Review of SDG implementation and interrelations among goals: Discussion on SDG 10 – Reduced inequalities

Inequality reduction is a priority throughout the 2030 Agenda. SDG 10 is to “reduce inequality within and among countries”. Its 10 targets capture multiple drivers of inequality to ensure that no group or individual is left behind. Four targets address within-country inequality across social, economic and political dimensions aiming to expand prosperity, inclusion, and social protection. Three targets aim to reduce inequality among countries with attention to cross-border flows of finance and people and the distribution of voice in global institutions. Three other targets focus on the means of implementation and put forward concrete steps for attaining greater equality by directing resource flows toward those most in need. 60 targets across the other 16 SDGs are directly linked to reducing inequality. Equal or universal access for all to resources, services and opportunities is a recurring theme across the SDGs.

Since 2015, there has been some positive movement on SDG 10 targets but progress has been mixed across countries and regions. Some indicators of progress also are not yet fully developed including those for monitoring discrimination and disaggregated income deprivations which are important for informing inclusive policies. In recent years a significant change in norms has driven attention to the universality of inequality and the relationships between inequality of opportunities and inequality of outcomes. All stakeholders, individuals, and groups have an enabling role and interest in achieving SDG10. To accelerate SDG 10 achievement, policy approaches need to put people who are most affected by inequalities at the centre of the process. People who are marginalized economically or socially are the actors and enablers for SDG10 and will see the greatest gains from lowering inequality.

Institutions of governance (transnational, national, regional, and local) are the central instruments for reducing inequality. They are the goal setters, the funders, the implementing agencies, and the evaluating agencies in any policy direction to reduce inequality. Partnerships between governments, the private sector, development partners and civil society organizations can engage marginalized groups and individuals, and close critical opportunity and outcome gaps. As United Nations Member States, central governments are the actors who have committed to realizing SDG10 by the year 2030 and are accountable to their people.

This session will have an interactive discussion format.

Background note is available here

Information for Expert Group Meeting on SDG10 is available here

Proposed guiding questions:

  • What are the best practices for reducing inequality that deliver genuine impact and can be scaled up or replicated for success? What are some policy changes that can happen now and what actions would you take over the next year?

  • How can we change the narrative around SDG 10 to capture the value of equality and inclusion for multiple stakeholders, and what role can Governments play? What changes in institutions and behaviour show the greatest promise for inclusion?

  • How can interlinkages between SDG 10 and other goals and targets be leveraged to reduce inequality? What is the biggest single risk for lowering inequality in the next 12 months?

  • Which dimensions of inequality can be lowered most quickly/least quickly, and which groups are the easiest/most difficult to reach? What actions can countries take today to better monitor the success of their inclusive development and reductions in inequality?

Chair:

  • H.E. Mr. Valentin Rybakov, Vice President of ECOSOC

Presentation:

  • Mr. Benjamin Rae, Development Data and Outreach Branch, Statistics Division of UN DESA

Video clip from migrant children and youth

Moderator:

  • Ms. Sarah Cliffe, Director, Center on International Cooperation, New York University

Resource persons:

  • Justice Edwin Cameron, Constitutional Court of South Africa

  • Ms. Martha Chen, Lecturer in Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Affiliated Professor, Harvard Graduate School of Design; and Senior Advisor, Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO) Network

  • Mr. Máximo Torero Cullen, Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Development Department of FAO

  • Ms. Eun Mee Kim, Dean of the Graduate School of Ewha Womans University, Korea

Lead discussants:

  • Ms. Jane Barratt, Secretary General of the International Federation on Ageing

  • Mr. Matthew Martin, Director of the Development Finance International

  • Ms. Nalini Singh, Executive Director of the Fiji Women’s Rights Movement (MGoS)

Followed by interactive discussion

Biographies
H.E. Mr. Valentin Rybakov
Vice President of Economic and Social Council, on the messages from ECOSOC Integration Segment
H.E. Mr. Valentin Rybakov

Vice President of Economic and Social Council, on the messages from ECOSOC Integration Segment

H.E. Ambassador Valentin Rybakov has served as Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs of Belarus since 2013, prior to which he was Assistant to the President from 2006 to 2013. From 2005 to 2006 he headed the Ministry’s American Division (2005) and from 2003 to 2005 he served as Counsellor/Minister Counsellor in the Embassy of Belarus in the United States.

He has also worked with his country’s Permanent Mission to the United Nations, serving as Counsellor from 2001 to 2003.

Having joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus in 1993, Mr. Rybakov is a graduate of the Minsk State Pedagogical Institute for Foreign Languages.

Born in 1958 in Tomsk, Russian Federation, Mr. Rybakov has one son.

Justice Edwin Cameron
Constitutional Court of South Africa
Justice Edwin Cameron

Constitutional Court of South Africa

Edwin Cameron was born on 15 February 1953 in Pretoria. He completed his schooling at Pretoria Boys’ High School and thanks to an Anglo-American Corporation Open Scholarship award; Cameron was able to attend Stellenbosch University. At Stellenbosch, Cameron acquired a BA Law degree, and an Honours degree in Latin – both cum laude.

Cameron was a lecturer in Latin and Classical Studies before he left for Oxford in 1976, on a coveted Rhodes scholarship. At Oxford, he obtained a BA in Jurisprudence with first class honours, the Jurisprudence Prize, BCL with first class honours and the Vinerian Scholarship. Cameron later attained his LLB from the University of South Africa cum laude, and was awarded the Johannes Voet Medallion for Best Law Graduate.

Cameron began practice as a lawyer at the Johannesburg Bar in 1983, and from 1986 conducted a human rights practice from the University of the Witwatersrand’s Centre for Applied Legal Studies (CALS). In 1989, he was awarded a personal professorship in law.

His practice was mainly concerned with labour and employment law, and therefore Cameron defended African National Congress (ANC) activists who had been charged with treason. He also took on cases of conscientious and religious objection, land tenure and forced removals and gay and lesbian equality. From 1988 he advised the National Union of Mineworkers on AIDS/HIV, and helped to draft and negotiate the first comprehensive AIDS agreement with the Chamber of Mines.

While at CALS, he drafted the Charter of Rights on AIDS and HIV, and co-founded the AIDS Consortium (a national association of non-governmental organizations). He chaired this association for the first three years of its existence, and became the first director of the AIDS Law Project.

Cameron was also instrumental in the gay and lesbian movement’s submissions to the Kempton Park negotiating process, during the course of which he gave his inaugural lecture at the University of the Witwatersrand, entitled "Sexual Orientation and the Constitution: A Test Case for Human Rights". This lecture, along with other work, was influential in securing the inclusion of sexual orientation in the South African Constitution.

In October 1994, he was appointed Acting judge of the High Court and chair of a Commission to investigate illegal arms transactions by President Mandela. He was then appointed on a permanent basis to the High Court from 1 January 1995. In 1999/2000 he served as an Acting Justice at the Constitutional Court and in 2000 was chosen as a Judge of Appeal in the Supreme Court of Appeal.

Cameron has also been involved in other community related activities, which include the following:

  • Chair of the governing Council of the University of the Witwatersrand since 1998
  • Patron of the Guild Cottage Children’s Home
  • Patron of the Sparrow’s Nest Hospice
  • Patron of the Community AIDS Response (CARE)
  • Patron of Soweto HIV/AIDS Counsellors’ Association (SOHACA)
  • Co-founder of Wits Law School Endowment Appeal and first chairman (1998-2005)
  • Assistant General Secretary, Rhodes Trust in Southern Africa (1980-1992)
  • General Secretary, Rhodes Trust in Southern Africa since 2003

On an international scale, Cameron has been a keynote speaker at the XII International Conference on HIV/AIDS in Durban, and was invited to deliver an inaugural lecture for British Academy, United Kingdom

A list of Cameron’s Honours and Awards include:

  • Nelson Mandela Award for Health and Human Rights
  • Transnet’s HIV/AIDS Champions Award
  • University of Stellenbosch - Alumnus Award
  • Special award by the Bar of England and Wales for ‘contribution to international jurisprudence and protection of human rights’
  • San Francisco AIDS Foundation’s Excellence in Leadership Award
  • ‘Witness to AIDS’ jointly awarded Sunday Times/Alan Paton Prize (South Africa’s premier literary award for non-fiction)
  • Honorary Fellow of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies in London

Cameron is also an accomplished author. He has written scholarly articles on the judiciary, labour and employment law, as well the law of trusts, AIDS and HIV, the legal rights of gays and lesbians and the legal computation of time.

Mr. Máximo Torero Cullen
Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Development Department of FAO
Mr. Máximo Torero Cullen

Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Development Department of FAO

Maximo Torero is Assistant Director General for economic and social development at the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in Rome.

Before joining FAO, he served at the World Bank Group as Executive Director for Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, Peru and Uruguay. He led the Markets, Trade and Institutions Division at the International Food Policy Research Institute in Washington, D.C. He is a Professor at the University of the Pacific, Perú (on leave) and Alexander von Humboldt Fellow at University of Bonn, Germany.

He has published more than 40 peer-reviewed academic articles analyzing poverty, inequality and behavioral economics in top journals – including in Quarterly Journal of EconomicsEconometric TheoryAmerican Economic Journal: Applied EconomicsReview of Economics and Statistics and Journal of Labor Economics. Specifically, he has studied the role of infrastructure, institutions and technology on poverty reduction, and the importance of geography, infrastructure access and assets in explaining poverty. He is the author of 14 books, including Food Price Volatility and its Implications for Food Security and Policy and Innovations for Inclusive Value Chain Development: Successes and Challenges.

He has led several research programs and impact evaluations. For example, he led the impact evaluation of the Millennium Challenge Corporation’s $450 million-investment in El Salvador’s Northern Transnational Highway and rural electrification to increase access to markets.

Torero received the Chevalier de l’Ordre du Mérite Agricole from the French government for exceptional contribution to agriculture. The Global Development Network awarded him twice for outstanding research on development. His work has been cited in numerous media outlets, including CNN, BBC, The Economist and The New York Times. He has a Ph.D. in economics from University of California, Los Angeles, and a B.S. from University of the Pacific in Peru.

Ms. Eun Mee Kim
Dean of the Graduate School of Ewha Womans University, Korea
Ms. Eun Mee Kim

Dean of the Graduate School of Ewha Womans University, Korea

Professor Eun Mee Kim is Dean of The Graduate School, Professor in the Graduate School of International Studies, Director of the Institute for Development and Human Security and Director of the Ewha Global Health Institute for Girls at Ewha Womans University. She is also an Honorary Professor at International Institute of Korean Studies in University of Central Lancashire. She served as President of the Korea Association of International Development and Cooperation (2011, 2012). She has served as a member on the Committee for International Development Cooperation under the Prime Minister’s Office, the Policy Advisory Committee in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the Policy Advisory Committee in the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family. In 2012, she received the Service Merit Medal from the Republic of Korea for her contributions to the Fourth High-Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan. In 2013, she received the first research grant to a university in South Korea from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation on her research project entitled, “Advocacy for Korean Engagement in Global Health and Development.” In 2016, she received a second grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for a project entitled, “Korea Global Health Strategy.” In December 2016 she was appointed by the UN as one of 15 scientists in the world to work on the Global Sustainable Development Report 2019.

  • Research interests: Economic development of South Korea and East Asian countries, International development cooperation, Globalization, Multiculturalism.

  • Major Publications:

    • Human Security and Cross-Border Cooperation in East Asia (Co-edited with Carolina G. Hernandez, Yoichi Mine, and Ren Xiao, 2018)

    • Promoting Development: The Political Economy of East Asian Foreign Aid (with Barbara Stallings, 2017)

    • The South Korean Development Experience: Beyond Aid (Co-edited with Pil Ho Kim, 2014)

    • Adapt, Fragment, Transform: Corporate Restructuring and System Reform in South Korea (Co-edited with Byung-Kook Kim and Jean Oi, 2012)

    • The Sociology of the Economic Crisis: Transformation of the Developmental State and Business Group Networks (with Dukjin Chang and Mark Granovetter , 2005)

    • The Four Asian Tigers: Economic Development and the Global Political Economy Development (edited, 1998)

    • Big Business, Strong State: Collusion and Conflict in South Korean Development (1997)

Ms. Jane Barratt
Secretary General of the International Federation on Ageing (an organization with members in 62 countries which represents 50 million older people)
Ms. Jane Barratt

Secretary General of the International Federation on Ageing (an organization with members in 62 countries which represents 50 million older people)

Jane M Barratt, Ph.D. is the Secretary General, International Federation on Ageing (IFA) an international non-government organisation with general consultative status with the United Nations and its agencies including formal relations with the World Health Organisation (WHO).

Representing over 75 million older people through the membership of the IFA, Jane has direct responsibility for the corporation’s global operational performance, quality and strategic implementation, and business development. This includes leadership at the United Nations Economic and Social Council in New York, Geneva and Vienna and the WHO.

Among her many current positions Jane is a Member of Vision Academy, Director, Baycrest Health Sciences and Chair of the Education Advisory Committee, Associate Scientist, Sinai Health System, Member, Global Committee for the DR Barometer Program, and Member of the International Council for Adult Immunisation.

Ms. Martha Chen
Lecturer in Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Affiliated Professor, Harvard Graduate School of Design; and Senior Advisor, Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO) Network
Ms. Martha Chen

Lecturer in Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Affiliated Professor, Harvard Graduate School of Design; and Senior Advisor, Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO) Network

Martha (Marty) Chen is a Lecturer in Public Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School, an Affiliated Professor at the Harvard Graduate School of Design, and Senior Advisor of the global research-policy-action network Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO). An experienced development practitioner and scholar, her areas of specialization are employment, gender and poverty with a focus on the working poor in the informal economy. Before joining Harvard in 1987, she had two decades of resident field experience in South Asia: in Bangladesh in the 1970s, working with BRAC, an NGO which has gained world-wide scope and reputation: and in India in the 1980s, where she served as field representative of Oxfam America. In both capacities, she worked closely with working poor women in both villages and urban settlements to promote their economic empowerment. She co-founded and led the WIEGO Network for twenty years. Today, WIEGO is well known worldwide for its work to improve the status of the working poor in the informal economy through stronger organizations, improved statistics and research and a more favorable policy environment. The networks of informal workers in the WIEGO Network have more than 1000 affiliates in 90 countries: www.wiego.org. Dr. Chen received a PhD in South Asia Regional Studies from the University of Pennsylvania. She was awarded a high civilian award, the Padma Shri, by the Government of India in April 2011; and a Friends of Bangladesh Liberation War award by the Government of Bangladesh in December 2012.

Ms. Nalini Singh
Executive Director, Fiji Women’s Rights Movement (MGoS)
Ms. Nalini Singh

Executive Director, Fiji Women’s Rights Movement (MGoS)

Nalini Singh, from Fiji, is a feminist and a social development specialist with over 17 years’ experience in design, implementation, management, monitoring and evaluation of women’s rights and development programmes in Asia Pacific. Her particular interests are in the issues of women’s sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), decent work and organisational capacity strengthening.

Nalini is presently the Executive Director of the Fiji Women's Rights Movement (FWRM- www.org.fj). Prior to joining FWRM over two years ago, Nalini worked as the Programme Manager- Advocacy and Capacity Building for the Asian Pacific Resource and Research Centre for Women (ARROW- www.arrow.org.my) based in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia for 7 years. And before this she was a Programme Officer at the Asia Pacific Forum on Women, Law and Development (APWLD- www.apwld.org) based in Chaing Mai, Thailand for 5 years. Nalini is a graduate of the University of the South Pacific with a Bachelor of Arts.

In other roles, Nalini is also a Steering Committee member and current Chair of the Fiji Women’s Fund (www.fijiwomensfund.org); the National Gender Adviser, Asian Development Bank Technical Assistance Project 9348-REG: Strengthening Women’s Resilience to Climate Change and Disaster Risk in Fiji; Regional Council member of Asia Pacific Forum for Women, Law and Development; Board member of International Women’s Rights Action Watch Asia Pacific (www.iwraw-ap.org) ; and the International Advisor- Women’s Rights to LOOM Nepal (a Nepali young women’s NGO).

With her work on women’s rights, Nalini has been involved in monitoring the MDGs and advocating for the advancement of gender equality through the various goals. As the focus shifted to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Nalini followed closely the processes through the over year –long Open Working Group processes. She participated in online meetings, selection processes for speakers for the formal dialogues and attended many meetings in Asia Pacific and internationally advocating for the inclusion of meaningful targets and indicators; meaningful engagement of governments and greater focus on accountability to the people. Nalini also has participated in the High Level Political Forum and in the 2017 session she was invited to be a discussant at the High Level Panel on Gender Equality. Back at home in Fiji, Nalini is monitoring how her government is delivering on the SDGs with a particular focus on how the national development agenda is delivering for women and young women and leaving no one behind.

Ms. Sarah Cliffe
Director, Center on International Cooperation, New York University
Ms. Sarah Cliffe

Director, Center on International Cooperation, New York University

Sarah F. Cliffe is currently the director of New York University’s Center on International Cooperation. Prior to that, she was the Special Representative for the World Bank’s World Development Report on Conflict, Security and Development, and the Special Adviser and Assistant Secretary-General of Civilian Capacities to the United Nations.

Ms. Cliffe has worked for the last twenty years in countries emerging from conflict and political transition, including Afghanistan, Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guinea Bissau, Ethiopia, Haiti, Indonesia, Liberia, Mali, Rwanda, South Sudan, South Africa, Somalia, and Timor-Leste. At the World Bank, her work has covered post-conflict reconstruction, community driven development, and civil service reform. Ms. Cliffe was the chief of mission for the Bank’s program in Timor-Leste from 1999 to 2002; led the Bank’s Fragile and Conflict-Affected Countries Group from 2002-2007; and was the Director of Strategy and Operations for the East Asia and Pacific Region from 2007-2009.

Ms. Cliffe has also worked for the United Nations Development Programme in Rwanda, the Government of South Africa, and the Congress of South African Trade Unions, as well as for a major management consultancy company in the United Kingdom on public sector reform issues.

Ms. Cliffe has a Bachelor’s degree in history from Cambridge’s University and a Master’s degree in international relations and international economic policy from Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs.

Statements
Statements
Justice Edwin Cameron, Constitutional Court of South Africa
Mphatso Sakala on behalf of the LGBTI Stakeholder Group, Stakeholder Group on Aging and Volunteers
Mr. Matthew Martin, Director of the Development Finance International
Mr. Máximo Torero Cullen, Assistant Director-General, Economic and Social Development Department of FAO
Ms. Eun Mee Kim, Dean of the Graduate School of Ewha Womans University, Korea
Ms. Jane Barratt, Secretary General of the International Federation on Ageing
Ms. Martha Chen, Lecturer in Public Policy, Harvard Kennedy School; Affiliated Professor, Harvard Graduate School of Design; and Senior Advisor, Women in Informal Employment: Globalizing and Organizing (WIEGO) Network
Ms. Nalini Singh, Executive Director of the Fiji Women’s Rights Movement (MGoS)
Volunteer Groups Alliance
Presentations
Mr. Benjamin Rae, Development Data and Outreach Branch, Statistics Division of UN DESA
Mr. Benjamin Rae, Development Data and Outreach Branch, Statistics Division of UN DESA (Presentation remarks)
United Nations