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The global indicator framework was developed by the Inter-Agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators (IAEG-SDGs) and agreed to, as a practical starting point at the 47th session of the UN Statistical Commission held in March 2016. The report of the Commission, which included the global indicator framework, was then taken note of by ECOSOC at its 70th session in June 2016. More information.
Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere
Number of victims of intentional homicide per 100,000 population, by sex and age
Conflict-related deaths per 100,000 population, by sex, age and cause
Proportion of population subjected to physical, psychological or sexual violence in the previous 12 months
Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live
End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children
Proportion of children aged 1-17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month
Number of victims of human trafficking per 100,000 population, by sex, age and form of exploitation
Proportion of young women and men aged 18?29 years who experienced sexual violence by age 18
Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all
Proportion of victims of violence in the previous 12 months who reported their victimization to competent authorities or other officially recognized conflict resolution mechanisms
Unsentenced detainees as a proportion of overall prison population
By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime
Total value of inward and outward illicit financial flows (in current United States dollars)
Proportion of seized small arms and light weapons that are recorded and traced, in accordance with international standards and legal instruments
Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms
Proportion of persons who had at least one contact with a public official and who paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials, during the previous 12 months
Proportion of businesses that had at least one contact with a public official and that paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials during the previous 12 months
Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels
Primary government expenditures as a proportion of original approved budget, by sector (or by budget codes or similar)
Proportion of the population satisfied with their last experience of public services
Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels
Proportions of positions (by sex, age, persons with disabilities and population groups) in public institutions (national and local legislatures, public service, and judiciary) compared to national distributions
Proportion of population who believe decision-making is inclusive and responsive, by sex, age, disability and population group
Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance
Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations
By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration
Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age
Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements
Number of verified cases of killing, kidnapping, enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention and torture of journalists, associated media personnel, trade unionists and human rights advocates in the previous 12 months
Number of countries that adopt and implement constitutional, statutory and/or policy guarantees for public access to information
Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime
Existence of independent national human rights institutions in compliance with the Paris Principles
Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development
Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law
Progress of goal 16 in 2017

Violent conflicts have increased in recent years, while homicides have declined slowly and more citizens around the world have better access to justice. A few high-intensity armed conflicts are causing large numbers of civilian casualties. Progress promoting peace and justice, together with effective, accountable and inclusive institutions, remains uneven across and within regions.

  • In 2015, between 5.2 persons and 6.7 persons per 100,000 persons worldwide were victims of intentional homicide. While the homicide rate has declined over the past decade, people in some countries located in Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa and Asia face increased risk of intentional murder.
  • Various forms of violence against children persist, including discipline that relies on physical punishment and psychological aggression. In 76 countries (most are developing countries) with available data from 2005 to 2016, about 8 in 10 children from 1 to 14 years of age were subjected to some form of psychological aggression and/or physical punishment on a regular basis.
  • Countries have made solid progress in terms of detecting victims of trafficking in persons, as reflected by the increasing number of detected victims over the last decade. Globally, more women and girls than men and boys were identified as victims of trafficking in 2014. However, the share of women and girls has slowly retreated, from 84 per cent in 2004 to 71 per cent in 2014. While the share of victims trafficked for sexual exploitation has declined, the proportion of those trafficked for forced labour has increased. About 28 per cent of all trafficking victims detected in 2014 were children, with girls outnumbering boys (20 per cent and 8 per cent, respectively, of total victims).
  • Sexual violence is perhaps the most disturbing of children’s rights violations. Underreporting and a lack of comparable data limit understanding of the full extent of the problem. In 35 low- and middle-income countries with data, the proportions of women between 18 and 29 years of age who experienced sexual violence for the first time before 18 years of age ranged from 0 per cent to 16 per cent.
  • Rates of pretrial detention suggest that progress with respect to the rule of law and access to justice has been slow. Globally, the proportion of people held in detention without being sentenced for a crime has remained almost unchanged — from 32 per cent of total prisoners in 2003-2005 to 31 per cent in 2013-2015 — which indicates that substantive progress has not been achieved in the ability of judicial systems to process and try the accused in a fair and transparent manner.
  • Opaque, burdensome and inefficient regulations and procedures nurture opportunities for corrupt officials to extract bribes or unofficial payments. In 2015, over 18 per cent of firms worldwide reported receiving at least one bribery payment request. The share of firms in low- and lower-middle-income countries totalled 25 per cent, compared to 4 per cent in high-income countries.
  • To provide a sound basis for development, government budgets should be comprehensive, transparent and realistic. While expenditure in nearly 2 in 3 countries was within 10 per cent of their original national budgets, more than 1 in 7 countries deviated by at least 15 per cent. Nevertheless, budget reliability has improved over time, with about 8 in 10 countries in Southern Asia and Eastern Asia and the Pacific showing improvement.
  • Birth registration is a first step towards safeguarding individual rights and providing every person with access to justice and social services. While many regions have reached universal or near universal birth registration, globally the average is just 71 per cent, on the basis of available country data reported from 2010 to 2016. Fewer than half (46 per cent) of all children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa have had their births registered.
  • Legislation that calls for freedom of information has increased steadily, but slow or inefficient implementation of such laws remains a concern. More than 110 countries have adopted freedom of information legislation and policies. However, expert assessments suggest that 47 of those countries fall short of having clear legal provisions for exceptions to that right, while another 47 countries lack sufficient provisions for public education.
  • Independent national human rights institutions play an important role in ensuring that States deliver on their human rights obligations and that no one is left behind. By the end of 2016, 37 per cent of countries had a national human rights institution that was compliant with internationally agreed standards (the Paris Principles), while 57 per cent of countries had been reviewed for compliance by their peers.

Source: Report of the Secretary-General, "Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals", E/2017/66

Progress of goal 16 in 2016
  • Peace, justice and effective, accountable and inclusive institutions are at the core of sustainable development. Several regions have enjoyed increased and sustained levels of peace and security in recent decades. But many countries still face protracted armed conflict and violence, and far too many people struggle as a result of weak institutions and the lack of access to justice, information and other fundamental freedoms.
  • The number of victims of intentional homicide worldwide remained relatively stable from 2008 to 2014. The worldwide number of victims of intentional homicide was estimated to be between 4.6 and 6.8 per 100,000 people in 2014, a slight decrease with respect to previous years. Yet during that period, the homicide rate in developing countries was twice that in developed countries, and increased in the least developed countries. Moreover, despite the lack of harmonized data, fatalities and injuries related to armed conflict appear to be increasing in some countries, causing unprecedented population displacements and enormous humanitarian needs.
  • Various forms of violence against children are pervasive, including discipline that relies on physical punishment and psychological aggression. In all but 7 of 73 countries and areas with available survey data from 2005 to 2015, more than half of children between the ages of 1 and 14 were subjected to some form of psychological aggression and/or physical punishment at home. In Northern Africa, the share was more than 90 per cent.
  • Globally, the share of girls and boys among victims of human trafficking (21 per cent and 13 per cent, respectively) peaked in 2011. By 2014, the figures had dropped to 18 per cent and 7 per cent, respectively, but were still almost twice the levels recorded for 2004.
  • Sexual violence is one of the most unsettling of children’s rights violations. Yet underreporting and the lack of comparable data limit understanding of the full extent of the problem. Survey data from 31 low- and middle-income countries suggest that the proportion of women aged between 18 and 29 who experienced sexual violence for the first time before the age of 18 varies widely, ranging from zero to 16 per cent. Comparable data on the experiences of men are only available for five countries, but values are lower than those reported among women in the same countries.
  • Progress with respect to the rule of law and access to justice is mixed. Globally, the proportion of people held in detention without sentencing decreased slightly, from 32 per cent of total detainees in 2003-2005 to 30 per cent in 2012-2014. However, the percentage for developing regions has consistently been more than two times that of developed regions. In Southern Asia, for instance, more than 2 out of 3 prisoners remained unsentenced in 2012-2014, despite some improvement over the data available for the period 2003 to 2005.
  • Among victims of robbery, between one quarter and one half reported the crime to the police, in 27 countries with available data. The data suggest a significant gap in citizens’ access to and trust in authorities. Although official data on the prevalence of bribery are limited, figures from 19 countries indicate that the rate of prevalence of bribery may reach as high as 50 per cent among citizens who had contact with public officials, undermining trust in state institutions.
  • Registering children at birth is a first step in securing recognition before the law and safeguarding individual rights and access to justice. Despite recent progress, the births of more than 1 in 4 children under the age of 5 worldwide have not been recorded. In sub-Saharan Africa, over half (54 per cent) of children have not been registered by their fifth birthday. Globally, children living in urban areas are around 1.5 times more likely to be registered than their rural counterparts. In most regions, birth registration rates tend to be highest among the richest 20 per cent of the population.
  • Efforts are under way to make national and international institutions more effective, inclusive and transparent. Over the past 10 years, nearly two thirds of 144 countries with available data were able to plan their national budgets effectively (where final expenses remained within 10 per cent of original budgets). Voting rights assigned to various groups of countries in international institutions is one indication of inclusivity at the international level. For example, while developing countries account for 63 per cent of voting rights in the African Development Bank, this figure is only 35 per cent in the International Monetary Fund and 38 per cent in the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development of the World Bank Group.
  • A free press is closely linked to access to information and the protection of human rights, but the trend in this regard is discouraging. The number of journalists killed increased from 65 in 2010 to 114 in 2015, despite the fact that, by 2013, 90 States had adopted laws on freedom of and/or access to information.
  • The proportion of countries with national human rights institutions has doubled over the past 15 years, reaching 35.5 per cent by the end of 2015. The share of such institutions that are compliant with the principles relating to the status of national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights (Paris Principles) (adopted by the General Assembly in its resolution 48/134) was highest in developed regions (46 per cent) and in Latin America and the Caribbean (41 per cent).

Source: Report of the Secretary-General, "Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals", E/2016/75