Disaster risk reduction
Disaster risk reduction (DRR) is an integral part of social and economic development, and is essential if development is to be sustainable for the future. A risk-informed and resilient Post-2015 development agenda can only be achieved through partnering with groups, communities and the private sector. This is recognized by the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, adopted at the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Sendai, Japan from 14 to 18 March 2015.

The Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World (1994), as the first major international framework for disaster risk reduction, recognized the interrelation between sustainable development and DRR, "disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness and relief are four elements which contribute to and gain from the implementation of sustainable development policies. These elements, along with environmental protection and sustainable development, are closely interrelated

Throughout the last decade the interrelation between DRR and sustainable development was continuously strengthened. Reducing disaster risk and increasing resilience to natural hazards in different development sectors had multiplier effects and accelerate achievements of the MDGs, established at the Millennium Development Summit in 2000. The declaration emphasized the development of early warning systems, research on El Nino and El Nina, and encouraged Governments to address urban risks and incorporate DRR in their respective national plans.

The Johannesburg Plan of Implementation adopted at the World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002) includes commitments related to disaster and vulnerability reduction under chapter IV: Protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development. Later on, the 11th session of the Commission on Sustainable Development (2003) adopted the themes of disaster management and vulnerability to be reviewed in its fifth cycle (2014-2015) in the CSD's multi-year programme of work. Risk management and vulnerability would also be examined in the context of other thematic clusters of CSD, such as water, sanitation and human settlements (2004-2005) and drought and desertification (2006-2007). On the occasion of World Water Day 2004, Guidelines for Reducing Flood Losses was launched. This inter-agency publication, led by DESA aims at providing decision-makers with a range of options to consider for reducing losses associated with flooding.

The relation between DRR and sustainable development was also recognized in the Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015, adopted in 2005. It observes that "disaster risk reduction is a cross-cutting issue in the context of sustainable development and therefore an important element for the achievement of internationally agreed development goals, including those contained in the Millennium Declaration." Its successor, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, as the first major agreement of the post-2015 development agenda, sets out targets for the post-2015 development agenda including a substantial reduction in mortality, in the numbers of people affected by disasters, economic losses and damage to critical infrastructure. These objectives are re-affirmed under Goal 11 of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).