Main Milestones
Addis Ababa Action Agenda
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
Paris Agreement
SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway
High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development
United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, RIO +20: the Future We Want
Five-year review of the Mauritius Strategy of Implementation: MSI+5
BPOA+10: Mauritius Strategy of Implementation
World Summit on Sustainable (WSSD) Rio+10: Johannesburg Plan of Implementation
Bardados Programme of Action (BPOA)+5
UNGASS -19: Earth Summit +5
Bardados Programme of Action (BPOA)
Start of CSD
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development: Agenda 21
Our Common Future
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference)
Creation of UNEP
Cities and Biodiversity Outlook - Action and Policy
, 2012
by: Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

CBO – Action and Policy provides the summary of a global assessment of the links between urbanization, biodiversity, and ecosystem services. Drawing on contributions from more than 120 scientists and policy-makers from around the world, it summarizes how urbanization affects biodiversity and ecosystem services and presents 10 key messages for strengthening conservation and sustainable use of natural resources in an urban context. It also showcases best practices and lessons learned, and provides information on how to incorporate the topics of biodiversity and ecosystem services into urban agendas and policies. CBO – Action and Policy emphasize challenges and opportunities in rapidly urbanizing developing countries. A workshop in Cape Town in February 2012 was specifically organized to bring together urban planners, policymakers and scientists from many different African countries to inform about current and future urban developments in Africa. The Aichi Biodiversity Targets (see Appendix 1) highlighted throughout the key messages reinforce the mission of the CBD’s Strategic Plan to “take effective and urgent action to halt the loss of biodiversity.”

This volume was developed in parallel with and builds upon the more detailed scientific analysis and assessment titled Global Urbanization, Biodiversity, and Ecosystems – Challenges and Opportunities, scheduled to be published in 2013. Both publications are a collaborative effort of the CBD and the Stockholm Resilience Centre of Stockholm University, with significant input from ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability.

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