Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
I. Assessment of the situation regarding the principle of “ensuring that no one is left behind”
Biodiversity, at the level of ecosystems, species and genes, forms the foundation of the Earth’s life support systems and provides the services that underpin human lives and prosperity. Globally, some 2.6 billion people draw their livelihoods either partially or fully from agriculture, 1.6 billion from forests, and more than 3 billion people depend on marine and coastal biodiversity. Of the global poor, 70% are said to live in rural areas, with as much as 50 to 90 per cent of livelihoods sourced from non-marketed goods and ecosystem services. They depend directly on biodiversity as source of food, income and insurance against various risks, such as external economic shocks, environmental disasters, impacts of climate change, food insecurity, and health risks arising from lack of access to drinking water supply and health-care services. For instance, bushmeat and other edible wild animals can account for up to 85% of the protein intake of people living in or near forests.1 In some Asian and African countries, 80% of the population depends on traditional medicines for primary health care. The world’s estimated 370 million indigenous peoples, who constitute 15% of the poorest,2 are custodians of up to 22 per cent of the world’s land surface, which holds 80 per cent of global biodiversity. Yet, biodiversity and ecosystem services supporting peoples’ lives and livelihoods continue to be at risk of loss and degradation.
Biodiversity and the natural resources it underpins are essential for sustainable development. It is therefore not surprising that biodiversity and healthy ecosystems are included not only in Sustainable Develop Goal 14 on oceans and coasts, and Goal 15 on terrestrial ecosystems, but also in many other goals and targets, including: Goal 1 (poverty eradication), Goals 2 (hunger and food security), Goal 6 (water and sanitation), Goal 11 (cities and human settlements), Goal 12 (sustainable consumption and production) and Goal 13 (climate change adaptation and mitigation). Because biodiversity is so important for sustainable development, making progress in implementing the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-20203 is critically important to achieving the 2030 Agenda.
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