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International Organization for Migration (IOM)

The IOM Council, currently consisting of 166 Member States, requested the IOM Director General to “continue to engage in the ongoing consultations of the Post-2015 UN development agenda process in order to inform and support Member States upon request in their participation on this matter, in particular with discussions related to migration and development”.1 Based on this resolution, IOM continues working with Member States to achieve the migration aspects of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Moreover, with the subsequent IOM Council resolution no. 1310 of 4 December 2015, IOM Member States endorsed the first internationally agreed definition of “well-managed migration policies” as reflected in SDG target 10.7. This resolution also requests the IOM Administration “to report to the IOM Council on a regular basis on how the Migration Governance Framework is being applied and on any other relevant updates or developments”. Against this backdrop, IOM devoted its two sessions held under 2016 International Dialogue on Migration (IDM - operating under the IOM Constitution) to discuss Member States’ experiences in implementing the migration-related SDG targets. Furthermore, the 2017 sessions of the IDM will be dedicated to the Global Compact on Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, which could become a key vehicle to achieve the migration aspects across the SDGs. The following is an overview of materials collected as part of the IOM Director General’s upcoming report to the IOM Council, focused on the 2017 theme of the High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) on sustainable development: “Eradicating poverty and promoting prosperity in a changing world”.

1. An assessment of the situation regarding the principle of “ensuring that no one is left behind” at the global level:

Migration has the potential to profoundly influence people’s lives for the better. It offers individuals the promise of new opportunities – in work, education, health and family life – and can enhance the overall well-being and standards of living of both those who move and the families they leave behind. Whole societies also stand to benefit from what migration has to offer. Migrants help to meet the demand for much-needed labour and skills; they contribute to the tax base; establish businesses to supply goods, services and employment to host populations; and they create more vibrant, innovative societies.

However, notwithstanding the overwhelmingly positive contribution that human mobility and migrants bring to sustainable development in every region of the world, a large number of migrants – especially those in an irregular situation – remain left behind. While some migrants are able to achieve better health, education and employment outcomes through migration, others face grave challenges including significant human rights violations during the migration process. Migrants are often exposed to increased vulnerability along their migratory journey and in the countries of destination, such as lack of access to basic services, human trafficking, violence, exploitation and abuse, as they leave their capitals and protection mechanisms behind when they leave home. This is also the case for those caught in crisis situations caused by conflicts or natural disasters face increased vulnerabilities.

Although quantitative estimates of the prevalence of human trafficking at the national, regional and global levels are difficult to collect and validate, the International Labour Organization has reported that 20.9 million people are victims of “forced labour” globally (11.4 million women and girls and 9.5 million men and boys).

The Walk Free Foundation’s 2016 Global Slavery Index meanwhile, has estimated that there are some 45.8 million people living in “modern slavery” in the world today.

The incidences of new and protracted conflicts and complex humanitarian disasters around the world are also having significant negative implications on the principle of leaving no one behind. Today, among 244 million international migrants, 65.3 million people have been forced to migrate, including 21.3 million refugees and 40.8 million internally displaced persons (IDPs).2 Conflicts not only generate forced displacement, hold back the realization of poverty eradication and hinder achieving prosperity, but also undermine the efforts and achievement towards sustainable development. According to the 2016 analysis of IOM’s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC), recorded migrant deaths worldwide increased by 27 per cent compared to 2015, including more than 5,000 migrant deaths recorded in the Mediterranean in 2016 – a 35 per cent increase. Just under two thirds (66 per cent) of the migrants who died in the Mediterranean were recorded as “missing and presumed dead”, which means that their bodies have not been recovered. There was also an 83 per cent increase in recorded migrant deaths in Africa and 43 per cent increase in recorded migrant deaths in the Americas compared to 2015.

These stark figures highlight the significant work that still remains to be done to ensure that the 2030 Agenda’s objective of leaving no one behind is met for all people, including migrants.

2. The identification of gaps, areas requiring urgent attention, risks and challenges:

Despite the growing prevalence of migration as a global phenomenon, migration governance frameworks are not adapting quickly enough to address emerging migration challenges. Indeed, the current state of governance and policy development on migration tends to breed vulnerabilities and prevents migrants and states from reaping the full benefits that migration has to offer. Finding a new approach to migration that is built upon the commitments outlined in the 2030 Agenda therefore represents a critical policy challenge over the years ahead.

Based on the discussions of the International Dialogues on Migration held in 2016, four main areas can be identified as priorities in coming years:

a) Awareness raising: More needs to be done to raise awareness on the role that migrants and migration can play in accelerating efforts to reach the SDGSs. For this, migration should be included in awareness raising campaigns on the 2030 Agenda, and material should be disseminated to inform governance of how migration is reflected in the 2030 agenda, and how to act upon the various challenges and opportunities migration can bring including positive contribution of migrants towards inclusive growth and sustainable development.

b) Prioritization and nationalisation of SDG targets: Countries are asked to appropriate themselves the list of goals and targets, and adapt them based on their national context. In doing so, countries may decide to prioritize a certain number of targets, and to establish a national framework of indicators – inspired by the global list of indicators developed by the Inter Agency Experts Group on SDGs – to track the progress they make towards achieving the prioritized SDGs. As one of the key cross-cutting issues in the 2030 Agenda that touches on most SDGs, migration can be an accelerator of sustainable development, and therefore should, one way or another, be integrated in national developments plans.

c) Improving the collection, analysis and use of migration data: One of the key issues identified during the International Dialogues on Migration held in 2016 is the fact that migration data is still very scarce and at times, not reliable. More should be done to ensure that migration data is systematically collected, analysed and used to inform policy. This could be done through the elaboration of national plans on migration data, or by integrating migration-related questions in censuses. This question will be central when discussing SDG target 17.18 on data disaggregation, in particular by migratory status.

d) Implementing a coherent set of concrete actions: In line with the interlinked nature of the SDGs, governments need a “whole-of–government” approach towards implementing the SDGs. Commitments cannot be taken in isolation. Coordination between the various ministries, and also with all relevant stakeholders, including local and regional authorities, civil society, private sector, international organizations, and above all, with the population we seek not to leave behind.

3. Valuable lessons learned on eradiating poverty and promoting prosperity:

In order to enable migration and migrants to play their role as active agents for eradicating poverty and promoting prosperity, it is important to have good structures in place to manage migration to maximize its benefits and minimize negative consequences. Indeed, the SDGs identify well-managed migration policies as a key factor in reducing inequalities.

IOM’s view, articulated in the Migration Governance Framework (MiGOF)4 is that a migration system promotes migration and human mobility that is humane and orderly and benefits migrants and society

when it:

  • Adheres to international standards and fulfils migrants’ rights;
  • Formulates policy using evidence and a “whole-of government” approach;
  • Engages with partners to address migration and related issues;

As it seeks to:

  • Advance the socioeconomic well-being of migrants and society;
  • Effectively address the mobility dimensions of crises;
  • Ensure that migration takes place in a safe, orderly and dignified manner

4. Emerging issues likely to affect the realization of poverty eradication and achieving prosperity:

One of the key challenges to negatively affect migrants and migration’s potential contribution to the realization of poverty eradication and achieving prosperity is a growing anti-migrant sentiment backed by nationalist political rhetoric in many parts of the world. We need to change the current toxic public discourse on migration to one that takes full account of the contribution migrants make to the development of both their countries of origin and destination; and in so doing, make the case for societies to embrace diversity. Diverse societies are strong, culturally rich and intellectually prosperous, provided that the physical and psychosocial needs of its members are attended to.

In September 2016, heads of states gathered in New York to find ways in which to ensure that refugees and migrants are not left behind, and to create the circumstances under which migration is safe, regular and orderly. Member States agreed to take forward a number of commitments, including to develop a Global Compact on Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) to be adopted during an international conference on migration in 2018. This Compact will be an opportunity to move forward on the migration aspects of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and to ensure that migrants are not left behind. In particular, the GCM offers the first real opportunity for states to reconfirm effective practices in national migration governance, and to lay out the rules of engagement on international migration policy, addressing some of the gaps and shortcomings in the way states cooperate with one another.

It will be important that the GCM process be guided by commitments in - and that it build synergies with - the 2030 Agenda, the Sendai Framework for Action, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the Paris Climate Change Agreement, the New Urban Agenda and other existing commitments and mechanisms relevant to migration.

5. Areas where political guidance by the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development is required:

Some of the most important markers of progress related to migration in the past year are the decisions by world leaders to 1) spearhead a process leading towards the creation of a global compact for safe, regular and orderly migration and 2) have IOM join the UN system as the leading global migration agency. Since the two-year process on the global compact for safe, regular and orderly migration will stimulate Member States’ review and further deliberations on their migration policies, the process and its outcome can also contribute to the implementation of migration related SDGs by showing concrete steps. Furthermore, dialogues on migration at the national, regional and global levels as part of the preparatory process for the global compact will promote a better understanding of migration trends and its multi-dimensional realities and advance informed migration policy-making. Therefore, it would be useful in coming months to start a reflection on the interlinkages between the Global Compact on Migration and the work on the Sustainable Development Goals. If Member States will reach to a conclusion to elaborat a framework to follow-up on the Global Compact on Migration after the conference in 2018, synergies should be sought with the existing mechanisms in place to track progress on SDGs. The Global Compact on Migration could create opportunities to more thoroughly follow the progress made on migration aspects of the SDGs.

6. Policy recommendations on ways to accelerate progress in poverty eradication:

A key recommendation that Member States should take forward is to more systematically include migration in national development plans and strategies, including through the UN Development Assistance Framework or equivalent planning framework.

It is also important to find ways to bring to the fore a number of challenges that have not fully been captured by the 2030 Agenda. For instance, displacement and crisis induced migration including the issue of internally displaced persons remained out of the Agenda even though protracted displacement, if left unaddressed, generates unwanted out migration as well as further marginalization, inequality, fragility, vulnerability and erodes people’s resilience. This poses a serious impediment to all three pillars of sustainable development both for the displaced persons and host communities and hampers the progress in poverty eradication.

Finally, it is important to draw on the interlinkages between the SDGs and other global frameworks and transformative agreements adopted over the last two years such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the Paris Agreement, and the New Urban Agenda. If taken together, these global frameworks and transformative agreements can provide an ideal basis for collective actions to ensure migrants are not left behind.

ANNEX IOM’s concrete action on migration related SDG targets

The following annex highlights some of the key activities IOM has implemented and that contribute to the migration aspects of SDGs, with a particular focus on accelerators of poverty reduction. This overview is organized along the 3 principles and 3 objectives of the Migration Governance Framework (MiGOF), which is at the basis of IOM’s annual report to its Member States.

While all goals and most targets have an impact on or can be affected by migration, IOM recognises SDG target 10.7 as an umbrella target for all migration-related aspects of the SDGs. Indeed, well-managed migration policy is an essential component of all migration-related targets. MiGOF is the first and so far only internationally agreed definition of SDG target 10.7 4. Consequently, the following report looks at all aspects of migration in the SDGs through the prism of SDG 10.7, while paying particular attention to the theme of “eradicating poverty and promoting prosperity in a changing world”.


IOM advocates for the respect, protection and fulfilments of the rights of individuals, regardless of nationality or migration status and without discrimination, to preserve their safety, physical integrity, well-being and dignity. IOM supports States in their efforts to adhere to migration-related international standards. 103 IOM offices have supported their host Governments by organizing consultations, information sessions with selected Ministries, by training officials on international standards, by promoting public policy on protection issues, but also by carrying out assessments on the country’s level of adherence.

As a result of IOM’s contribution, several migration laws around the world have been revised to be in line with international standards related to migration. For instance, new and revised policies and national Standard Operational Procedures against human trafficking and smuggling have benefitted from IOM’s expertise in twenty-seven countries.

In 2016, IOM helped develop employment policies for nationals abroad or foreigners at home in 11 countries, and contributed to the migration part of national development plans of another 14 countries. In the EU, IOM assists Member States to align and harmonize their legislation with the EU Acquis and best practices on asylum and migration management (for instance in terms of detention, return and reintegration of migrants).

Promoting gender equality: IOM is also committed to adhering to international standards in its own work. In 2016, IOM’s Gender Equality Policy was rolled out, and 102 offices confirmed that gender was mainstreamed throughout their programmes. 39 of them reported including specific components to address gender inequalities in one or more of their projects. As an example, during the year, IOM has focused its work on skills empowerment of a disadvantaged gender to increase employment in several locations, on the impact of gender norms on health to increase access to services, and on reducing abuse of migrant workers of a specific gender.

A champion for Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse: IOM continued its efforts to prevent and respond to sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA) by aid workers in humanitarian response operations. IOM’s Director General continued to provide leadership as the IASC Champion on PSEA. In cooperation with other agencies, IOM produced an operational toolkit endorsed by the IASC principals (June 2016) designed to provide concrete guidance on field-level implementation of collective PSEA activities. These included the IASC Best Practice Guide to develop Inter-agency Community-based Complaint Mechanisms (CBCMs) and its accompanying Global Standard Operating Procedures.


The production of reliable data on migration, complemented with a whole-of-government approach enables good migration governance, which in turn allows for a better allocation of resources, a better integration of the migrants and sustainable development.

Strengthening production and analysis of migration data and evidence: Good migration governance must be based on evidence and accurate data. IOM aims to serve Member States and the international community as lead reference for data and evidence related to migration. To this effect, IOM endeavours to strengthen the production and analysis of national, regional and global data related to migration, both for external and internal use. In 2016, 104 offices have completed and/or published studies, research papers or assessments. Most of IOM’s research focuses on the integration of migrants in host countries,5 irregular migration,6 regional migration trends,7 and mobility linked to climate change,8 as well as return migration.

In addition, 86 IOM offices have worked to improve the capacity of academics, practitioners, governments and the civil society to collect, analyse, and use data and statistics relating to migration. In 48 of these countries, IOM helped improve existing data sources and related infrastructure where needed. IOM also produced a “training guide to migration data”.

IOM Migration profiles of selected countries lay the foundation for a migration policy. In Albania, IOM supported the development of the National Strategy on Development and Integration 2020 (which foresees the development of the new migration policy for Albania, contributing to SDG target 10.7 on "Well-managed migration policies").

Finally, IOM’s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC)10 organized several international meetings, including the workshop, “Understanding and Measuring “Safe” Migration”, and the global conference, “Towards Agenda 2030 and the Global Compact on Migration”, both of which explored how to improve the evidence-base for monitoring progress towards the migration-related SDGs. In 2016, GMDAC also initiated a Global Migration Data Portal which aims to facilitate the sharing and understanding of international data on migration. GMDAC also co-chairs the GMG Data Working Group with UN DESA and co-organized the first global conference on Migration data and the SDGs in Germany.

IOM publications have been downloaded over 2 million times from the IOM website. The most popular ones being the World Migration Reports, Glosario sobre Migración, Ulyana’s Grote Avontuur, Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence, Fatal Journeys, Global migration trends factsheets.

Whole-of-government approach to migration: Understanding that migration is a cross-cutting issue, IOM supported Member States with technical assistance to improve whole-of-government approach to migration management, thereby reinforcing mutual linkages between migration and other relevant policy areas. This approach integrates the collaborative efforts of all ministries to optimise their impact and offer an integrated way to achieve a shared purpose: beneficial migration governance.

In 2016, 90 IOM offices have contributed to streamline migration and consider migrants’ rights in policies produced by different ministries, through training and technical assistance, but also by seconding experts or participating in determined task forces.

Migration and development: IOM contributed to new national policies on international migration and development or integrated migration in national Migration and Development Strategies. IOM has also improved the skills of over 3,300 government counterparts to streamline migration into development-related sectoral policies or strategies.

Migration and health: IOM strives to bridge the domains of migration and health in order to promote coherence among policies of different sectors that affect migrants’ well-being, for instance in Azerbaijan, Slovenia (where IOM is promoting cultural orientation in healthcare systems), in Costa Rica, (with a Central American joint initiative on the health of migrants), in Kazakhstan, Morocco, Sri Lanka, Myanmar (supporting a migration health unit in the MoH), Indonesia and Kenya (where IOM supports medical care catered to migrants).


IOM believes that effective and beneficial migration requires partnerships to broaden the understanding of migration, and to develop comprehensive and efficient approaches. IOM’s expertise and vast network of offices worldwide ideally position the Organization to support Member States and to advance good migration governance. Global partnerships: IOM contributed to many international conferences and processes in 2016 to ensure that migrants and migration issues were given due attention. 52 offices were engaged in such global processes and provided technical advice, facilitated meetings and raised public awareness. As mentioned above, the SDGs have been a focus of IOM’s work throughout the year, as well as the following key events:

- UN General Assembly Summit on Addressing Large Movements of Refugees and Migrants - World Humanitarian Summit - International Dialogue on Migration - MICIC – Migrants in Countries in Crisis Initiative - GFMD - Other agencies

Regional and interregional partnerships: Regional and interregional bodies and forums – whether regional agencies or state-led migration policy dialogues called Inter-State Consultation Mechanisms on Migration11 (ISCM) – are critical actors in improving international migration governance. ISCMs at the regional (Regional Consultative Processes on Migration (RCP)) and inter-regional (Inter-regional forums on migration) levels contribute to policy approaches on migration among participating states.

Other regional initiatives are equally important and reinforce IOM’s efforts in tackling human trafficking, build regional partnerships on migration-related topics, and received IOM’s support during the reporting period, such as the Panel on Asylum and Migration within the Eastern Partnership’s (EaP), the UNHCR-IOM sub-regional initiative on mixed flows in the Western Balkan on refugee protection and international migration.

Humanitarian and development partnerships with international organizations: IOM is an engaged member at all levels of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC), including the IASC Principals meetings, Emergency Directors Group, Working Group, and in most IASC Task Teams and Reference Groups. The Organization was engaged in 52 both formally activated clusters and sectorial coordination or working groups in 34 countries, including serving as the lead for the Global Camp coordination and Camp management (CCCM) Cluster for natural disasters.

Among its partnerships with other IOs, IOM continued to support the work of the Inter-Agency Coordination Group Against Trafficking in Persons (ICAT, a policy forum mandated by the UN General Assembly to improve coordination among UN agencies and other relevant international organizations to facilitate a holistic and comprehensive approach to preventing and combating trafficking in persons). IOM produced two Policy Papers on “Pivoting Toward the Evidence: Building Effective Counter-trafficking Responses Using Accumulated Knowledge and a Shared Approach to Monitoring, Evaluation, and Learning”; and “Providing Effective Remedies for Victims of Trafficking in Persons”, and contributed to the Toolkit for Guidance in Designing and Evaluating Counter-Trafficking Programmes.

National and local government: Migration issues present opportunities and challenges that must be addressed by a wide range of government ministries. IOM therefore actively supports ministries in charge of border management, of (im)migration/migration, and more broadly the ministries for foreign affairs, interior, labour and justice. Depending on the domestic context, IOM's expertise is also requested by ministries of education, health, diaspora, social affairs or environment. Many offices (68%) also reported working with local authorities at province or community level, increasing the impact of joint programmes.

Civil society: IOM and CSOs cooperate on a broad range of migration issues at global, regional, national and local levels. IOM CSO partners include: non-governmental organizations (NGOs); NGO networks; advocacy groups; migrants' organizations; professional associations; media organizations; academic, research institutes and universities; and philanthropic foundations. IOM actively involves and relies on the civil society, including local community-based organizations, in its programmatic work whether as service providers, donors or beneficiaries. During 2016, 72 per cent of IOM offices were partnering with national and international CSOs around the world, which increases outreach to migrants and complements IOM programmes to deliver better assistance to migrants.

In 2016, IOM convened a dedicated MICIC Consultation for Civil Society Organizations with approximately 80 participants from international and national NGOs, migrant associations, diaspora communities, academia and MICIC Working Group members, which contributed to the “Guidelines to Protect Migrants in Countries Experiencing Conflict or Natural Disaster” mentioned above.

Private sector: 53 IOM offices reported that their work had included engagement with over 150 private sector partners and donors in 2016. In many instances, partnerships with the private sector enhanced existing IOM projects funded by traditional donors. In its efforts to drive innovation, IOM collaborated with a multi-national telecommunications company deploying state-of-the-art technology solutions to improve health care services, advance education, and reduce climate vulnerability for remote communities in Bangladesh. IOM also engaged with an Irish design company which helped devise a new concept for labelling medicine given to migrants including refugees.

Partnering with the private sector can dramatically expand IOM’s reach on key migration related issues, for instance in two great campaigns on counter-trafficking: "How much does a human being cost" and on migrants’ contributions: “i am a migrant”. IOM led ethical recruitment information sessions in 25 countries, and assisted a global consumer goods company in implementing ethical recruitment practices for migrant workers in its supply chain. Migrants’ participation in the labour market is one key way to ensure sustainable integration. IOM partnered with businesses in 11 countries to increase access to the labour market for migrants.

Diaspora engagement: IOM’s cooperation with diaspora aims to engage, enable and empower diaspora as agents for development. In 2016, 58 IOM missions have actively promoted the beneficial role of diaspora by engaging with migrant groups and/or governments in home and host countries, and enhancing dialogue on opportunities and challenges.


Improving working conditions, increasing access to health and facilitating cost-effective remittances contribute to the development of both the host country and the country of origin. While improving working conditions and access to health insure the good integration of the migrants in the host country and their positive contribution to the local economy, cost-effective remittances foster money transfer to the country of origin which in turn contributes to the improvement of the living conditions.

Safe and beneficial labour migration: IOM is committed to promoting labour migration practices that benefit migrants, their families and countries and communities of origin and destination, and which are business-friendly. 48% of IOM offices have supported governments with research, analytical work, policy review and facilitation of bilateral and multilateral dialogue on labour migration. IOM helped to share information on labour migration by supporting databases, and job/skills matching, and by increasing capacity of practitioners through training, and study tours.

In 2016, 31 IOM offices trained government officials and private sector companies on the importance of ethical labour recruitment in safeguarding the rights of migrant workers. Through the International Recruitment Integrity System (IRIS), IOM continued bringing together government officials, multi-national companies and employers as well as experts, NGOs and trade unions. The IRIS Code of Conduct was used to advise companies how to adopt principles of ethical recruitment in their day-to-day operations and business strategies throughout their supply chains.

Migrants’ protection is at the core of IOM’s priorities; considerable efforts have been deployed across the globe to fight forced labour, exploitation and abuse as well as to empower migrant workers to know their rights, provide them with pre-departure orientation and increase their integration prospects. In 2016 a total of 71,325 migrants benefitted from pre-departure or post-arrival orientation sessions held in 70 countries worldwide.

Promoting social, economic and cultural inclusion of migrants: In 2016, 87 IOM offices were contributing to the social inclusion (35%), labour market inclusion (30%), cultural or political inclusion of migrants in countries of destination. The Organization’s focus is on helping migrants to better integrate into new communities, building the capacity of local authorities involved in receiving new populations and on highlighting the positive contributions that migrants can make to communities of destination. This two-way integration process is essential for the existence of thriving, multicultural communities.

In addition, IOM is deeply aware of the impact of public perception. As such initiatives are truly necessary in times of unprecedented mobility and unseen negative attitudes towards migrants and migration, 72 IOM offices have been very active to change public opinion towards migrants through compelling public campaigns.

Facilitating cost-effective remittances in support of development: In 2016, 38 IOM offices have supported almost 12,000 members of the diaspora and their relatives to improve their financial and economic well-being. The role of diaspora considerably relies on effective transfer of remittances. To optimize the use and impact of their contributions, 16 IOM offices are working on reducing the cost of remittances and 12 offices on improving the financial skills of diaspora members to help them reach their business potential - 576 businesses benefited from IOM’s support.

Tackling human trafficking, migrant exploitation and abuse: Human trafficking and other forms of migrant exploitation remain widespread. In 2016, 80 per cent of IOM offices reported that they were contributing to the prevention of and response to human trafficking, exploitation and abuse. IOM’s work has achieved a variety of results in 2016; it has assisted 8,500 victims directly; trained 33,000 government officials, practitioners, media, contributed to national or local strategies, worked on public campaigns and global initiatives.

IOM provided technical support to national authorities and CSOs to design policies, practices and promote compliance with international standards. Trafficking in persons is a transnational issue. In 2016, IOM improved information-sharing and cooperation procedures between relevant authorities and organizations by bringing together decision-makers and practitioners at national or regional level. Finally, IOM joined the Global Action against Trafficking in Persons and the Smuggling of Migrants.

Health of migrants and migration-affected communities: Health is one of the most important of the components of the integration process of migrants. IOM’s vision of “healthy migrants in healthy communities” is centered on four key approaches: (a) promoting migrants’ right to health; (b) maintaining good public health outcomes (for both individuals and communities); and (c) contributing to the positive health and development outcomes of migration (in countries of origin, transit and destination); (d) reducing health inequities. In 2016, 63 per cent of IOM offices reporting active engagement in health-related activities.

In over 40 countries, IOM has increased the capacity of the government to manage health issues associated with migration and improved the monitoring of migrants’ health data. This is crucial to reach a better understanding on migrants’ health and needs, encourage equitable access to health services for migrants, monitor the implementation of relevant policies and work toward policy coherence.

In addition, IOM provided training and consultations on migration and health for health professionals, law enforcement officers and social workers in 59 countries, to enhance their understanding of health-related border policies and procedures and health challenges faced by migrant populations.

In 69 countries, IOM worked to directly increase migrants’ access to health services. For instance, IOM's network of seven clinics in South Sudan increased the services to vulnerable IDPs. Within six months, IOM delivered over 130,000 consultations amidst a declining economy, the breakdown of health services and continuation and escalation of violent conflict. In Lebanon, the need for primary health care support is evident: IOM continues to record over 5,000 consultations per month in the centres supported by IOM. In several countries, IOM’s vaccination and hygiene campaigns are reaching out to more migrants and their families.

IOM’s European regional project EQUI-HEALTH seeks to improve migrants’ access to health care services, health promotion and prevention to meet the needs of migrants, the Roma and other vulnerable groups in the EU/EEA. One of the project’s components, ‘Migrant Integration Policy Index’ (MIPEX) in which a health strand was added, monitors policies affecting migrant integration in all EU countries as well as Australia, Canada, Iceland, Japan, South Korea, New Zealand, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey and the USA.


IOM’s comprehensive approach to crises: IOM’s Migration Crisis Operational Framework (MCOF) continues to guide the Organization’s comprehensive approach before, during and after a crisis. Drawing on the MCOF for strategic planning ensures that immediate humanitarian and protection needs of beneficiaries are met, while efforts to address the root causes of crises, build resilience and promote long-term solutions are simultaneously underway. This approach gives IOM a unique comparative advantage for strengthening action on the humanitarian and development nexus, a current priority of humanitarian reforms, and was used in 52 countries to coordinate with host governments on their crisis-related work.

Crisis preparedness: As part of IOM’s efforts to strengthen crisis preparedness, 21 of its offices in emergency-prone regions are now warehousing stocks of non-food items. 13 Further, at least 15 offices14 have signed long-term agreements with NFI suppliers to access the highest quality of items for the lowest costs. In Myanmar and Ecuador IOM delivered training to government officials and partners on the Mend Guide: Comprehensive Guide for Planning Mass Evacuations in Natural Disasters in 2016. IOM also provided training on CCCM (mostly natural disaster contexts) DTM, Shelter, and GBV mainstreaming, to governments, humanitarian partners throughout 2016. CCCM training aims to strengthen the ability of partners and national and local authorities to respond to new disasters, migration situations and disaster risk reduction and took place in 45 countries.15 In addition, 34 IOM offices have developed a contingency plan, a third of which were co-written by the host governments. Emergency response: In 2016, IOM has supported humanitarian operations in more than 77 countries, which includes the ongoing three system wide Level-3 emergencies: Iraq, Syria and Yemen as well as those considered internal L3s (South Sudan and Nigeria). IOM’s emergency response continues to be timely and efficient. IOM deployed rapid response officers to 46 different locations, and for capacity building to 34 destinations.

In 2016, IOM was active in CCCM in at least 46 countries. As Global CCCM Cluster co-lead with UNHCR, IOM contributed to the finalization of a five-year strategy was (2017 – 2021), which aims at equitable access to assistance, protection, and services, and improving quality of life and dignity for people during displacement, while seeking and advocating for durable solutions worldwide. Health support is essential in humanitarian contexts, and throughout 2016, IOM supported humanitarian health assistance in 19 countries.

IOM continued to have a major role in interagency Shelter and NFI coordination, leading or co-leading clusters, working groups and housing recovery platforms in 24 countries. IOM provided shelter and NFI assistance to 4.65 million people in 2016. Highlights include the response to hurricane Matthew in Haiti and the management of a common pipeline for NFI and shelter materials for the response in South Sudan, and in Iraq.

IOM has a growing portfolio of WASH programming, assisting 3.33 million people in 30 countries in 2016. This includes 1.27 million people with access to safe water, 438,000 with safe latrines, 546,000 people with sanitations activities and 1.63 million people benefitting from hygiene promotion activities.

Throughout 2016, IOM positioned the Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) as a central component for informing humanitarian responses. DTM has become a key humanitarian data reference for governments, partners and the humanitarian community more broadly. In 2016, it became the second largest data provider for conflict-related figures for the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center’s Global Report, and one of the top five contributors of data for OCHA’s Humanitarian Data Exchange platform. DTM was active in 44 countries in 2016.

Stabilization, post-crisis transition and recovery: Through the development of its Progressive Resolution to Displacement Situations (PRDS) Framework, IOM has forged new ground in applying a mobility lens to support progression towards sustainable solutions. IOM’s inclusive approach focuses on strengthening coping capacities and promoting self-reliance as well as creating environments conducive to the resolution of displacement situations. IOM’s community stabilization efforts continued to play a key role in over 40 countries to prevent or mitigate recurrence of displacement drivers in crisis or fragile contexts. In pursuit of sustainable post-conflict DDR efforts, IOM supports the reintegration of ex-combatants in Colombia, while investing in the prevention of youth recruitment. The successful sustainability of these programmes are largely due to the close engagement with host communities. IOM provided electoral assistance and supported election observation missions in Uganda, Guinea and Haiti. IOM also worked on Disaster Risk Reduction in 8 countries. Reparations programmes are instrumental to cohesive communities. IOM has contributed to Colombia’s development plans which now include policies, actions, and/or earmarked budgets for victims.

Resettlement and Movement Management: Moving vulnerable migrants and refugees to safety is a core function of the Organization. Whether to mitigate the consequences of forced displacement or maximize the benefits of planned migration, IOM's movement operations continue to grow in complexity and scope. Overall in 2016, IOM facilitated the resettlement of over 204,900 refugees and other vulnerable persons of concern though a variety of humanitarian pathways from 123 countries of departure.

In conclusion, these different crisis tools increase the resilience of affected populations, and in turn prevent grave and irreversible consequences to affect the sustainable development of these affected communities.


Safe and regular migration: IOM promotes safe and regular migration and supports Governments and migrants to optimize the potential of migration for the benefit of all. In 2016, 107 IOM offices were actively engaged in the promotion of safe and regular migration, by providing technical assistance to governments, pre-departure orientation to migrants, campaigns promoting safe migration among the wider public, support to migrant resources centres and contribution to programmes that facilitate migration such as circular, labour and educational migration.

During 2016, IOM provided Facilitated Migration Services to 212,226 persons. In addition, the Family Assistance Programme provided services in support of the reunification of vulnerable Syrian families to Germany, assisting over 84,000 beneficiaries. Providing safe migration channels aims to dissuade vulnerable migrants from resorting to often unscrupulous visa brokers or smugglers.

Assisted voluntary return: IOM considers assisted voluntary return and reintegration to be a humane and dignified approach to support migrants who are unwilling or unable to stay in a host or transit country and wish to return voluntarily to their country of origin.

In 2016, IOM assisted nearly 98,000 migrants (69% male, 31% female) to return home voluntarily, from 92 host countries to 150 countries of origin.

In 2016, the European Union and IOM developed a joint initiative for Migrant Protection and Reintegration, supporting the efforts of partner countries in Africa to strengthen migration management and respond to the urgent protection needs and unacceptable loss of life of migrants journeying along migration routes.

Along migration routes from the Horn of Africa, the EU and IOM are also joining forces to support the development and implementation of rights-based, sustainable return and reintegration policies through the creation of a Facility on Sustainable and Dignified Return and Reintegration in support of the Khartoum Process.

By ensuring safe and orderly migration an assisting voluntary return, IOM foster a good integration of the migrants, which prevent or reduce disruptions in the economies and societies of both the host country and the country of origin.
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