Women in Business and Management. Gaining the Momentum- Global Report
International Labour Organization, 2015
In 2001, the ILO published a report called “Breaking through the Glass Ceiling: Women in Management,” which looked at why women were not being appointed to top jobs despite their active participation in the labour market.
Since the report was published, women have swelled the ranks of middle and senior management in the public and private sectors. But there are still very few women being appointed to the top jobs. The larger the company, the less likely the CEO will be a woman: Only a small per cent of CEOs of the world’s largest corporations are women. Yet, the world of work has changed dramatically in the last generation. Women now hold over 40 per cent of jobs worldwide, though often at lower pay.
They also run a third of all businesses, although concentrated in micro and small enterprises. In most regions, women are surpassing men with degrees at bachelor’s (first degree) and master’s (second degree) levels. They are fast catching up in doctoral degrees, but still lag behind as researchers and in areas such as engineering and information technology. Women’s purchasing power has shot up and women often control household budgets and financial decisions. They are significant consumers and clients. It has even been said that globally, women represent the third billion after China and India in terms of emerging markets.