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Main Milestones
2017
The Ocean Conference
2015
Addis Ababa Action Agenda
Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction
Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development
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2014
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2013
High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development
2012
United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, RIO +20: the Future We Want
2010
Five-year review of the Mauritius Strategy of Implementation: MSI+5
2005
BPOA+10: Mauritius Strategy of Implementation
2002
World Summit on Sustainable (WSSD) Rio+10: Johannesburg Plan of Implementation
1999
Bardados Programme of Action (BPOA)+5
1997
UNGASS -19: Earth Summit +5
1994
Bardados Programme of Action (BPOA)
1993
Start of CSD
1992
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development: Agenda 21
1987
Our Common Future
1972
United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm Conference)
Creation of UNEP
The State of City Climate Finance
United Nations, 2015
The State of City Climate Finance report makes five recommendations for mobilizing investment in low-emission, climate-resilient urban infrastructure. The report analyzes the obstacles that many cities face in obtaining the financing they need, including uncertainty over regulatory and tax policies, lack of expertise in project development, lack of control over infrastructure planning, high transaction costs and lack of proven funding models at the city and regional level.

“Major investment is urgently needed for climate action in cities,” said Mr. Ban, “and the recommendations in this report, if put into place, can help unlock the capital needed. We know these solutions can work – they just need to be scaled up. I urge governments, banks and the international community to act on these practical recommendations.”

Climate action in cities is crucial to addressing the global climate threat. Urban areas account for over 70% of energy-related CO2 emissions, and the world’s cities produce almost half (37-49%) of all global greenhouse gas emissions. Cities are also on the front lines of climate impacts and urgently need to build resilience. More than 80% of the overall annual global costs of adaption to climate change are estimated to be borne by urban areas, according to the World Bank.

The study was issued by the Cities Climate Finance Leadership Alliance, a coalition of over 40 banks, national governments and civil society organizations launched by Mr. Ban at the Climate Summit he convened in September 2014.

The aim of the Alliance is to accelerate investment in low-emission, climate resilient infrastructure in cities, and to close the investment gap in urban areas over the next fifteen years. Alliance members are working on a plan to help translate the report recommendations into action.

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