Comoros
Voluntary National Review 2020

1. Introduction

The Union of Comoros has been committed to the implementation of the SDGs since their adoption in With the support of the United Nations System, through UNDP, the country has achieved contextualization and prioritization of SDG targets by involving institutions civil society, the private sector and development partners. As a matter of all, 68 SDG targets with indicators linked to priorities, specific challenges and the country's statistical capabilities.

The Emerging Comoros Plan (ECP) for 2030 is the reference document for the implementation of the SDGs. Adopted in 2019, under the leadership of the President of Union of Comoros, the ECP advocates a joint implementation of the 2030 Agenda United Nations and the African Union's Agenda 2063. It is articulated into five strategic bases and five catalysts to better take cross-sectors into account, Consistent and effective implementation of policy and policy-making Development.

2. State of achievement of the SDGs

2.1 Capital social

The proportion of the population deprived of services has decreased by almost 10% in 10-year-old. 23.5% live below the national poverty line and 18% below the poverty line (less than $1.25/day). Electricity covers 33% of the population, access to drinking water 18% and sanitation 36%. The government's goal is to reduce these rates to 100% by 2030.

The health system has many shortcomings in the face of an epidemiological profile plagued by numerous diseases, endemic and other diseases. emerging noncommunicable diseases including diabetes and Cardiovascular. The population faces a situation of precarious health. The arrival COVID-19 makes the challenges even more during.

2.2 Human Capital

Girl-boy parity is effective in primary and secondary schools. For teaching the University of Comoros has about 16,000 students (2018-2019), or 16 times its starting line-up (2003-2004). Efforts need to be made on the quality of teaching and placement of young graduates. The gross rate of pre-schooling and literacy rates have been on the rise over the past 10 years, but some disparities are particularly observed between urban and rural areas.

2.3 Economic capital

The ECP recognizes the blue economy as the engine of emergence. Fishing helps 6.7% to national wealth. The agricultural sector employs 57% of the working population and provides about 90% of export earnings mainly related to Pension. The government plans to develop several sectors, including tourism and mining on the seabed. It is setting up a development programme infrastructure. Comoros ranks among the countries with income Intermediate.

2.4 Natural Capital

The climate issue is a major factor in the emergence, transcending the overall environmental sector. The government plans to expand the national system protected areas to more than 25% of the national territory, the increase in capacity renewable energy from 0.6% to 40% by 2030, building resilience to renewable energy disasters, adaptation of agriculture, restoration of watersheds and capacity building disaster risk management.

3. Mechanisms for coordination, mobilization of resources and Partnership

Under the aegis of the Head of State, coordination is provided by the Secretary General of the Government, supported by the Office of the General Planning Commissioner. The institutional system monitoring the implementation of the SDGs, the same as that of the ECP, is structured around the 5P, including all stakeholders. The current challenge is to make this device Operational.

In addition, the government is working to mobilize resources and the partnership to implementation of the ECP. The 50% increase in public investment between 2016 2018 and the mobilization of 4.3 billion euros at the partners' conference in the development in Paris in 2019, are part of this dynamic. The government is also carrying out administrative, legal and institutional reforms to enable to enhance competitiveness, particularly through new technologies.

4. Needs for support

Comoros would need technical and financial support in the following areas:

  • Blue economy
  • Food
  • Digital transformation
  • Programming and budgeting capabilities
  • Mobilizing resources
  • Data production, analysis and publication
  • Professional and technical higher education

1. Introduction

L’Union des Comores s’est engagée dans la mise en oeuvre des ODD dès leur adoption en 2015. Avec l’appui du Système des Nations Unies, à travers le PNUD, le pays a réalisé la contextualisation et la priorisation des cibles des ODD en impliquant les institutions publiques, la société civile, le secteur privé et les partenaires au développement. Il en est ressorti 68 cibles ODD assortis d’indicateurs arrimés aux priorités, aux défis spécifiques et aux capacités statistiques du pays.

Le Plan Comores Émergeant (PCE) à l’horizon 2030 constitue le document de référence pour la mise en oeuvre des ODD. Adopté en 2019, sous l’impulsion du Président de l’Union des Comores, le PCE prône une mise en oeuvre conjuguée de l’Agenda 2030 de l’ONU et de l’Agenda 2063 de l’Union Africaine. Il est articulé en cinq socles stratégiques et cinq catalyseurs permettant de mieux prendre en compte les intersectorialités, pour une mise en oeuvre cohérente et efficace des politiques et programmes de développement.

2. État de réalisation des ODD

2.1 Capital social

La proportion de la population privée des services a diminué de près de 10% en espace de 10 ans. 23.5% vivent en dessous du seuil national de pauvreté et 18% sous le seuil international (moins de 1.25$/jour). L’électricité couvre 33% de la population, l’accès à l’eau potable 18% et l’assainissement 36%. Le gouvernement vise à ramener ces taux à 100% d’ici 2030.

Le système de santé présente de nombreuses carences face à un profil épidémiologique marqué par de nombreuses maladies, sévissant à l’état endémo-épidémique et autres maladies non transmissibles émergentes dont le diabète et les maladies cardiovasculaires. La population fait face à une situation de précarité sanitaire. L’arrivée du COVID-19 rend les défis à relever encore plus colossaux.

2.2 Capital humain

La parité fille-garçon est effective dans le primaire et le secondaire. Pour l’enseignement supérieur, l’Université des Comores compte environ 16000 étudiants (2018-2019), soit 16 fois son effectif de départ (2003-2004). Les efforts sont à consentir sur la qualité de l’enseignement et le placement des jeunes diplômés. Le taux brut de préscolarisation et le taux d’alphabétisation sont en progression depuis 10 ans, mais certaines disparités s’observent notamment entre milieu urbain et rural.

2.3 Capital économique

Le PCE reconnait l’économie bleue comme moteur de l’émergence. La pêche contribue pour 6,7% à la richesse nationale. Le secteur agricole emploie 57% de la population active et fournit environ 90% des revenus d’exportation essentiellement liés aux produits de rente. Le gouvernement prévoit développer plusieurs secteurs dont le tourisme et l’exploitation minière des fonds marins. Il met en place un programme de développement urbain et d’infrastructures. Les Comores se classent au rang des pays à revenu intermédiaire.

2.4 Capital naturel

L’enjeu climatique constitue un facteur majeur de l’émergence, transcendant l’ensemble du secteur environnemental. Le gouvernement prévoit l’expansion du système national des aires protégées à plus de 25% du territoire national, l’augmentation de la capacité des énergies renouvelables de 0.6% à 40% d’ici 2030, le renforcement de la résilience aux catastrophes, l’adaptation de l’agriculture, la restauration des bassins versants et le renforcement des capacités en gestion des risques de catastrophes.

3. Mécanismes de coordination, de mobilisation des ressources et du partenariat

Sous l’égide du Chef de l’État, la coordination est assurée par le Secrétaire Général du Gouvernement, appuyé par le Commissariat General au Plan. Le dispositif institutionnel de suivi de la mise en oeuvre des ODD, le même que celui du PCE, est structuré autour des 5P, incluant l’ensemble des parties prenantes. Le défi actuel est de rendre ce dispositif opérationnel.

Par ailleurs, le gouvernement s’emploie à mobiliser les ressources et le partenariat pour la mise en oeuvre du PCE. L’augmentation des investissements publics de 50% entre 2016 et 2018 et la mobilisation de 4.3 Milliards d’Euro, lors de la conférence des partenaires au développement à Paris en 2019, s’inscrivent dans cette dynamique. Le gouvernement procède aussi à des reformes administratives, juridiques et institutionnelles permettant de renforcer la compétitivité, notamment par les nouvelles technologies.

4. Besoins d’appui

Les Comores auraient besoin d’un appui technique et financier dans les secteurs suivants:

  • Économie bleue
  • Agroalimentaire
  • Transformation numérique
  • Capacités de programmation et budgétisation
  • Mobilisation des ressources
  • Production, analyse et publication de données
  • Enseignement supérieur professionnel et technique
Focal point
Mr. Mdahoma Bakary
Ministre du Developpement Rural, de la Peche et de l'Environment,

Documents & Reports

National Reports

Partnerships & Commitments
The below is a listing of all partnership initiatives and voluntary commitments where Comoros is listed as a partner or lead entity in the Partnerships for SDGs online platform
Comoros commits to increase health sector spending to 14% of budget by 2014

Comoros commits to increase health sector spending to 14% of budget by 2014; ensure universal coverage for PMTCT by 2015; reduce underweight children from 25% to 10%; increase contraception prevalence rate from 13% to 20%; and the births that take place in health facilities from 75% to 85%. Comoros will also accelerate the implementation existing national policies including the national plan for reproductive health commodity security, the strategic plan for human resources for health, and the roadmap for accelerating reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality.

Partners
Action Network
Sustainable Development Goals
Disaster Risk Management in the Islands of the Indian Ocean

The partnership focuses on strengthening the capacity of the islands of the Indian Ocean member of the Indian Ocean Commission and Zanzibar Island of the United Republic of Tanzania to reduce their vulnerability, exposure and protect the population of the region against loss and damage that result from catastrophic events.

Partners
Comoros, Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar, Reunion Island , Zanzibar/Tanzania, European Union, French Development Agency, Australian Government, UNISDR, World Bank
Action Network
Sustainable Development Goals
Education for sustainable development in the Indian ocean region

- Presentation of sensitization activities conducted from 2012 to 2014 in the indian ocean region within the ISLANDS project (IOC)- Presentation of good practices conducted in the region

Partners
- Ministry of education; Ministry of Environment - Comoros - Ministry of education; Ministry of Environment - Club Vintsy and WWf - Madagascar - Ministry of education - BEC schools - Mauritius - DEAL; Ministry of education - Reunion Island - Ministry of education; Ministry of Environment; S4S - Seychelles - Ministry of education; Ministry of Environment; Association of private schools; Sazani...[more]
Action Network
Sustainable Development Goals
Harnessing Science Technology and Innovation (STI) for resilience building of SIDS

Rationale: The SIDS in SADC namely, Comoros Mauritius, Seychelles and Madagascar are fragile and prone to climate change variation but are endowed with ocean biodiversity which are unsustainably been exploited. Growth and sustainability of these economies can be achieved by sustainably harnessing the ocean potential through development of appropriate STI policy system and governance and local indigenous knowledge to launch and sustain emerging economy sectors and resilience building. Doing so requires a good understanding of the various STI policy system and governance and the education and tr...[more]

Partners
Governments of Comoros, Mauritius, Madagascar, and Seychelles Ministries of Education Science and Technology Universities Research Institutions Private sector Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Secretariat Youth Groups United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
Action Network
Sustainable Development Goals
Integrated Water and Wastewater Resource Management in Atlantic and Indian Ocean SIDS

Cabo Verde, Comoros, Maldives, Mauritius, São Tomé & Príncipe and Seychelles may seem like they have little in common, but as small islands, they face very similar challenges. The countries − located in the Atlantic and Indian oceans − all share problems relating to the scarcity and contamination of freshwater supplies; lack of solid waste management facilities, over-exploitation and poor management of groundwater resources; increasing pressure on agricultural production; and disappearing biodiversity. Therefore, the Global Environment Facility has funded a full-sized project to...[more]

Partners
UNEP; UNDP; UNOPS; GEF; Governments of Maldives, Mauritius, Seychelles, Comoros, Sao Tome and Principe and Cabo Verde
Sustainable Development Goals
Lighthouses Initiative

IRENA has developed the SIDS Lighthouses Initiative to support the strategic deployment of renewable energy in SIDS, to bring clarity to policy makers regarding the required steps, and to enable targeted action. As a joint effort of SIDS and development partners, this framework for action will assist in transforming SIDS energy systems through the establishment of the enabling conditions for a renewable energy-based future, by moving away from developing projects in isolation to a holistic approach that considers all relevant elements spanning from policy and market frameworks, through technol...[more]

Partners
Antigua and Barbuda, Mauritius, Bahamas, Nauru, Barbados, Palau, Cabo Verde, Samoa, Comoros, São Tomé and Príncipe, Cook Islands, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Fiji, Seychelles, Grenada, Solomon Islands, Guyana, Tonga, Kiribati, Trinidad and Tobago, Maldives, Tuvalu, Marshall Islands, Vanuatu, Federated States of Micronesia, ENEL, New Zealand, European Union, Norway, France, SE4ALL, Germany, ...[more]
Action Network
Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Consumption and Production for SIDS Initiative (within the 10YFP)

i. Facilitate the preparation and implementation of national SCP Plans and sub-regional coordination planning frameworks for SIDS, including the promotion of lifecycle based and integrated planning methods (e.g. Coastal Tourism Development on the basis of ICZM and Carrying Capacity) into national and sectoral development planning.ii. Seek international financial assistance to promote sustainable consumption and production patterns in SIDS, including, inter alia, in the development of sustainable products and services, sustainable food systems, waste management, marine litter, sustainable publi...[more]

Partners
UNEP, 10YFP, South Pacific Tourism Organisation, Mauritius, Samoa, Barbados, Jamaica, Seychelles, Comoros
Action Network
Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Management of the Coastal and Marine Resources

The partnership aims at strengthening the capacity of island nations to management of the marine and coastal resources for growth and development with due respect to the environment. The European Union is the leading technical and financial partner of the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) and it has supported a large number regional programs for the development of the island States members of the IOC. These programs seek to enhance the capacity of island nations for good governance of fisheries, management of the coastal zones and the management of coastal, marine and island specific biodiversi...[more]

Partners
Comoros, Mauritius, Seychelles, Madagascar, Reunion Island, European Union
Action Network
Sustainable Development Goals
Western Indian Ocean Coastal Challenge (WIOCC)

The WIOCC is a country led partnership that promotes actions for climate resilient development that achieves effective conservation of biodiversity, enhanced livelihood and economies for greater social security among coastal communities. The WIOCC mobilises the political, financial and technical commitment at national and regional levels by inspiring leadership and facilitating collaboration towards a shared, long-term vision.

Partners
Comoros, France-Réunion, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Tanzania and Zanzibar; European Union; Indian Ocean Commission (IOC); UNEP Nairobi Convention Secretariat; Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity; Global Island Partnership (GLISPA); Western Indian Ocean Consortium (WIO-C) including the WCS, IUCN, WWF, WIOMSA, CORDIO, IOC-Indian Ocean Commission, NEPAD a...[more]
Action Network
Sustainable Development Goals
United Nations