU Strategy for that region.
(d) Promoting and safeguarding Romanian values worldwide.
(i) Protecting and promoting the interests of Romanian citizens and ethnic
Romanians everywhere; maintaining the ethnic and cultural identity of Romanians
living outside the national borders:
? Continued demarches toward eliminating visa requirements for Romanian
nationals travelling to the USA; elimination or simplification of the visa regime in the
relations with Japan, Canada and other States;
PAGE 138 / 143 ? Completion of actions aimed at abolishing all restrictions for the access of
Romanian citizens to the labour market in all the countries of the EU and the
European Economic Area;
? Concluding the preparations for Romania?s accession to the Schengen area in
2010;
? Expanding the network of consular offices in those countries where the
number of Romanian residents is growing; enlarging the scope and enhancing the
quality standards of consular services; developing a stable and professional consular
corps;
? Supporting Romanian communities abroad to preserve their linguistic, cultural
and religious identity by funding courses on Romanian language, history and
geography; promoting the Romanian cultural heritage; rendering support to
churches, priests and parish schools in those communities;
? Building partnerships with the associations of Romanians living abroad and
encouraging cooperation among such associations in order to facilitate the resolution
of the specific problems they may face in their countries of residence.
(ii) Promoting national cultural and spiritual values; reshaping the role of
public diplomacy in improving Romania?s image overseas:
? Continued programmes aimed at highlighting the Romanian contributions to
the European cultural heritage and facilitating access to Romanian cultural products;
? Expanding cultural dialogue to spaces outside Europe;
? Implementation of a public diplomacy strategy and building partnerships with
competent organisations and institutions for the promotion of Romania?s image
abroad in order to produce and convey coherent messages to the political
establishment, opinion shapers, academic communities and the civil society in other
countries.
(e) Enhancing the value of Romania?s contribution to international affairs:
(i) Intensifying Romania?s presence in multilateral diplomacy:
? Active participation in shaping the EU and/or NATO common positions within
international governmental organisations, especially those of the UN system, and
supporting those positions through Romania?s own initiatives and demarches;
? Improved representation of Romania in the executive and management
structures of the main international organisations;
? Using Romania?s presence in these organisations to promote the values of
democracy, rule of law, human rights, tolerance and inter-cultural dialogue,
especially in the Council of Europe, the Community of Democracies, the Alliance of
Civilizations, the Conference of New or Restored Democracies, etc.
(ii) Re-asserting Romania?s role as an important partner for dialogue and
cooperation worldwide:
PAGE 139 / 143 ? Effective involvement in shaping the strategic directions of the EU and,
whenever appropriate, NATO action with respect to other geographical areas (Asia
and Oceania, Middle East and North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America);
? Differentiated development, subject to Romania?s national interest and the
partners? readiness, of bilateral relations with countries in other continents;
? Participation in programmes developed under the aegis of the EU and UN
system and promotion of Romania?s own initiatives in a bilateral context with regard
to development assistance overseas.
Considering the dynamics of international relations and the specific features of
political-diplomatic action, no explicit, quantifiable objectives are envisaged for
definite time horizons.
PAGE 140 / 143 PART V. IMPLEMENTATION,
MONITORING AND REPORTING
The following measures are recommended for the implementation of this
National Sustainable Development Strategy. The proposals emerged from
consultations in the framework of the National Public Debate Council, Regional
Groups (for each of the eight development regions), the Scientific Council under the
aegis of the Romanian Academy and from the relevant observations and
recommendations that were presented during the entire consultation process from
central government agencies, local authorities, political parties, scientific and
academic institutions, business associations and social partners, non-governmental
organisations and other groups of the civil society, concerned individuals in Romania
and Romanian nationals residing abroad, and additional inputs from the mass media.

1. To have the National Sustainable Development Strategy endorsed by the
Romanian Government.
2. To present the National Sustainable Development Strategy to the European
Commission formally.
3. To seek professional advice on the National Sustainable Development Strategy
from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and from
other international experts, and to obtain a preliminary expert opinion from the
relevant Directorate General of the European Commission.
4. To institute an Interagency Committee for Sustainable Development at executive
level, under the direct authority of the Prime Minister, bringing together the
ministries and national agencies of the central government that are involved in the
implementation of the Strategy. The Interagency Committee, through the person to
be appointed by the Prime Minister, shall be designated as the focal point in the
relations with the European Commission and other EU institutions regarding the
implementation at the national level of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy.
5. To establish the obligation of the Interagency Committee to present to Romanian
Parliament an annual report on the implementation of the Strategy, based on the
monitoring of the sustainable development indicators that were agreed at EU level
and of the specific indicators as adapted to Romanian conditions, on the possible
shortfalls and the measures taken to remedy them, including possible proposals to
adjust some national targets and implementation deadlines, with due consideration
of the real situation and of relevant EU directives issued during the reporting period.
6. To establish the responsibility of the Interagency Committee to coordinate the
activities related to the elaboration and permanent updating of the set of indicators
for monitoring the implementation of sustainable development objectives at national,
regional and sector levels, in conformity with the methodological guidelines to be
developed by the National Institute for Statistics in accordance with the agreed EU
rules, in order to ensure the accuracy of reported data and comparability with the
data provided by the other EU Member States.
PAGE 141 / 143 7. To stipulate the statutory obligation of the Interagency Committee, in conformity
with the EU Sustainable Development Strategy, to submit every two years to the
European Commission a complete report on the implementation of the National
Sustainable Development Strategy, starting with the month of June 2011,
accompanied by proposals and recommendations regarding possible changes to the
general orientation, policies and priorities of the relevant EU Strategy.
8. To ensure the representation of the Interagency Committee in the European
Sustainable Development Network (ESDN) at EU level.
9. To institute a Consultative Council for Sustainable Development at national level,
with a Permanent Secretariat. The Consultative Council will have complete autonomy
from the executive branch of the Government, but will be supported financially from
the state budget (according to the established practice in most EU Member States).
The Council will include 11-15 representatives of the Romanian scientific and
academic community and civil society, persons of recognized authority and relevant
competences. The Consultative Council shall operate under the aegis of the
Romanian Academy, with a core mission to monitor the implementation of the
National Sustainable Development Strategy.
10. To stipulate the right of the Consultative Council to present an annual report to
Romanian Parliament, complementing the report to be presented by the Interagency
Committee, containing its own evaluation of the implementation of the National
Sustainable Development Strategy and recommendations for further action.
11. To seek for the Consultative Council membership status in the network of
European Environmental and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils (EEAC)
12. To start the peer-review procedure for the National Sustainable Development
Strategy by institutions and experts from other EU Member States, in keeping with
the explicit recommendations of the EU Sustainable Development Strategy.
In addition, the following recommendations for appropriate action have emerged
from the consultations with central and local authorities, associations and other
stakeholders, and are hereby presented for consideration by the Romanian
Government:
1. To begin preparation of multi-annual national budget estimates spanning seven
years, and thus mirroring the financial programming exercise of the European Union,
to be conceived on a sliding scale and revisable every year, in order to ensure the
continuous, uninterrupted funding of sustainable development objectives in
conformity with the obligations undertaken by Romania as a Member State of the
European Union and with the Romanian national interest.
2. To establish, as a component of the Romanian Government, a specialized
institution (possibly in the form of a National Institute for Strategic Planning) for the
elaboration of, and follow-up on the implementation of economic and social
development strategies of Romania in conjunction with the support capacity of the
natural capital in the medium and long run, and for the coordination of interdependent sectoral programmes to ensure the coherence of government
programmes and of those receiving EU financing.
PAGE 142 / 143 PAGE 143 / 143
3. To create a Ministry of Energy and Resources (possibly following the restructuring
of the Ministry of Economy and Finance) and to re-examine the functioning of the
relevant regulatory mechanisms and specialised agencies in a transparent manner
according to EU policies and practice.
3. To undertake as a priority the preparation of a pro-active medium-to-long term
strategy regarding demographic changes and migration as points of reference for a
realistic review of national and sectoral programmes, and for the adjustment of
strategies on human resource development, education and training, and public
health.
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