- Rapid growth (SDG 8) is the key weapon in any country’s arsenal for combating poverty. On the one hand, it creates well-paid jobs that empower households by giving them necessary purchasing power to access food, clothing, housing, education and health. On the other, it places ever-rising revenues in the hands of the Government to finance social spending. India has continued its programme of economic reforms to achieve sustained rapid growth. The reforms have included fiscal consolidation, inflation targeting, improved governance all around, accelerated infrastructure development (SDG 9), curbing of corruption (SDG 16), Aadhaar Act, Insolvency and Bankruptcy Act, Goods and Services Tax (GST), further liberalization of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), closure of sick Public Sector Units and much more. The result has been that, today, India is the fastest growing large economy in the world. It grew 7.9 per cent during fiscal year 2015-16 and 7.1 per cent during 2016-17. Growth has brought increased volume of revenues, which have permitted the Government to sustain a high-level of social spending that directly targets poverty, as described immediately below.
- An important strategy for achieving this goal is focused on generating meaningful employment by developing agricultural infrastructure, productive assets and entrepreneurship-based livelihood opportunities. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA), which is sometimes described as the world’s largest cash transfer programme, has generated over 2 billion person-days’ of employment (SDG 8) during the last year. It has helped reduce extreme poverty as well as enhance the infrastructure and purchasing power in rural areas. The benefits have largely been reaped by women (SDG 5) and disadvantaged sections of society (SDG 10). Similarly, the Deen Dayal Antyodaya Yojana-National Livelihoods Mission provides skilled employment to marginalized communities.
- Further, two major programmes, the Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana and Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana, provide access to life and accident insurance for 130 million subscribers for nominal annual premiums. Additionally, initiatives like the Atal Pension Yojana and the National Social Assistance Programme provide pension to workers in the unorganized sector, widows and the differently abled.
- Another crucial strategy for eliminating poverty is ensuring access to basic services. In the area of education, there is a National Mission, which is focused on providing universal access to quality primary education. Moreover, the Right to Education Act has established an effective legal framework entitling all children (6-14 years) to free and compulsory education based on principles of equity and non-discrimination. Similarly, the National Health Mission and the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) initiatives strive to provide access to primary health care and nutrition for the population.
- India is committed to ensuring housing for all by 2022. To enable the achievement of this objective, the Prime Minister’s Housing Scheme provides direct financial assistance to poor households.
- For fulfilling the cooking fuel requirements of the population in an environmentally friendly manner, the Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana, launched in 2016, aims to provide Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) to poor families with initial financial support for accessing a connection. The programme has enabled the provision of more than 20 million LPG connections since its launch a year ago.
- Providing access to adequate and safe drinking water as well as sanitation is crucial. Under the National Rural Drinking Water Programme, more than 77% of the rural habitations have been fully covered with 40 litres of drinking water per capita on a daily basis. The objective of the Clean India Movement is to ensure an Open Defecation Free India by 2019. Over the last two years, more than 39 million household toilets have been constructed. Moreover, 193,000 villages and 531 cities have been successful in ending the practice of open defecation. The Movement also focuses on bringing about sustained behaviour change through the engagement of a range of stakeholders, including religious and political leaders.
- Programmes under the National Food Security Act cover more than 800 million people in the country. The Public Distribution System, for instance, is one of the largest food security initiatives in the world. In recognition of empirical evidence that women pay greater attention to household security, the Government has chosen to issue ration cards in the name of the senior most female member of the household. Other initiatives that contribute to this goal are the ICDS and the Mid-Day Meal Programme. The latter provides nutritious cooked meals to 100 million children in primary schools.
- Governance reforms are being undertaken for improving the effectiveness of food security programmes. These include digitization of ration cards, leveraging Aadhaar for authenticated delivery of benefits and an online grievance redressal mechanism.
- Further, the National Mission on Sustainable Agriculture in collaboration with other stakeholders is implementing climate change adaptation strategies for sustaining agricultural productivity. Since 2014, the land under organic farming has increased to 200,000 ha. Additionally, over 62 million Soil Health Cards, with crop-wise nutrient management advisories, have been issued.
- Moreover, a comprehensive plan is being implemented for doubling farmers’ income by 2022. This includes expediting tenancy reforms, promoting crop diversification and expanding micro-irrigation (1.3 million ha covered during the last two years).
- Another area in which considerable progress has been made is digitization of agricultural marketing. The electronic National Agricultural Marketing platform now covers 250 Mandis (agricultural markets) across the country. A revamped crop insurance programme, the Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana, has also been launched.
- Beyond increasing access, several initiatives are also being taken for improving the quality of health services. These include the development of a composite index and an award for ensuring a hygienic environment in Government health facilities.
- The National Health Policy, 2017, specifies targets for universalizing primary health care, reducing infant and under-5 mortality, preventing premature deaths due to non-communicable diseases as well as increasing Government expenditure on health.
- To tackle the death of children due to vaccine-preventable diseases and the risk due to incomplete immunization, the Government is aiming to provide vaccination against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, tuberculosis, polio, measles and hepatitis to all unimmunized or partially immunized children by 2020.
- As a step towards achieving universal health coverage, the Government of India has announced a health insurance cover to the tune of INR 100,000 (USD 1,563) for families below the poverty line.
- Several important initiatives have been taken during the last few years for promoting gender equality. A flagship initiative is Beti Bachao Beti Padao (Save the Girl Child Educate the Girl Child), under which State Governments are implementing a range of measures suited to their local contexts to elevate the status of the girl child.
- Additionally, a Maternity Benefit Programme has been launched for all pregnant and lactating mothers. Through conditional cash transfer, it protects women from wage loss during the first six months after childbirth.
- For raising the levels of female labour force participation, a number of initiatives are being implemented including Stand-up India and MGNREGA. The Women Empowerment Campaign is another effort focused on enabling digital literacy and gainful employment opportunities.
- Further, Women Empowerment Centres are being established for providing comprehensive services at the village-level.
- All forms of transportation -- roads, railways, civil aviation and waterways -- are being rapidly expanded. Road connectivity and electricity are being brought to all villages.
- The objective of the Digital India initiative is to build a digitally empowered society by focusing on broadband highways, mobile connectivity and Internet as well as e-Governance. For example, the Bharat Broadband Network Ltd has provided high-speed connectivity to 18,434 local village councils, thus far. Till December 2016, there were 432 million internet users in the country.
- Another priority area is manufacturing. The new Manufacturing Policy raises the output target from 16% of GDP to 25% by 2025. India is developing into a high-tech and global manufacturing hub because of the emphasis on ‘Make in India’ and a substantial increase in FDI inflows.
- The Government has also introduced a number of policy measures for boosting employment-intensive manufacturing segments. For instance, the recently introduced Pradhan Mantri MUDRA Yojana provides easy credit ranging from INR 50,000 to 1 million (USD 780 to 15,600) to small-scale business entrepreneurs. A major package announced for the textiles industry aims to create hundreds of thousands of jobs in this sector.
- For promoting entrepreneurship and enhancing economic growth, the Government has launched the Start-up India programme. Innovation and entrepreneurship is also being encouraged through initiatives like the Atal Innovation Mission. Additionally, NITI Aayog has launched the India Innovation Index for ranking innovations in the country.
- Several strategies have been put in place for realizing the Blue Revolution in the country. These include strengthening marine research, developing an eco-friendly marine industrial and technology base as well as implementing the National Fisheries Action Plan.
- Significant progress has been made with respect to preservation and management of the marine ecosystem. For instance, the Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System tracks the levels of marine pollution along the coastline. Additionally, the Online Oil Spill Advisory System enhances the effectiveness of the national response to marine oil spills. India is also implementing the revised National Oil Spill Disaster Contingency Plan.
- Further, the Sagarmala programme is focused on improving port connectivity, port-linked industrialization and coastal community development. Under this initiative, support is also provided for the development of deep sea fishing vessels and fish processing centres.
- A revitalized global partnership is crucial for the achievement of the SDGs. India is committed to taking measurable actions for implementing the SDG agenda. We also reaffirm the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities. This is important because while efforts at raising resources domestically will help India move closer to the attainment of the SDGs, they are unlikely to result in sufficient revenues. Therefore, we reiterate that the developed countries have an essential obligation to provide financial assistance to the developing countries, especially for global public goods such as climate change mitigation and control of pandemics, so that they can fully achieve the SDGs. International cooperation is also essential for curbing illicit financial flows, defining aid unambiguously and establishing robust systems for monitoring commitments made by donor countries.
- For increasing the domestic mobilization of resources, a path-breaking tax reform agenda is being finalized. This includes direct tax reforms as well as the GST, a uniform and simplified form of indirect taxation. An innovative tax like the Swachh Bharat Cess (Clean India Cess) has also been levied for mobilizing resources for the Clean India Campaign.
- Additionally, implementation of the budget responsibility legislation is ensuring predictable and sustainable budgeting as well as long-term debt sustainability.
- Financing of sustainable sources of energy is being promoted to provide energy for all by 2022 through a massive 150 GW increase in energy from renewables. Enhanced international cooperation is also being fostered through the leadership of the International Solar Alliance.
- Further, consistent policies have opened up the economy to FDI. This has resulted in $156 billion FDI flow during the last three fiscal years. The flow of $56 billion in the latest fiscal year has been larger than that in any other year.
- The 14th Finance Commission award is being implemented to substantially enhance fiscal devolution to States (from 32% to 42% of the central pool of tax proceeds) and Local Governments. This is enabling a significant spurt in development interventions designed and implemented independently by sub-national Governments.
- Enhancing development cooperation with neighbouring and other countries of the global South brings India’s innovation and expertise to the service of these countries. For instance, launching of the South Asia Satellite will lead to sharing of valuable data with neighbouring countries including Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Maldives and Afghanistan.
Deputy Permanent Representative
Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations New York
Mr. Manish Chauhan
Joint Secretary (UNES)
Ministry of External Affairs
Government of India
Jawaharlal Nehru Bhawan
The National Policy on Marine Fisheries 2017 of Government of India provides for several schemes for small fishermen to enhance their skill and livelihood and to provide accidental insurance to them and their families. Activities undertaken under the National Scheme of Welfare of Fishermen aim to enhance livelihood and quality of life of small fishermen below poverty line. As part of the scheme, grant-in-aid is provided for the development of model fishermen villages with basic amenities like housing, drinking water, sanitation, community hall building etc. The scheme also includes a group...[more]
Over 90% of the world cargo is mobilized trans-oceanically and nearly 10 billion tones of ballast water is filled at one part of the ocean and discharged at the other. In doing so it introduces vide range of living organisms, including pathogens, into alien regions, usually along the coasts of the continents. These organisms can establish and invade an environment, if found suitable and pose economic and human health hazards. Many cases of marine bio-invasion have been reported and their harmful effects on the ecosystem and human health have been documented. Therefore marine bio-invasion has b...[more]
Launched in October 2009, the 12.5-kilometer (7.8-mile) Phase 1 corridor has proven to be popular with citizens, and ridership remains higher than on the previous bus system. Source: Institute for Transportation & Development Policy Since opening, the system has expanded to 31 km (19.3 mi) and ridership has more than doubled to nearly 60,000 passengers per day. Over 40 percent of the passengers switched from motorized two- and three- wheelers, while the remainder switched from the existing city bus service. ITDP, in partnership with CEPT University, assisted the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporatio...[more]
As part of India's commitment to international cooperation, especially south-south cooperation, India has been sharing its expertise and experience on oceanography with our partner countries. In the Indian Ocean region, the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (ESSO-INCOIS) is one of the few centres providing value added and comprehensive ocean-service products to a vast array of users (from fishermen folk to marine industries). INCOIS relies heavily on advances in satellite oceanography, modeling capabilities, and vast in-situ observation networks. INCOIS focus areas are m...[more]
South Asia Co-operative Environment Programme (SACEP) is an inter-governmental Organization, established in 1982 by Governments of the eight South Asian countries to promote and support protection, management and enhancement of the environment in the region. Countries, namely; Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka have ratified the articles of Association of SACEP. It is also registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations as Multilateral Organization in accordance with under the Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations. SACEP has its hea...[more]
India initiated its Arctic Research Program in 2007 with thrust on climate change in the circumpolar north. The major objectives of the Indian Research in Arctic Region are as follows:  To study the hypothesized tele-connections between the Arctic climate and the Indian monsoon by analyzing the sediment and ice core records from the Arctic glaciers and the Arctic Ocean.  To characterize sea ice in Arctic using satellite data to estimate the effect of global warming in the northern polar region.  To conduct research on the dynamics and mass budget of Arcti...[more]
India is using remote sensing space technology for specific mapping applications of oceans and seas. India is one the few countries which have built and launched satellites specifically for Ocean applications. OceanSat-I or IRS-P4 and Oceansat-II were designed to and launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) to study oceans and the linkages between oceans and atmosphere. The applications of these satellites included : Sea-state forecast: waves, circulation and ocean MLD (Mixed Layer Depth); Monsoon and cyclone forecast - medium and extended range; Observation of Antarctic ...[more]
India's coastline is over 7500 km long, of which around 5400 km is in mainland and over 2000 km is in the Andaman & Nicobar and Lakshadweep islands. India's coastline supports more than 30% of its population. Coastal fisheries are linked to economic and environmental health. Coastal vegetation habitats are important for the health of coastal ecological systems through their modulation of land-ocean modulation, providing nutrients for marine life, supporting biodiversity and preventing salt intrusion into ground water. Well managed coastal beaches can also promote sustainable economic developme...[more]
Development of Early Warning System, Science based fishing to lower cost and diesel consumption, establish two way communication for capturing observations and feedback. Partnership approach to take research output to last mile. Also looking at deep sea communication methods. We have developed an ICT platform for fishermen to help them get the information on Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ), Wind Speed and Direction, Wave height, etc. PFZ helps them to decide the nearest location where they should go for fishing and if the location is not nearby, the fishermen tend to avoid go for the fishin...[more]
The IHO capacity building programme seeks to assess and advise on how countries can best meet their international obligations and serve their own best interests by providing appropriate hydrographic and nautical charting services. Such services directly support safety of navigation, safety of life at sea, efficient sea transportation and the wider use of the seas and oceans in a sustainable way, including the protection of the marine environment, coastal zone management, fishing, marine resource exploration and exploitation, maritime boundary delimitation, maritime defence and security, and o...[more]
India is spending over US $ 3.5 billion each year on health services, with substantial expenditure on services aimed towards women’s and children’s health. Currently, India is focusing on strengthening its efforts in the 264 districts that account for nearly 70% of all infant and maternal deaths. Between now and 2015, India will provide technical assistance to other countries and share its experience, and will support the creation of a platform for global knowledge management to oversee the dissemination of best practices.
More than 30% of India's population lives along its more than 7500 km long coastline. Fishing is a major economic activity and India is the third largest producer of fish and second largest producer of inland fish. Locating and catching fish is always a challenging task. India's scientists dealing with marine sciences, remote sensing and fishery science have collaborated to develop a technique to use the remotely sensed sea surface temperature (SST) to identify the locations of fish aggregation. The Potential Fishing Zone (PFZ) as a proxy to potential shoals of fish aggregation will benefit...[more]
The Agenda 21 adopted by UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992 emphasised the need to adopt the concept of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) for sustainable utilisation of coastal and marine resources and prevention of degradation of marine environment. This is best achieved through integration of activities prevalent in the land, coastal and marine areas. Monitoring the health of coastal sea is essential to assess the status of environmental quality and to alert government and public institutions for their implications relating to fisheries and other human rela...[more]
As a highly vulnerable city to major natural disasters, Mumbai has experienced several major extreme weather events within the past decade that have effectively brought the city to a standstill and caused severe human and economic losses. In response to the growing need for a contingency plan, the city of Mumbai drafted the Disaster Risk Management Master Plan that outlines the city's commitment to mitigating future risk and damages that could potentially result through future natural disasters. Source: Shanghai Manual: A Guide for Sustainable Urban Development in the 21st Century (2010) ...[more]
India's National Action Plan on Climate Change from 2008 is integrated into its 5-year development planning cycles. Source: The National Action Plan on Climate Change identifies measures that promote India's development objectives while also yielding co-benefits for addressing climate change effectively. It outlines a number of steps to simultaneously advance India's development and climate change-related objectives of adaptation and mitigation. There are Eight National Missions which form the core of the National Action Plan, representing multi-pronged, long-term and integrated strategies f...[more]
India's Natural Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) launched in 2006, is a Guaranteed Wage Employment program implemented by the Ministry of Rural Development. In its first two-and-a-half years, NREGA generated more than 3.5 billion days of work reaching on average 30 million families per year. Source: World Resources Institute (2011) A Compilation of Green Economy Policies, Programs, and Initiatives from Around the World. The Green Economy in Practice: Interactive Workshop 1, February 11th, 2011 Natural Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) promotes wage employment and natural resource m...[more]
India has a comprehensive and ambitious ocean observing system in the seas around India for acquisition of multidisciplinary data with a view to contributing to scientific knowledge of the oceanographic process of the Indian Ocean. These are being achieved through national contribution and international coordination. The primary purpose of accurate measurements of ocean parameters also contributes to a wide range of operational services including issue of early warnings. These observation systems have been deployed in various parts of the Indian Ocean through national program and internati...[more]
The Ministry of Shipping of Government of India has started Project Green Ports which will help in making the Major Ports across India cleaner and greener and promote environmentally sustainable economic growth. Project Green Ports has two verticals - one is Green Ports Initiatives related to environmental issues and second is Swachh Bharat Abhiyaan (Clean India Initiative). The Green Port Initiatives include twelve initiatives which will be implemented under strict time bound fashion in order to achieve the targets. Some of these initiatives are acquiring equipments required for monito...[more]
Coastal community development is a key component of the ambitious Project Sagarmala (port-led development) launched by the Government of India that has direct benefit to the small and artisanal fishermen. The development of coastal community is a critical area in India as 18% of Indias population lives in 73 coastal districts. Major approaches adopted by Government of India for skill development of coastal community to create jobs for them include:  Promoting skill training programmes for job roles related to ports and maritime sector,  Promoting skill training an...[more]
As part of its continuing commitment to sharing its expertise and experience with fellow developing countries in a spirit of south-south cooperation, India has extensive cooperation with SIDS and several ocean littoral countries in the area of Hydrography surveys. In recent years, detailed hydrographic surveys of the waters of Mauritius and Seychelles have been carried out following signing of bilateral MOUs on Hydrography with both these countries. India has assisted Mauritius in the setting up of the Mauritian National Hydrographic unit. Such cooperative efforts have resulted in updating o...[more]
Fisheries is the fastest growing food producing sector in the world with a great potential to meet the food, especially protein requirement of a large number of population. With an annual growth rate of above 7 per cent, India is the second largest producer of fish from aquaculture in the world. The National Policy on Marine Fisheries 2017 has sustainability of the resources at the core of all actions. The policy framework aims to meet the national, social and economic goals, livelihood sustainability and socio-economic upliftment of the fisher community and is intended to guide the coordina...[more]
The world population is living, working, vacationing, increasingly conglomerating along the coasts, and standing on the front row of the greatest, most unprecedented, plastic waste tide ever faced. Every year, 8 million metric tons of plastic end up in our oceans. There is particular concern in India about the amount of plastic waste it produces which is responsible to impact from the whale, sea lions, and birds to the microscopic organisms called zooplankton. It assumes significance because plastic debris has an impact on oceans, wildlife, and, potentially, humans through the food chain. wea...[more]
In the aftermath of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, India cooperated with partners in Asia and Africa to establish a regional early warning system within a multi-hazard framework for the generation and communication of early warning information, and capacity building for preparedness and response to trans-boundary hazards. The Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early warning Systems (RIMES) was established in 2009, and registered with the United Nations on 1 July 2009. RIMES operates from its regional early warning center located at the campus of the Asian Institute of Technology in Pathumthani...[more]
India has longstanding tradition of south-south cooperation with fellow developing countries, especially LDCs and Small Island Developing States (SIDS). This cooperation spans a vast range of development partnership activities (including renewable energy, infrastructure, disaster risk reduction, agriculture, fisheries). The Government of India has substantially increased its financial support to SIDS and has pledged a sum of US$ 500 million in grant-in-aid and US$ 1 billion in soft loans over the next three years to SIDS. During the last three years the Government of India has contributed a ...[more]
The great Sumatra earthquake (Mw 9.3) of 26th December, 2004, was rated as the worlds second largest recorded earthquake. This earthquake generated a devastating tsunami, which caused unprecedented loss of life and damage to property in the Indian Ocean rim countries. The tsunami was considered as one of the deadliest natural hazards in the history, killing over 230,000 people in fourteen countries. In India it claimed an estimated more than 10,000 lives. The Ministry of Earth Sciences took up the responsibility of establishing the Indian Tsunami Early Warning System (ITEWS). The ITEWS was es...[more]