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This study is part of the Sustainable Development in the 21st century (SD21) project. The project is
implemented by the Division for Sustainable Development of the United Nations Department of
Economic and Social Affairs and funded by the European Commission - Directorate-General for
Environment - Thematic Programme for Environment and sustainable management of Natural Resources,
including energy (ENRTP).
Acknowledgements: The study was carried out by Mark Howells, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH),
Sweden, and R. Alexander Roehrl (UN DESA). The author extends his gratitude to the experts quoted in
sections 3 and 4; David le Blanc (UN DESA); independent consultant Lucille Langlois; as well as Oliver
Broad, Yu Sheng Lan, Dayo Adegbaiye, Usman Hassan Syed, Rochelle Morrison, Ahmad Zulifqar and
Rebecka Sergerström (KTH).
Disclaimer: This publication was produced with the assistance of the European Union. The contents of
this publication are the sole responsibility of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social
Affairs and can in no way be taken to reflect the views of the European Union. Similarly, the views
expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the United
Nations or its senior management.
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