skip to main content
Decisions by Topic: Disaster risk reduction
A/70/472/Add.3 - International Strategy for Disaster Reduction: Report of the Second Committee

III. Recommendations of the Second Committee

13. The Second Committee recommends to the General Assembly the adoption of the following draft resolutions:

Draft resolution I

World Tsunami Awareness Day

The General Assembly,

1. Decides to designate 5 November as World Tsunami Awareness Day;

2. Invites all Member States, organizations of the United Nations system, other international and regional organizations, as well as civil society, including non-governmental organizations and individuals, to observe World Tsunami Awareness Day in an appropriate manner and in accordance with national priorities, in order to raise public awareness of the risk caused by tsunamis;

3. Requests the secretariat of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, in collaboration with relevant organizations of the United Nations system, mindful of the provisions of the annex to Economic and Social Council
resolution 1980/67, to facilitate the observance of World Tsunami Awareness Day, and stresses that the cost of all activities that may arise from the implementation of the present resolution should be met from voluntary contributions.

Draft Resolution II,

The General Assembly,

2. Urges the effective implementation of the Sendai Declaration and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030;

7. Calls upon all relevant actors to work towards the achievement of the seven global targets agreed in the Sendai Framework;

11. Decides to give due consideration to the review of the global progress in the implementation of the Sendai Framework as part of the integrated and coordinated follow-up processes to United Nations conferences and summits, aligned with the Economic and Social Council, the high-level political forum on sustainable development and the quadrennial comprehensive policy review cycles, as appropriate, taking into account the contributions of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction and regional platforms for disaster risk reduction and the updated monitoring tool based on the Hyogo Framework for Action Monitor;

19. Requests the Secretary-General, in this regard, to review the requirements for the United Nations system to support the implementation of the Sendai Framework, and to include the findings in his report to the General Assembly at its seventy-first session, as requested in paragraph 22 of the present resolution, within existing resources;

22. Requests the Secretary-General to submit to the General Assembly at its seventy-first session a report on the implementation of the present resolution, and decides to include, under the item entitled “Sustainable development”, a sub -item entitled “Disaster risk reduction” in the provisional agenda of its seventy-first session, unless otherwise agreed in the discussions on the revitalization of the Second Committee


A/RES/70/1 - Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere

1.5 By 2030 build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations, and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable
agriculture

2.4 By 2030 ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase
productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate
change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters, and that progressively improve land and soil quality

Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

3.d Strengthen the capacity of all countries, particularly developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction, and
management of national and global health risks

Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning
opportunities for all

4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent,
inclusive and effective learning environments for all

Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

6.6 By 2020 protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster
innovation

9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and trans-border infrastructure,
to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all
9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial,
technological and technical support to African countries, LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS

Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
11.5 By 2030 significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of affected people and decrease by% the
economic losses relative to GDP caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with the focus on protecting
the poor and people in vulnerable situations
11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air
quality, municipal and other waste management
11.b By 2020, increase by x% the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, develop and implement in line with the forthcoming Hyogo Framework holistic disaster risk management at all levels
11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, for sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*

13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies, and planning
13.3 Improve education, awareness raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction, and early warning

Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable
development
14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts,
including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration, to achieve healthy and productive
oceans

Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt biodiversity loss

15.1 By 2020 ensure conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international
agreements
15.3 By 2020, combat desertification, and restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification,
drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land-degradation neutral world

* Acknowledging that the UNFCCC is the primary international, intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change.


A/RES/69/313- Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development (Addis Ababa Action Agenda)

51. We recognize that small island developing States continue to grapple with the effects of disasters, some of which have increased in intensity and some of which have been exacerbated by climate change, which impede their progress towards sustainable development. We also recognize that disasters can disproportionately affect small island developing States and that there is a critical need to build resilience, strengthen monitoring and prevention, reduce vulnerability, raise awareness and increase preparedness to respond to and recover from disasters.

52. In consideration of the special case of small island developing States and their unique and particular vulnerabilities, we are committed to supporting their efforts:

(a) To gain access to technical assistance and financing for early warning systems, disaster risk reduction and post-disaster response and recovery, risk assessment and data, land use and planning, observation equipment, disaster preparedness and recovery education programmes, including under the Global Framework for Climate Services, and disaster risk management;

(b) To promote cooperation and investment in disaster risk management in the public and private sectors;

(c) To strengthen and support contingency planning and provisions for disaster preparedness and response, emergency relief and population evacuation, in particular for people in vulnerable situations, women and girls, displaced persons, children, older persons and people with disabilities;

(d) To implement the Hyogo Framework for Action and work for an ambitious renewed international framework for post-2015 disaster risk reduction that builds on previous achievements, prioritizes prevention and mitigation and incorporates implementation frameworks to address implementation gaps if and when they exist;

(e) To mainstream policies and programmes related to disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and development, as appropriate;

(f) To harmonize national and regional reporting systems, where applicable, to increase synergies and coherence;

(g) To establish and strengthen risk insurance facilities at the national and regional levels and place disaster risk management and building resilience at the centre of policies and strategies, where applicable;

(h) To increase participation in international and regional disaster risk reduction initiatives.


A/68/970 - Open Working Group of the General Assembly on Sustainable Development Goals

Goal 1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere

1.5 By 2030 build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations, and reduce their exposure and vulnerability
to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

Goal 2. End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable
agriculture


2.4 By 2030 ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase
productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate
change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters, and that progressively improve land and soil quality

Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

3.d Strengthen the capacity of all countries, particularly developing countries, for early warning, risk reduction, and
management of national and global health risks

Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote life-long learning
opportunities for all

4.a Build and upgrade education facilities that are child, disability and gender sensitive and provide safe, non-violent,
inclusive and effective learning environments for all

Goal 6. Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all

6.6 By 2020 protect and restore water-related ecosystems, including mountains, forests, wetlands, rivers, aquifers and lakes

Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster
innovation

9.1 Develop quality, reliable, sustainable and resilient infrastructure, including regional and trans-border infrastructure,
to support economic development and human well-being, with a focus on affordable and equitable access for all

9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial,
technological and technical support to African countries, LDCs, LLDCs and SIDS


Goal 11. Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage
11.5 By 2030 significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of affected people and decrease by% the
economic losses relative to GDP caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with the focus on protecting
the poor and people in vulnerable situations
11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air
quality, municipal and other waste management
11.b By 2020, increase by x% the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, develop and implement in line with the forthcoming Hyogo Framework holistic disaster risk management at all levels
11.c Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, for sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*

13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate related hazards and natural disasters in all countries
13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies, and planning
13.3 Improve education, awareness raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction, and early warning

Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable
development

14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts,
including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration, to achieve healthy and productive
oceans

Goal 15. Protect, restore and promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, sustainably
manage forests, combat desertification, and halt and reverse land degradation and halt
biodiversity loss

15.1 By 2020 ensure conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international
agreements
15.3 By 2020, combat desertification, and restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification,
drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land-degradation neutral world


A/RES/66/288 - The Future We Want

186. We reaffirm our commitment to the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters and call for States, the United Nations system, the international financial institutions, subregional, regional and international organizations and civil society to accelerate implementation of the Framework and the achievement of its goals. We call for disaster risk reduction and the building of resilience to disasters to be addressed with a renewed sense of urgency in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication, and, as appropriate, to be integrated into policies, plans, programmes and budgets at all levels and considered within relevant future frameworks. We invite governments at all levels as well as relevant subregional, regional and international organizations to commit to adequate, timely and predictable resources for disaster risk reduction in order to enhance the resilience of cities and communities to disasters, according to their own circumstances and capacities.


187. We recognize the importance of early warning systems as part of effective disaster risk reduction at all levels in order to reduce economic and social damages, including the loss of human life, and in this regard encourage States to integrate such systems into their national disaster risk reduction strategies and plans. We encourage donors and the international community to enhance international cooperation in support of disaster risk reduction in developing countries, as appropriate, through technical assistance, technology transfer as mutually agreed, capacity-building and training programmes. We further recognize the importance of comprehensive hazard and risk assessments, and knowledge- and information-sharing, including reliable geospatial information. We commit to undertake and strengthen in a timely manner risk assessment and disaster risk reduction instruments.

188. We stress the importance of stronger interlinkages among disaster risk reduction, recovery and long-term development planning, and call for more coordinated and comprehensive strategies that integrate disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation considerations into public and private investment, decision-making and the planning of humanitarian and development actions, in order to reduce risk, increase resilience and provide a smoother transition between relief, recovery and development. In this regard, we recognize the need to integrate a gender perspective into the design and implementation of all phases of disaster risk management.

189. We call for all relevant stakeholders, including Governments, international, regional and subregional organizations, the private sector and civil society, to take appropriate and effective measures, taking into account the three dimensions of sustainable development, including through strengthening coordination and cooperation to reduce exposure to risk for the protection of people, and infrastructure and other national assets, from the impact of disasters, in line with the Hyogo Framework for Action and any post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction.

Capacity Building (Chapter VI-C, Paragraph 280-b)

277. We emphasize the need for enhanced capacity-building for sustainable development and, this regard, we call
for the strengthening of technical and scientific cooperation, including North- South, South-South and triangular
cooperation. We reiterate the importance of human resource development, including training, the exchange
of experiences and expertise, knowledge transfer and technical assistance for capacity-building, which involves
strengthening institutional capacity, including planning, management and monitoring capacities.

278. We call for the continued and focused implementation of the Bali Strategic Plan for Technology Support and Capacity building,adopted by UNEP.

279. We encourage the participation and representation of men and women scientists and researchers from developing
and developed countries in processes related to global environmental and sustainable development assessment and
monitoring, with the purpose of enhancing national capabilities and the quality of research for policy- and decisionmaking
processes.

280. We invite all relevant agencies of the United Nations system and other relevant international organizations to support developing countries and, in particular, the least developed countries in capacity-building for developing resource efficient and inclusive economies, including through:

• Sharing sustainable practices in various economic sectors;
• Enhancing knowledge and capacity to integrate disaster risk reduction and resilience into development plans;
• Supporting North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation for the transition to a resource-efficient
economy;
• Promoting public-private partnerships.

Other DRR references in the document:

1. Sustainable cities and human settlements (Chapter V, Paragraph 135)
2. Small Island Developing States (Chapter V, Paragraph 178)
3. Climate Change (Chapter V, Paragraph 190)
4. Mountains (Chapter V, Paragraph 210)


A/CONF.219/3/Rev.1-Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries

104. The scale and impact of natural disasters has increased over recent decades, threatening hard-won
development gains.
105. Changing demographic, poor technological and socio-economic conditions, unplanned urbanization, development
within high-risk zones, underdevelopment and poor infrastructure, weak adaptive capacity, environmental degradation,
climate variability, climate change, exposure to geological hazards, competition for scarce resources, and the
impact of epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis all increase the vulnerability of least developed
countries to natural hazards.
106. Least developed countries, given their structural constraints and multiple vulnerabilities, often bear a
disproportionately heavy impact of these hazards and face the most daunting reconstruction challenges. Increased
efforts are needed to reduce disaster losses and to implement the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005- 2015 and
its successor Framework or agreement.
107. Actions by the least developed countries and their development partners will be along the following lines:
th United Nations Conference on Least Developed Countries (LDCs), Istanbul, 9-13 May 2011.2


1. Action by least developed countries
• Take appropriate and effective measures, including public awareness and preparedness, to reduce disaster
risk for the protection of people, infrastructure and other national assets from the impact of disasters in line
with the Hyogo Framework for Action;
• Promote coherence between disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation policies and
programmes, including through integrating risk reduction into national adaptation programmes of
action (NAPAs) and medium and long-term development planning;
• Encourage the decentralization of responsibility and resources for disaster risk reduction, where appropriate,
and encourage community participation, voluntary actions, awareness raising and disaster preparedness in
risk reduction programmes to better meet local needs for disaster risk reduction;
• Develop and strengthen, as appropriate, risk mitigation strategies and strengthen social protection policies
and programmes that take account of natural disasters;
• Integrate risk reduction principles into all post-disaster recovery and reconstruction.
2. Action by development partners
• Provide financial and technical assistance to least developed countries to support their disaster risk
reduction, emergency preparedness, and post-disaster reconstruction efforts, and, in this regard,
strengthen sharing of knowledge and expertise as well as transfer of technology on mutually agreed terms to
least developed countries;
• Support least developed countries to strengthen their capacity to reduce their vulnerability
to natural disasters and to benefit from regional and international early warning systems and other
information-sharing mechanisms.


A/RES/65/1 - Keeping the promise: united to achieve the Millennium Development Goals

35. We acknowledge that disaster risk reduction and increasing resilience to all types of natural hazards, including
geological and hydro-meteorological hazards, in developing countries, in line with the Hyogo Framework for Action
2005-2015: Building the Resilience of Nations and Communities to Disasters,6 can have multiplier effects and
accelerate achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Reducing vulnerabilities to these hazards is therefore
a high priority for developing countries. We recognize that small island developing States continue to grapple
Adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development progress towards sustainable development.


A/RES/65/2 - Outcome document of the High-level Review Meeting on the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States

11.Recognize that small island developing States continue to grapple with the effects of natural disasters, some
with increased intensity, including those due to climate change, which impede progress towards sustainable
development;

12.Also recognize the need to enhance and establish, if necessary, means and tools at the international level aimed
at implementing a preventive approach for natural disasters in small island developing States, reducing risks
and properly integrating risk management into development policies and programmes, including through the further
implementation of the internationally agreed framework for disaster risk reduction, the Hyogo Framework
for Action 2005–2015.5 We call upon the international community to continue to support small island developing
States in enhancing their efforts to strengthen regional and national efforts in disaster risk reduction, management
and coordination, including creating or strengthening insurance mechanisms, where appropriate, for natural and
environmental disasters in small island developing States;


A/CONF.199/20 - Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development

37. An integrated, multi-hazard, inclusive approach to address vulnerability, risk assessment and disaster
management, including prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery, is an essential element of
a safer world in the twenty-first century. Actions are required at all levels to:

• Strengthen the role of the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction and encourage the
international community to provide the necessary financial resources to its Trust Fund;

• Support the establishment of effective regional, subregional and national strategies and scientific and
technical institutional support for disaster management;

• Strengthen the institutional capacities of countries and promote international joint observation and research,
through improved surface-based monitoring and increased use of satellite data, dissemination of technical
and scientific knowledge, and the provision of assistance to vulnerable countries;

• Reduce the risks of flooding and drought in vulnerable countries by, inter alia, promoting wetland and
watershed protection and restoration, improved land-use planning, improving and applying more widely
techniques and methodologies for assessing the potential adverse effects of climate change on
wetlands and, as appropriate, assisting countries that are particularly vulnerable to those effects;

• Improve techniques and methodologies for assessing the effects of climate change, and encourage the
continuing assessment of those adverse effects by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change;

• Encourage the dissemination and use of traditional and indigenous knowledge to mitigate the impact of
disasters and promote community-based disaster management planning by local authorities, including
through training activities and raising public awareness;

• Support the ongoing voluntary contribution of, as appropriate, non-governmental organizations, the scientific
community and other partners in the management of natural disasters according to agreed, relevant
guidelines;

• Develop and strengthen early warning systems and information networks in disaster management, consistent
with the International Strategy for Disaster Reduction;

• Develop and strengthen capacity at all levels to collect and disseminate scientific and technical information,
including the improvement of early warning systems for predicting extreme weather events, especially
El Niño/La Niña, through the provision of assistance to institutions devoted to addressing such events,
including the International Centre for the Study of the El Niño phenomenon;

• Promote cooperation for the prevention and mitigation of, preparedness for, response to and recovery from
major technological and other disasters with an adverse impact on the environment in order to enhance the
capabilities of affected countries to cope with such situations.



A/CONF.151/26/Rev.1 (Vol. I) - Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development

F. Promoting human settlement planning and management in disaster-prone areas
BASIS FOR ACTION

7.55. Natural disasters cause loss of life, disruption of economic activities and urban productivity, particularly for
highly susceptible low-income groups, and environmental damage, such as loss of fertile agricultural land and
contamination of water resources, and can lead to major resettlement of populations. Over the past two decades,
they are estimated to have caused some 3 million deaths and affected 800 million people. Global economic losses
have been estimated by the Office of the United Nations Disaster Relief Coordinator to be in the range of $30-50
billion per year.

7.56. The General Assembly, in resolution 44/236, proclaimed the 1990s as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction. The goals of the Decade 7/ bear relevance to the objectives of the present programme area.

7.57. In addition, there is an urgent need to address the prevention and reduction of man- made disasters and/or disasters caused by, inter alia, industries, unsafe nuclear power generation and toxic wastes (see chapter 6 of Agenda 21).

OBJECTIVE

7.58. The objective is to enable all countries, in particular those that are disaster-prone, to mitigate the negative impact
of natural and man-made disasters on human settlements, national economies and the environment.

ACTIVITIES

7.59. Three distinct areas of activity are foreseen under this programme area, namely, the development of a “culture of safety”, pre-disaster planning and post-disaster reconstruction.

A) Developing a culture of safety

7.60. To promote a “culture of safety” in all countries, especially those that are disaster- prone, the following activities
should be carried out:
73 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992.

• Completing national and local studies on the nature and occurrence of natural disasters, their impact on
people and economic activities, the effects of inadequate construction and land use in hazard-prone areas,
and the social and economic advantages of adequate pre- disaster planning;

• Implementing nationwide and local awareness campaigns through all available media, translating the above
knowledge into information easily comprehensible to the general public and to the populations directly
exposed to hazards;

• Strengthening, and/or developing global, regional, national and local early warning systems to alert
populations to impending disasters;

• Identifying industrially based environmental disaster areas at the national and international levels
and implementing strategies aimed at the rehabilitation of these areas through, inter alia:

1. Restructuring of the economic activities and promoting new job opportunities in environmentally sound
sectors;

2. Promoting close collaboration between governmental and local authorities, local communities and nongovernmental
organizations and private business;
3. Developing and enforcing strict environmental control standards.

B) Developing pre-disaster planning

7.61. Pre-disaster planning should form an integral part of human settlement planning in all countries. The following
should be included:
• Undertaking complete multi-hazard research into risk and vulnerability of human settlements and
settlement infrastructure, including water and sewerage, communication and transportation networks, as
one type of risk reduction may increase vulnerability to another (e.g., an earthquake-resistant house made of
wood will be more vulnerable to wind storms);
• Developing methodologies for determining risk and vulnerability within specific human settlements and
incorporating risk and vulnerability reduction into the human settlement planning and management process;
• Redirecting inappropriate new development and human settlements to areas not prone to hazards;
• Preparing guidelines on location, design and operation of potentially hazardous industries and
activities;
• Developing tools (legal, economic etc.) to encourage disaster-sensitive development, including means of
ensuring that limitations on development options are not punitive to owners, or incorporate alternative
means of compensation;
• Further developing and disseminating information on disaster-resistant building materials and construction
technologies for buildings and public works in general;
• Developing training programmes for contractors and builders on disaster-resistant construction methods.
Some programmes should be directed particularly to small enterprises, which build the great majority of
housing and other small buildings in the developing countries, as well as to the rural populations, which
build their own houses;
• Developing training programmes for emergency site managers, non-governmental organizations and
community groups which cover all aspects of disaster mitigation, including urban search and rescue,
emergency communications, early warning techniques, and pre-disaster planning;
7 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro, 3-14 June 1992.
• Developing procedures and practices to enable local communities to receive information about hazardous
installations or situations in these areas, and facilitate their participation in early warning and disaster
abatement and response procedures and plans;
• Preparing action plans for the reconstruction of settlements, especially the reconstruction of community lifelines.

C) Initiating post-disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation planning

7.62. The international community, as a major partner in post-reconstruction and rehabilitation, should ensure that the
countries involved derive the greatest benefits from the funds allocated by undertaking the following activities:
• Carrying out research on past experiences on the social and economic aspects of post- disaster
reconstruction and adopting effective strategies and guidelines for post-disaster reconstruction, with
particular focus on development-focused strategies in the allocation of scarce reconstruction resources, and
on the opportunities that post-disaster reconstruction provides to introduce sustainable settlement patterns;
• Preparing and disseminating international guidelines for adaptation to national and local needs;
• Supporting efforts of national Governments to initiate contingency planning, with participation of affected
communities, for post-disaster reconstruction and rehabilitation.

MEANS OF IMPLEMENTATION

A) Financing and cost evaluation

7.63. The Conference secretariat has estimated the average total annual cost (1993-2000) of implementing the activities
of this programme to be about $50 million from the international community on grant or concessional terms. These
are indicative and order-of-magnitude estimates only and have not been reviewed by Governments. Actual costs
and financial terms, including any that are non-concessional, will depend upon, inter alia, the specific strategies and
programmes Governments decide upon for implementation.

B) Scientific and technological means

7.64. Scientists and engineers specializing in this field in both developing and developed countries should collaborate
with urban and regional planners in order to provide the basic knowledge and means to mitigate losses owing to
disasters as well as environmentally inappropriate development.
C) Human resource development and capacity-building

7.65.
Developing countries should conduct training programmes on disaster-resistant construction methods for con
tractors and builders, who build the majority of housing in the developing countries. This should focus on the
small business enterprises, which build the majority of housing in the developing countries.

7.66. Training programmes should be extended to government officials and planners and community and non-govern
mental organizations to cover all aspects of disaster mitigation, such as early warning techniques, pre-disaster
planning and construction, post-disaster construction and rehabilitation.