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Main Milestones
The Ocean Conference
Addis Ababa Action Agenda
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
Paris Agreement
SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway
High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development
United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, RIO +20: the Future We Want
Five-year review of the Mauritius Strategy of Implementation: MSI+5
BPOA+10: Mauritius Strategy of Implementation
World Summit on Sustainable (WSSD) Rio+10: Johannesburg Plan of Implementation
Bardados Programme of Action (BPOA)+5
UNGASS -19: Earth Summit +5
Bardados Programme of Action (BPOA)
Start of CSD
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development: Agenda 21
Our Common Future
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference)
Creation of UNEP
Frozen Heat - A Global Outlook on Methane Gas Hydrates (Vol. One)
UNEP, 2014
Methane gas hydrates are solid, ice-like combinations of methane and water (Fig. I.1) that are stable under conditions of relatively high pressure and low temperature. Gas hydrates contain most of the world’s methane and account for roughly a third of the world’s mobile organic carbon. Because gas hydrates tend to occur in relatively inaccessible and harsh polar and marine environments, they were not studied extensively until recently. For more than a century after their first creation in the lab by scientists in the early 1800s, gas hydrates were considered an academic curiosity, with no meaningful occurrence in nature. In the 1930s, they were recognized as an industrial hazard forming blockages in oil and gas pipelines.
In the late 1960s, scientists in Russia inferred their occurrence in nature. However, it wasn’t until after a series
of deep-ocean scientific drilling expeditions in the late 1970s and early 1980s that the abundance of gas hydrates in the natural environment was widely recognized

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