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Decisions by Topic: Small Island Developing States
A/70/472/Add.1 - Implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development

III. Recommendation of the Second Committee

9. The Second Committee recommends to the General Assembly the adoption of the following draft resolution:

Implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21 and the outcomes of the World
Summit on Sustainable Development and of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development

The General Assembly,

5. Urges the speedy and effective implementation and the effective followup and review of the sustainable development priorities for small island developing States identified in the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway and set out in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, and reaffirms that small island developing States remain a special case for sustainable development in view of their unique and particular vulnerabilities;


A/70/472/Add.2 - Follow-up to and implementation of the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway and the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States

11. Decides, in accordance with paragraph 101 of the Samoa Pathway and in line with the priorities of small island developing States, to establish the Small Island Developing States Partnership Framework, to monitor and ensure the full implementation of pledges and commitments through partnerships for small island developing States, in order to promote the effective and efficient follow-up to the existing partnerships, in particular new partnerships launched at the third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, and to encourage new, genuine and durable partnerships for the sustainable development of small island developing States, and in this regard:

(a) To form a Steering Committee on partnerships for small island developing States that shall be open to all States Members of the United Nations or members of the specialized agencies, chaired by one Member State that is a small island developing State and one Member State that is not a small island developing State, to be appointed by the President of the General Assembly, which shall meet on a regular basis, with interpretation services provided on an as available basis, to support the follow-up of existing, and promote and advocate the launching of new, small island developing States partnerships; entities of the United Nations system, international and regional organizations, major groups and other stakeholders will be invited to contribute, as appropriate; the Secretariat, in particular the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States, will provide a supporting role to the Steering Committee; the first meeting of the Committee should be held as soon as possible, and no later than February 2016, when it will discuss, inter alia, the working methods of the Committee;

(b) To request the Secretariat, in consultation with the Steering Committee, to organize, on an annual basis, an action-oriented, results-focused, global multi stakeholder small island developing States partnership dialogue, with interpretation services provided on an as available basis, which will provide opportunities for reviewing progress made by existing partnerships, including, where applicable, inputs from regional and national partnership dialogues, and for the sharing of good practices, lessons learned and challenges and solutions from small island developing States partnerships, and encourage the launch of new partnerships for small island developing States in line with their priorities;

(c) To request the Department of Economic and Social Affairs to finalize a standardized partnership reporting template and process, in consultation with the Steering Committee, which takes into account existing reporting mechanisms and the need to minimize the reporting burden and ensures reporting coherence;

(d) To encourage regional multi-stakeholder small island developing States partnership dialogues through existing forums and meetings, where applicable, and notably through the regional commissions, in close collaboration with small island developing States and partners, for reviewing and providing policy recommendations at the regional level;

(e) To encourage small island developing States to organize national
multi-stakeholder small island developing States partnership dialogues, which could contribute to the regional and global dialogues outlined above, on a voluntary basis, according to their needs, priorities and circumstances, and invite the United Nations system and the international community, upon request, to support the efforts of small island developing States in this regard;

(f) To encourage small island developing States partnerships to share experiences, including through the established partnership reporting template and process, and to participate on a voluntary basis in national, regional and global multi-stakeholder small island developing States partnership dialogues;


A/RES/70/1 - Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

Goal 3. Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages

3.c Substantially increase health financing and the recruitment, development, training and retention of the health
workforce in developing countries, especially in least developed countries and small island developing States

Goal 4. Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all

4.b By 2020, substantially expand globally the number of scholarships available to developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States and African countries, for enrolment in higher education, including vocational training and information and communications technology, technical, engineering and scientific programmes, in developed countries and other developing countries

Goal 7. Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all

7.b By 2030, expand infrastructure and upgrade technology for supplying modern and sustainable energy services
for all in developing countries, in particular least developed countries, small island developing States, and land-locked developing countries, in accordance with their respective programmes of support

Goal 9. Build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization and foster innovation

9.a Facilitate sustainable and resilient infrastructure development in developing countries through enhanced financial, technological and technical support to African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States

Goal 10. Reduce inequality within and among countries

10.1 By 2030, progressively achieve and sustain income growth of the bottom 40 per cent of the population at a rate
higher than the national average
10.2 By 2030, empower and promote the social, economic and political inclusion of all, irrespective of age, sex, disability, race, ethnicity, origin, religion or economic or other status
10.3 Ensure equal opportunity and reduce inequalities of outcome, including by eliminating discriminatory laws, policies and practices and promoting appropriate legislation, policies and action in this regard
10.4 Adopt policies, especially fiscal, wage and social protection policies, and progressively achieve greater equality
10.5 Improve the regulation and monitoring of global financial markets and institutions and strengthen the implementation of such regulations
10.6 Ensure enhanced representation and voice for developing countries in decision-making in global international
economic and financial institutions in order to deliver more effective, credible, accountable and legitimate institutions
10.7 Facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, including through the
implementation of planned and well-managed migration policies
10.a Implement the principle of special and differential treatment for developing countries, in particular least
developed countries, in accordance with World Trade Organization agreements
10.b Encourage official development assistance and financial flows, including foreign direct investment, to States
where the need is greatest, in particular least developed countries, African countries, small island developing
States and landlocked developing countries, in accordance with their national plans and programmes
10.c By 2030, reduce to less than 3 per cent the transaction costs of migrant remittances and eliminate remittance
corridors with costs higher than 5 per cent

Goal 13. Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts*


13.b Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities

Goal 14. Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development

14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from
the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture
and tourism
14.a Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account
the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries

Goal 17. Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development

Systemic issues
Data, monitoring and accountability

17.18 By 2020, enhance capacity-building support to developing countries, including for least developed countries
and small island developing States, to increase significantly the availability of high-quality, timely and reliable data disaggregated by income, gender, age, race, ethnicity, migratory status, disability, geographic location and other characteristics relevant in national contexts


A/RES/69/313- Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development (Addis Ababa Action Agenda)

Preamble

1. We, the Heads of State and Government and high-level representatives, having met in Apia from 1 to 4 September 2014 at the third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, with the full participation of civil society and relevant stakeholders, reaffirm our commitment to the sustainable development of small island developing States. This can be achieved only with a broad alliance of people, governments, civil society and the private sector all working together to achieve the future we want for present and future generations.

2. We reaffirm the commitments we made at United Nations conferences and summits on sustainable development: the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development,[1] Agenda 21,[2] the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda 21,[3] the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg Plan of Implementation),[4] including chapter VII, on the sustainable development of small island developing States, and the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development,[5] the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (Barbados Programme of Action)[6] and the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (Mauritius Strategy),[7] and the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, entitled “The future we want”.[8] We further underscore that these processes are still being implemented and that there is a need for a more integrated approach to the sustainable development of small island developing States, with the support of the international community and all stakeholders.

3. We recall as well our commitments in the outcomes of all the major United Nations conferences and summits in the economic, social and environmental fields, including the United Nations Millennium Declaration,[9] the 2005 World Summit Outcome,[10] the Monterrey Consensus of the International Conference on Financing for Development, [11] the Doha Declaration on Financing for Development: outcome document of the Follow-up International Conference on Financing for Development to Review the Implementation of the Monterrey Consensus,[12] the outcome document of the high-level plenary meeting of the General Assembly on the Millennium Development Goals,[13] the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, [14] the key actions for the further implementation of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development[15] and the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. [16]

4. We reaffirm that we continue to be guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, with full respect for international law and its principles.

5. We reaffirm that small island developing States remain a special case for sustainable development in view of their unique and particular vulnerabilities and that they remain constrained in meeting their goals in all three dimensions of sustainable development. We recognize the ownership and leadership of small island developing States in overcoming some of these challenges, but stress that in the absence of international cooperation, success will remain difficult.

6. We recognize that poverty eradication, changing unsustainable and promoting sustainable patterns of consumption and production and protecting and managing the natural resource base of economic and social development are the overarching objectives of and essential requirements for sustainable development. We also reaffirm the need to achieve sustainable development by promoting sustained, inclusive and equitable economic growth, creating greater opportunities for all, reducing inequalities, raising basic standards of living, fostering equitable social development and inclusion and promoting the integrated and sustainable management of natural resources and ecosystems that supports, inter alia, economic, social and human development while facilitating ecosystem conservation, regeneration, restoration and resilience in the face of new and emerging challenges.

7. We reaffirm the importance of freedom, peace and security, respect for all human rights, including the right to development and the right to an adequate standard of living, including the right to food, the rule of law, gender equality, women’s empowerment, reducing inequalities and the overall commitment to just and democratic societies for development.

8. We reaffirm the importance of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights,[17] as well as other international instruments relating to human rights and international law. We emphasize the responsibilities of all States, in conformity with the Charter, to respect, protect and promote human rights and fundamental freedoms for all, without distinction of any kind as to race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, disability or other status.

9. We reaffirm our commitment to move the sustainable development agenda forward, and in this regard we urge all parties to take concrete measures to expeditiously advance the sustainable development of small island developing States, including through the internationally agreed development goals, in order for them to eradicate poverty, build resilience and improve the quality of life. We recognize the need to implement expeditiously, through genuine and durable partnerships, the global effort in support of the sustainable development of small island developing States through concrete, focused, forward-looking and action-oriented programmes.

10. We reaffirm all the principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, including the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, as set out in principle 7 thereof.

11. We recognize that sea-level rise and other adverse impacts of climate change continue to pose a significant risk to small island developing States and their efforts to achieve sustainable development and, for many, represent the gravest of threats to their survival and viability, including, for some, through the loss of territory.

12. With the theme of the third International Conference on Small Island Developing States being “The sustainable development of small island developing States through genuine and durable partnerships”, we recognize that international cooperation and partnerships of various kinds and across a wide variety of stakeholders are critical for the implementation of the sustainable development of small island developing States. Such partnerships should be based on the principles of national ownership, mutual trust, transparency and accountability.

13. We acknowledge that the further implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action and the Mauritius Strategy and the implementation of the Samoa Pathway in support of the sustainable development of small island developing States would require appropriate consideration in the post-2015 development agenda.

14. We recognize that, in spite of the considerable efforts of small island developing States and the mobilization of their limited resources, their progress in the attainment of the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals, and in implementing the Barbados Programme of Action and the Mauritius Strategy has been uneven, and some have regressed economically. A number of significant challenges remain.

15. We recognize that the adverse impacts of climate change compound existing challenges in small island developing States and have placed additional burdens on their national budgets and their efforts to achieve the sustainable development goals. We note the views expressed by small island developing States that the financial resources available to date have not been adequate to facilitate the implementation of climate change adaptation and mitigation projects, and we also recognize that, at times, complex application procedures have prevented some small island developing States from gaining access to funds that are available internationally. In this regard, we welcome the recent Green Climate Fund Board decision to aim for a floor of 50 per cent of the adaptation allocation for particularly vulnerable countries, including small island developing States, and we note the importance of continued support to address gaps in the capacity to gain access to and manage climate finance.

16. We note that small island developing States consider that the level of resources has been insufficient to ensure their capacity to respond effectively to multiple crises, and that without the necessary resources, they have not fully succeeded in building capacity, strengthening national institutions according to national priorities, gaining access and developing renewable energy and other environmentally sound technologies, creating an enabling environment for sustainable development or fully integrating the Barbados Programme of Action and the Mauritius Strategy into national plans and strategies.

17. We underscore the need for adequate and coordinated support from the United Nations system and the importance of accessible and transparent support from the international financial institutions that take fully into account the specific needs and vulnerabilities of small island developing States for the implementation of Barbados Programme of Action, the Mauritius Strategy and the Samoa Pathway, and we call for a renewed dedication of United Nations system support for cooperation among small island developing States and national, regional and interregional coordination.

18. We recognize that small island developing States have made significant efforts at the national and regional levels to implement the Barbados Programme of Action and the Mauritius Strategy. They have mainstreamed sustainable development principles into national and in some cases regional development plans, policies and strategies, and undertaken political commitments to promote and raise awareness of the importance of sustainable development issues. They have also mobilized resources at the national and regional levels despite their limited resource base. Small island developing States have demonstrated strong leadership by calling for ambitious and urgent action on climate change, by protecting biodiversity, by calling for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and seas and their resources and by and adopting strategies for the promotion of renewable energy.

19. We recognize and call for the strengthening of the long-standing cooperation and support provided by the international community in assisting small island developing States to make progress in addressing their vulnerabilities and supporting their sustainable development efforts.

20. Mindful of the importance of ensuring that the graduation of a country from least developed country status does not disrupt the development progress which that country has achieved, we reaffirm the need for the smooth transition of small island developing States that have recently graduated, and emphasize that a successful transition needs to be based on the national smooth transition strategy elaborated as a priority by each graduating country, which can, inter alia, mitigate the possible loss of concessionary financing and reduce the risks of falling heavily into debt.

21. While the well-being of small island developing States and their peoples depends first and foremost on national actions, we recognize that there is an urgent need to strengthen cooperation and enable strong, genuine and durable partnerships at the subnational, national, subregional, regional and international levels to enhance international cooperation and action to address the unique and particular vulnerabilities of small island developing States so as to ensure their sustainable development.

22. We reaffirm our commitment to take urgent and concrete action to address the vulnerability of small island developing States, including through the sustained implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action and the Mauritius Strategy, and we underscore the urgency of finding additional solutions to the major challenges facing small island developing States in a concerted manner so as to support them in sustaining the momentum realized in implementing the Samoa Pathway. With renewed political will and strong leadership, we dedicate ourselves to working in meaningful partnership with all stakeholders at all levels. It is in this context that the present Samoa Pathway presents a basis for action in the agreed priority areas.

Sustained and sustainable, inclusive and equitable economic growth with decent work for all

Development models in small island developing States for the implementation of sustainable development and poverty eradication

23. We recognize that the ability of the small island developing States to sustain high levels of economic growth and job creation has been affected by the ongoing adverse impacts of the global economic crisis, declining foreign direct investment, trade imbalances, increased indebtedness, the lack of adequate transportation, energy and information and communications technology infrastructure networks, limited human and institutional capacity and the inability to integrate effectively into the global economy. The growth prospects of the small island developing States have also been hindered by other factors, including climate change, the impact of natural disasters, the high cost of imported energy and the degradation of coastal and marine ecosystems and sea-level rise.

24. As it is vitally important to support the efforts of small island developing States to build resilient societies and economies, we recognize that beyond the rich ecosystems of those States, people are their greatest resource. In order to achieve sustained, inclusive and equitable growth with full and productive employment, social protection and the creation of decent work for all, small island developing States, in partnership with the international community, will seek to increase investment in the education and training of their people. Migrants and diaspora communities and organizations also play an important role in enhancing development in their communities of origin. Sound macroeconomic policies and sustainable economic management, fiscal predictability, investment and regulatory certainty, responsible borrowing and lending and debt sustainability are also critical, as is the need to address high rates of unemployment, particularly among youth, women and persons with disabilities.

25. We affirm that there are different approaches, visions, models and tools available to each country, in accordance with its national circumstances and priorities, for achieving sustainable development in its three dimensions, which is our overarching goal. In this regard, we consider the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication as one of the important tools available for achieving sustainable development. We call upon the United Nations system, in collaboration with other stakeholders, to strengthen its coordination and support of small island developing States that want to pursue green economy policies.

26. We acknowledge that the implementation of sustainable development depends primarily on national action and leadership. We recognize that the private sector plays an increasingly important role in achieving sustainable economic development, including through public-private partnerships. We recognize that sustainable development will also depend, inter alia, on intergovernmental and international cooperation and the active engagement of both the public and private sectors.

27. Taking into full account their national development priorities and individual country circumstances and legislation, we call for support for the efforts of small island developing States to take the following actions:

(a) Enhancing international cooperation, exchanges and investments in formal and non-formal education and training to create an environment that supports sustainable investments and growth. This includes the development of entrepreneurial and vocational skills, support for transitions from basic to secondary education and from school to work, the building and strengthening of education infrastructure, better health, active citizenship, respect for cultural diversity, non‑discrimination and environmental consciousness for all people, including women, youth and persons with disabilities;

(b) Enhancing the enabling environment at the national and regional levels to attract more public and private investment in building and maintaining appropriate infrastructure, including ports, roads, transportation, electricity and power generation and information and communications technology infrastructure, and also enhancing the development impact of the private sector and the financial services industry;

(c) Fostering entrepreneurship and innovation, building capacity and increasing the competitiveness and social entrepreneurship of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises and State-owned enterprises in small island developing States, as well as encouraging inclusive and sustainable industrial development with the participation of all people, including the poor, women, youth and persons with disabilities;

(d) Supporting national, regional and international initiatives that develop and increase the capacity and development impact of the financial services industry in small island developing States;

(e) Creating local decent jobs through private and public projects and encouraging entrepreneurs to start up environmentally sound businesses through adequate and appropriate incentives;

(f) Promoting and fostering an environment conducive to increased public and private sector investment and the creation of decent jobs and livelihoods that contribute to sustainable development, with full respect for international labour standards;

(g) Promoting and enhancing the use of information and communications technologies for, inter alia, education, the creation of employment, in particular youth employment, and economic sustainability purposes in small island developing States;

(h) Promoting and enhancing gender equality and women’s equal participation, including in policies and programmes in the public and private sectors in small island developing States;

(i) Setting national regulatory and policy frameworks, as appropriate, that enable business and industry to advance sustainable development initiatives, taking into account the importance of transparency, accountability and corporate social responsibility.

28. Acknowledging the way in which debt servicing limits the fiscal space of highly indebted small island developing States, we support the consideration of traditional and innovative approaches to promote the debt sustainability of highly indebted small island developing States, including their continued eligibility for concessionary financing from international financial institutions, as appropriate, and the strengthening of domestic revenue mobilization.

29. We acknowledge the importance of addressing debt sustainability to ensure the smooth transition of those small island developing States that have graduated from least developed country status.

Sustainable tourism

30. Recognizing that sustainable tourism represents an important driver of sustainable economic growth and decent job creation, we strongly support small island developing States in taking the following actions:

(a) Developing and implementing policies that promote responsive, responsible, resilient and sustainable tourism, inclusive of all peoples;

(b) Diversifying sustainable tourism through products and services, including large-scale tourism projects with positive economic, social and environmental impacts and the development of ecotourism, agritourism and cultural tourism;

(c) Promoting policies that allow local communities to gain optimum benefits from tourism while allowing them to determine the extent and nature of their participation;

(d) Designing and implementing participatory measures to enhance employment opportunities, in particular of women, youth and persons with disabilities, including through partnerships and capacity development, while conserving their natural, built and cultural heritage, especially ecosystems and biodiversity;

(e) Leveraging the expertise of, inter alia, the Global Sustainable Tourism Council, the Global Observatories on Sustainable Tourism of the World Tourism Organization, the Global Partnership for Sustainable Tourism and other United Nations bodies, as well as the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production patterns, to provide platforms for the exchange of best practices and direct and focused support to their national efforts;

(f) Establishing, upon request, an island, food and sustainable tourism support initiative based on community participation, which takes into consideration ethical values, livelihoods and human settlements, the landscape, the sea, local culture and local products, in collaboration with the World Tourism Organization, the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the United Nations Human Settlements Programme, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, regional development banks and regional and national agricultural, cultural, environmental and tourism authorities where they exist;

(g) Establishing and maintaining, where necessary, the governance and management structures for sustainable tourism and human settlements that bring together responsibilities and expertise in the areas of tourism, environment, health, disaster risk reduction, culture, land and housing, transportation, security and immigration, planning and development, and enabling a meaningful partnership approach among the public and private sectors and local communities.

Climate change

31. We reaffirm that small island developing States remain a special case for sustainable development in view of their unique and particular vulnerabilities, and we acknowledge that climate change and sea-level rise continue to pose a significant risk to small island developing States and their efforts to achieve sustainable development and, for some, represent the gravest threat to their survival and viability.

32. We also reaffirm that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time, and we express profound alarm that emissions of greenhouse gases continue to rise globally. We are deeply concerned that all countries, particularly developing countries, are vulnerable to the adverse impacts of climate change and are already experiencing an increase in such impacts, including persistent drought and extreme weather events, sea-level rise, coastal erosion and ocean acidification, further threatening food security and efforts to eradicate poverty and achieve sustainable development. In this regard, we emphasize that adaptation to climate change represents an immediate and urgent global priority.

33. We acknowledge the leadership role of small island developing States in advocating for ambitious global efforts to address climate change, raising awareness of the need for urgent and ambitious action to address climate change at the global level and making efforts to adapt to the intensifying impacts of climate change and to further develop and implement plans, policies, strategies and legislative frameworks with support where necessary.

34. We stress that the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is the primary international intergovernmental forum for negotiating the global response to climate change in order to protect the global climate.

35. We recall the objectives, principles and provisions of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, [18] and underscore that the global nature of climate change calls for the widest possible cooperation by all countries and their participation in an effective and appropriate international response, with a view to accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. We recall that the Convention provides that parties should protect the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind on the basis of equity and in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.

36. We note with grave concern the significant gap between the aggregate effect of mitigation pledges by parties in terms of global annual emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020 and aggregate emission pathways consistent with having a likely chance of holding the increase in global average temperature below 2 degrees Celsius, or 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels.

37. We reaffirm the decision of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change on long-term climate finance, [19] noting the importance of climate finance in addressing climate change.

38. We look forward to the full operationalization and initial capitalization of the Green Climate Fund, including the expeditious implementation of its initial resource mobilization process, taking into account that the Fund will play a key role in channelling, new, additional, adequate and predictable financial resources to developing countries and will catalyse climate finance, both public and private, at the international and national levels.

39. We urge developed country parties to increase technology, finance and capacity-building support to enable increased mitigation ambition and adaptation actions on the part of developing country parties.

40. We reaffirm the importance of engaging a broad range of stakeholders at the global, regional, subregional, national and local levels, including national, subnational and local governments and the scientific community, private businesses and civil society, and also including youth and persons with disabilities, and also reaffirm that gender equality and the effective participation of women and indigenous peoples are important for effective action on all aspects of climate change.

41. We reaffirm the decision of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to adopt a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention applicable to all parties at its twenty-first session, to be held in Paris in December 2015, and for it to enter into effect and be implemented as from 2020.

42. We note the convening by the Secretary-General of the Climate Summit in New York on 23 September 2014, aimed at mobilizing actions and ambition in relation to climate change.

43. We will work together to implement and operationalize the Warsaw international mechanism for loss and damage associated with climate change impacts [20] through comprehensive, inclusive and strategic approaches to address loss and damage associated with the impacts of climate change in developing countries, including small island developing States, that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.

44. We call for support for the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To build resilience to the impacts of climate change and to improve their adaptive capacity through the design and implementation of climate change adaptation measures appropriate to their respective vulnerabilities and economic, environmental and social situations;

(b) To improve the baseline monitoring of island systems and the downscaling of climate model projections to enable better projections of the future impacts on small islands;

(c) To raise awareness and communicate climate change risks, including through public dialogue with local communities, to increase human and environmental resilience to the longer-term impacts of climate change;

(d) To address remaining gaps in capacity for gaining access to and managing climate finance.

45. We recognize that the phasing out of ozone-depleting substances is resulting in a rapid increase in the use and the release into the environment of hydrofluorocarbons with a high potential for global warming. We support the gradual phasing down of the consumption and production of hydrofluorocarbons.

46. We recognize the importance of scaling up support for activities to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in the context of the REDD‑plus mechanism in small island developing States, including the implementation of the Warsaw Framework for REDD-plus. [21]

Sustainable energy

47. We recognize that dependence on imported fossil fuels has been a major source of economic vulnerability and a key challenge for small island developing States for many decades and that sustainable energy, including enhanced accessibility to modern energy services, energy efficiency and use of economically viable and environmentally sound technology, plays a critical role in enabling the sustainable development of small island developing States.

48. We highlight the efforts of small island developing States concerning sustainable energy, including through the Barbados Declaration on Achieving Sustainable Energy for All in Small Island Developing States, aimed at promoting transformational and innovative activities in such areas as access to affordable modern energy services, renewable energy, energy-efficient technologies and low carbon development, in the context of sustainable development, including, on a voluntary basis, the commitments by many small island developing States to undertake the actions contained in annex I to the Declaration. The “Sustainable energy for all” initiative of the Secretary-General, which focuses on access to energy, energy efficiency and renewable energy, complemented by international commitments, provides a useful framework.

49. We urge the international community, including regional and international development banks, bilateral donors, the United Nations system, the International Renewable Energy Agency and other relevant stakeholders to continue to provide adequate support, including in the areas of capacity-building and technology transfer, on mutually agreed terms, for the development and implementation of national, regional and interregional energy policies, plans and strategies to address the special vulnerabilities of small island developing States. We welcome the Global Renewable Energy Islands Network of the International Renewable Energy Agency, which helps small island developing States by pooling knowledge and sharing best practices.

50. We strongly support actions:

(a) To develop a strategy and targeted measures to promote energy efficiency and foster sustainable energy systems based on all energy sources, in particular renewable energy sources, in small island developing States, such as wind, sustainable biomass, solar, hydroelectric, biofuel and geothermal energy;

(b) To facilitate access to existing financing mechanisms to increase capital flows for the implementation of sustainable energy projects in small island developing States on renewable energy and energy efficiency;

(c) To support investment in initiatives by and for small island developing States, in particular the “SIDS DOCK” indicative project pipeline of renewable energy and energy efficiency and conservation projects, as well as in the areas of capacity-building and human resources development and public education and awareness;

(d) To promote international collaboration to ensure the access of small island developing States to energy by, inter alia, strengthening their integration with regional and international energy markets and increasing the use of locally available sources of energy in the energy mix, joint infrastructure development projects and investment in production and storage capacities, in accordance with national legislation;

(e) To fulfil their bold and ambitious renewable energy and energy efficiency targets in small island developing States for the next decade, taking into account national circumstances, the diversification of energy systems and the provision of funds and technology on mutually agreed terms;

(f) To enhance international cooperation and cooperation among small island developing States for research and technological development and for the implementation of appropriate renewable energy and energy-efficient and environmentally sound technologies for small island developing States, including cleaner fossil fuel technology and smart grid technology, through the provision of, inter alia, financing from a variety of sources, the exchange of best practices and access to efficient technologies on mutually agreed terms;

(g) To access existing mechanisms, or, in regions with no existing mechanism, to encourage the establishment of user-friendly, accurate and comprehensive regional data repositories as online databases on energy, and to conduct technical studies and gather information on grid stability and management, including maximizing the integration of renewable energy and innovative storage mechanisms;

(h) To work on an integrated approach to establishing and strengthening innovative energy road maps in small island developing States, with detailed resource planning, which takes into account social, environmental and economic considerations, as well as access to energy for the poor and people in remote areas.

Disaster risk reduction

51. We recognize that small island developing States continue to grapple with the effects of disasters, some of which have increased in intensity and some of which have been exacerbated by climate change, which impede their progress towards sustainable development. We also recognize that disasters can disproportionately affect small island developing States and that there is a critical need to build resilience, strengthen monitoring and prevention, reduce vulnerability, raise awareness and increase preparedness to respond to and recover from disasters.

52. In consideration of the special case of small island developing States and their unique and particular vulnerabilities, we are committed to supporting their efforts:

(a) To gain access to technical assistance and financing for early warning systems, disaster risk reduction and post-disaster response and recovery, risk assessment and data, land use and planning, observation equipment, disaster preparedness and recovery education programmes, including under the Global Framework for Climate Services, and disaster risk management;

(b) To promote cooperation and investment in disaster risk management in the public and private sectors;

(c) To strengthen and support contingency planning and provisions for disaster preparedness and response, emergency relief and population evacuation, in particular for people in vulnerable situations, women and girls, displaced persons, children, older persons and people with disabilities;

(d) To implement the Hyogo Framework for Action and work for an ambitious renewed international framework for post-2015 disaster risk reduction that builds on previous achievements, prioritizes prevention and mitigation and incorporates implementation frameworks to address implementation gaps if and when they exist;

(e) To mainstream policies and programmes related to disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and development, as appropriate;

(f) To harmonize national and regional reporting systems, where applicable, to increase synergies and coherence;

(g) To establish and strengthen risk insurance facilities at the national and regional levels and place disaster risk management and building resilience at the centre of policies and strategies, where applicable;

(h) To increase participation in international and regional disaster risk reduction initiatives.

Oceans and seas

53. We acknowledge that oceans and seas, along with coastal areas, form an essential component of the Earth’s ecosystem and are intrinsically linked to sustainable development, including that of small island developing States. Healthy, productive and resilient oceans and coasts are critical for, inter alia, poverty eradication, access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food, livelihoods, economic development and essential ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration, and represent an important element of identity and culture for the people of small island developing States. Sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, coastal tourism, the possible use of seabed resources and potential sources of renewable energy are among the main building blocks of a sustainable ocean-based economy in small island developing States.

54. Recognizing that small island developing States have large maritime areas and have shown notable leadership in the conservation and sustainable use of those areas and their resources, we support their efforts to develop and implement strategies for the conservation and sustainable use of those areas and resources. We also support their efforts to conserve their valuable underwater cultural heritage.

55. We reaffirm that international law, as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, [22] provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources.

56. Recognizing the concern that potential oil leaks from sunken State vessels have environmental implications for the marine and coastal ecosystems of small island developing States, and taking into account the sensitivities surrounding vessels that are marine graves, we note that small island developing States and relevant vessel owners should continue to address the issue bilaterally on a case-by‑case basis.

57. We recognize that an integrated ecosystem approach to ocean-related activities is needed to optimize opportunities. It should be based on the best available science, give due regard to conservation efforts and precautionary approaches and ensure coherence and balance among the three dimensions of sustainable development.

58. With this in mind, we strongly support action:

(a) To promote and support national, subregional and regional efforts to assess, conserve, protect, manage and sustainably use the oceans, seas and their resources by supporting research and the implementation of strategies on coastal zone management and ecosystem-based management, including for fisheries management, and enhancing national legal and institutional frameworks for the exploration and sustainable use of living and non-living resources;

(b) To engage in national and regional efforts to sustainably develop the ocean resources of small island developing States and generate increasing returns for their peoples;

(c) To implement fully and effectively the regional seas programmes in which small island developing States participate;

(d) To address marine pollution by developing effective partnerships, including through the development and implementation of relevant arrangements, such as the United Nations Environment Programme Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, and, as appropriate, instruments on marine debris and on nutrient, wastewater and other marine pollution, and through the sharing and implementation of best practices;

(e) To undertake urgent action to protect coral reefs and other vulnerable marine ecosystems through the development and implementation of comprehensive and integrated approaches for the management and the enhancement of their resilience to withstand pressures, including from ocean acidification and invasive species, and by drawing on measures such as those identified in the Framework for Action 2013 of the International Coral Reef Initiative;

(f) To undertake marine scientific research and develop the associated technological capacity of small island developing States, including through the establishment of dedicated regional oceanographic centres and the provision of technical assistance, for the delimitation of their maritime areas and the preparation of submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf;

(g) To enhance and implement the monitoring, control and surveillance of fishing vessels so as to effectively prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing, including through institutional capacity-building at the appropriate levels;

(h) To support the sustainable development of small-scale fisheries, improved mechanisms for resource assessment and management and enhanced facilities for fisheries workers, as well as initiatives that add value to outputs from small-scale fisheries, and to enhance access to markets for the products of sustainable small-scale fisheries of small island developing States;

(i) To strengthen disciplines on subsidies in the fisheries sector, including through the prohibition of certain forms of subsidies that contribute to over-capacity and overfishing, in accordance with the Doha Ministerial Declaration adopted by the World Trade Organization in 2001 and the Hong Kong Ministerial Declaration adopted by the World Trade Organization in 2005;

(j) For States that have not done so, to consider becoming parties to the 2001 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage;[23]

(k) To promote the conservation, sustainable use and management of straddling and highly migratory fish stocks, including through measures that benefit small island developing States that are adopted by relevant regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements;

(l) To enhance the capacity of small island developing States to sustainably use their fisheries resources and develop fisheries-related industries, enabling them to maximize benefits from their fisheries resources and ensure that the burden of conservation and management of ocean resources is not disproportionately transferred to small island developing States;

(m) To urge the cooperation of the international community in implementing shared responsibilities under regional fisheries management organizations and arrangements to enable small island developing States to benefit from and sustainably manage straddling and highly migratory fish stocks covered by those organizations and arrangements;

(n) To enhance local, national, regional and global cooperation to address the causes of ocean acidification and to further study and minimize its impacts, including through information-sharing, regional workshops, the integration of scientists from small island developing States into international research teams, steps to make marine ecosystems more resilient to the impacts of ocean acidification and the possible development of a strategy for all small island developing States on ocean acidification;

(o) To conserve by 2020 at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas in small island developing States, especially areas of particular importance for biodiversity and for ecosystem services, through effectively and equitably managed, ecologically representative and well-connected systems of protected areas and other effective area-based conservation measures in order to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss in the marine environment;

(p) To address concerns about the long-term effects of munitions dumped at sea, including their potential impact on human health and safety and on the marine environment and resources.

Food security and nutrition

59. We recognize that small island developing States, primarily net food-importing countries, are exceptionally vulnerable to the fluctuating availability and excessive price volatility of food imports. It is therefore important to support the right of everyone to have access to safe, sufficient and nutritious food, the eradication of hunger and the provision of livelihoods while conserving, protecting and ensuring the sustainable use of land, soil, forests, water, plants and animals, biodiversity and ecosystems. We stress the crucial role of healthy marine ecosystems, sustainable agriculture, sustainable fisheries and sustainable aquaculture for enhancing food security and access to adequate, safe and nutritious food and in providing for the livelihoods of the people of the small island developing States.

60. We also recognize the danger caused by an unhealthy diet and the need to promote healthy food production and consumption.

61. We recognize the call, in the outcome of the interregional preparatory meeting for the third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, adopted in Bridgetown on 28 August 2013,[24] to facilitate a meeting on food and nutrition security in small island developing States in order to develop an action programme to address food and nutrition challenges facing those States, and we invite the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations to facilitate this biennial forum.

62. We note the convening of the second International Conference on Nutrition in Rome in November 2014, organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization, which has important implications for small island developing States, and look forward to its outcome.

63. In this regard, we are committed to working together to support the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To promote the further use of sustainable practices relating to agriculture, crops, livestock, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture to improve food and nutrition security while ensuring the sustainable management of the required water resources;

(b) To promote open and efficient international and domestic markets to support economic development and optimize food security and nutrition;

(c) To enhance international cooperation to maintain access to global food markets, particularly during periods of higher volatility in commodity markets;

(d) To increase rural income and jobs, with a focus on the empowerment of smallholders and small-scale food producers, especially women;

(e) To end malnutrition in all its forms, including by securing year-round access to sufficient, safe, affordable, diverse and nutritious food;

(f) To enhance the resilience of agriculture and fisheries to the adverse impacts of climate change, ocean acidification and natural disasters;

(g) To maintain natural ecological processes that support sustainable food production systems through international technical cooperation.

Water and sanitation

64. We recognize that small island developing States face numerous challenges with respect to freshwater resources, including pollution, the overexploitation of surface, ground and coastal waters, saline intrusion, drought and water scarcity, soil erosion, water and wastewater treatment and the lack of access to sanitation and hygiene. Furthermore, changes in rainfall patterns related to climate change have regionally varying and potentially significant impacts on water supply.

65. In this regard, we are committed to supporting the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To develop institutional and human capacities for the effective, inclusive and sustainable implementation of the integrated management of water resources and related ecosystems, including supporting women’s engagement in water management systems;

(b) To provide and operate appropriate facilities and infrastructure for safe drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and waste management systems, including the exploration of desalination technology where economically and environmentally feasible;

(c) To facilitate the expansion of wastewater treatment, recycling and reuse in the context of the sustainable and efficient use of water resources;

(d) To improve water-use efficiency and work towards eliminating over-extraction, especially of groundwater, and to mitigate the effects of saltwater intrusion.

Sustainable transportation

66. We recognize that transportation and mobility are central to the sustainable development of small island developing States. Sustainable transportation can enhance economic growth, promote trade opportunities and improve accessibility. Sustainable, reliable and safe transportation achieves better integration of the economy while respecting the environment. We also recognize the importance of the efficient movement of people and goods in fostering full engagement in local, regional and global markets and the potential for sustainable transportation to improve social equity, health, the resilience of cities, urban-rural linkages and the productivity of rural areas of small island developing States.

67. In this regard, we are committed to continuing and enhancing support for the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To gain access to environmentally sound, safe, affordable and well‑maintained transportation;

(b) To advance the safety of land, sea and air transportation;

(c) To develop viable national, regional and international transportation arrangements, including improved air, land and sea transport policies that take a life-cycle approach to the development and management of transport infrastructure;

(d) To increase energy efficiency in the transport sector.

Sustainable consumption and production

68. As promoting sustainable patterns of consumption and production is an overarching objective of and essential requirement for sustainable development, we recall the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production patterns and its vision, and we recognize that all countries should promote sustainable consumption and production patterns, with developed countries taking the lead and all countries benefiting from the process. This should be done in accordance with national objectives, needs and priorities, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries with the aim of minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development, and in a manner that protects the poor and affected communities.

69. In this regard, we call for support for the efforts of small island developing States to develop and implement programmes under the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production patterns to advance sustainable consumption and production, with an emphasis on micro, small and medium-sized enterprises, sustainable tourism, waste management, food and nutrition, lifestyles, education for sustainable development and linkages in the supply chain to promote rural development.

Management of chemicals and waste, including hazardous waste

70. We recognize that the sound management of chemicals throughout their life cycle and of waste is crucial for the protection of human health and the environment. For small island developing States, as for all countries, environmentally sound waste management is also crucial for human health and environmental protection, and the small land area and remoteness of many small island developing States pose particular challenges for the sound disposal of waste.

71. In this regard, we acknowledge the following actions to improve the management of chemicals and waste:

(a) Enhancing technical cooperation programmes, including those under the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal,[25] the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management of the United Nations Environment Programme, the secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme, the London Convention and Protocol and the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, to strengthen national, regional and international mechanisms for the management of waste, including chemical and hazardous waste, ship- and aircraft-generated waste and marine plastic litter, and further strengthening and expanding geographic coverage of oil spill contingency plans;

(b) For States that have not done so, considering becoming parties to and ensuring an enabling environment for the implementation, including with technical and other appropriate support, of the multilateral environmental agreements on chemicals and waste and implementing, as appropriate, the Globally Harmonized System of the Classification and Labelling of Chemicals and the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management;

(c) Facilitating improved access to existing capacity-building programmes, such as those under the International Health Regulations of the World Health Organization, which call for strengthened management of specific risks, including control programmes for chemical and other toxic and environmental events;

(d) Implementing reduction, reuse, recycling, recovery and return approaches in accordance with national capacities and priorities, inter alia, through capacity-building and environmentally appropriate technologies.

Health and non-communicable diseases

72. We recognize that health is a precondition for and an outcome and indicator of all three dimensions of sustainable development. Sustainable development can be achieved only in the absence of a high prevalence of debilitating communicable and non-communicable diseases, including emerging and re-emerging diseases, and when populations can reach a state of physical, mental and social well-being.

73. We recognize that the burden and threat of communicable and non‑communicable diseases remain serious global concerns and constitute one of the major challenges for small island developing States in the twenty-first century. While prevention, treatment, care and education are critical, we call upon the international community to support the national actions of small island developing States in addressing communicable and non-communicable diseases.

74. We take note of the outcome document of the high-level meeting of the General Assembly on the comprehensive review and assessment of the progress achieved in the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases.[26]

75. In this regard, we reaffirm our commitment to support the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To develop and implement comprehensive, whole- government multi-sectoral policies and strategies for the prevention and management of diseases, including through the strengthening of health systems, the promotion of effective universal health coverage implementation, the distribution of medical and drug supplies, education and public awareness and incentivizing people to lead healthier lives through a healthy diet, good nutrition, sports and education;

(b) To develop specific national programmes and policies geared towards the strengthening of health systems for the achievement of universal coverage of health services and the distribution of medical and drug supplies, with the assistance of the United Nations Children’s Fund, the World Health Organization, the United Nations Population Fund, key development partners and other stakeholders, at the invitation of small island developing States;

(c) To take urgent steps to establish, for the period from 2015 to 2025, 10-year targets and strategies to reverse the spread and severity of non-communicable diseases;

(d) To implement well-planned and value-added interventions that strengthen health promotion, promote primary health care and develop accountability mechanisms for monitoring non-communicable diseases;

(e) To enable cooperation among small island developing States on diseases by using existing international and regional forums to convene joint biennial meetings of ministers of health and other relevant sectors to respond in particular to non-communicable diseases;

(f) To achieve universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support and to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV, as well as to renew and strengthen the fight against malaria, tuberculosis and neglected emerging and re-emerging tropical diseases, including chikungunya and dengue;

(g) To reduce maternal, newborn and child mortality and improve the health of mothers, infants and children.

Gender equality and women’s empowerment

76. We recognize that gender equality and women’s empowerment and the full realization of human rights for women and girls have a transformative and multiplier effect on sustainable development and is a driver of economic growth in small island developing States. Women can be powerful agents of change.

77. In this regard, we support the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To eliminate all forms of discrimination against women and girls;

(b) To integrate a gender perspective in priority areas for sustainable development;

(c) To strengthen women’s economic empowerment and ensure equal access to full and productive employment and decent work;

(d) To end all forms of violence against women and girls;

(e) To continue taking measures to ensure women’s full, equal and effective participation in all fields and leadership at all levels of decision-making in the public and private sectors through such policies and actions as temporary special measures, as appropriate, and by setting and working to achieve concrete goals, targets and benchmarks;

(f) To guarantee equal access to good-quality education and health care;

(g) To ensure in small island developing States the promotion and protection of the human rights of all women and their sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights in accordance with the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, [27] the Beijing Platform for Action[28] and the outcome documents of their review conferences;

(h) To tackle the structural and socioeconomic inequalities and multiple intersecting forms of discrimination that affect women and girls, including those with disabilities, that hinder progress and development;

(i) To give women equal rights with men to economic resources, including access to, ownership of and control over land and other forms of property, credit, inheritance, natural resources and appropriate new technologies.

Social development

78. We recognize that social development, as one of the three dimensions of sustainable development, is crucial to ensuring development progress by small island developing States both now and in the future. We therefore support efforts to enhance social protection and inclusion, to improve well-being and to guarantee opportunities for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged.

79. We support small island developing States in their commitment to an approach to development that is focused on poverty eradication, which should ensure that people, particularly those living in poverty, have equal access to education, health, food, water and sanitation and other public and social services and access to productive resources, including credit, land, training, knowledge, information and know-how. That approach enables citizens and local communities to participate in decision-making on social development policies and programmes.

Culture and sport

80. We recognize that small island developing States possess a wealth of culture, which is a driver and an enabler for sustainable development. In particular, indigenous and traditional knowledge and cultural expression, which underscores the deep connections among people, culture, knowledge and the natural environment, can meaningfully advance sustainable development and social cohesion.

81. In this regard, we strongly support the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To promote cultural diversity, intercultural dialogue and international cooperation in the cultural field in line with applicable international conventions, in particular those of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization;

(b) To leverage and build on the joint work of the World Intellectual Property Organization and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization;

(c) To develop and strengthen national and regional cultural activities and infrastructures, including through the network of World Heritage Sites, which reinforce local capacities, promote awareness in small island developing States, enhance tangible and intangible cultural heritage, including local and indigenous knowledge, and involve local people for the benefit of present and future generations;

(d) To develop cultural and creative industries, including tourism, that capitalize on their rich heritage of and have a role to play in sustainable and inclusive growth;

(e) To develop domestic mechanisms to conserve, promote, protect and preserve their natural, tangible and intangible cultural heritage practices and traditional knowledge.

82. Recognizing the strong capacity of small island developing States in sport, we support the use of sport as a vehicle to foster development, social inclusion and peace, strengthen education, promote health and build life skills, particularly among youth.

Promoting peaceful societies and safe communities

83. We recognize the importance of supporting small island developing States in their ongoing efforts to ensure peaceful societies and safe communities, including through building responsive and accountable institutions and ensuring access to justice and respect for all human rights, taking into account their national priorities and legislations.

84. We recognize that the sustainable development of small island developing States can be negatively affected by crime and violence, including conflict, gang and youth violence, piracy, trafficking in persons, cybercrime, drug trafficking and transnational organized crime. In particular, the lack of sustainable livelihoods and opportunities for further education and the breaking down of community support structures can lead to increasing numbers of young men and women becoming involved in violence and crime.

85. We support the efforts of small island developing States to combat trafficking in persons, cybercrime, drug trafficking, transnational organized crime and international piracy by promoting the accession, ratification and implementation of applicable conventions, enacting and using legislation that prohibits trafficking, promoting strong institutions and improving protection mechanisms to ensure adequate care for victims of sex trafficking and forced labour in accordance with relevant national and international agreements and treaties.

86. We support the development of action plans in small island developing States to eliminate violence against women and girls, who are often targets of gender-based violence and are disproportionately affected by crime, violence and conflict, and to ensure they are centrally involved in all relevant processes.

Education

87. We reaffirm that full and equal access to quality education at all levels is an essential condition for achieving sustainable development and the importance of local, national, regional and international efforts in this regard.

88. We are committed, in this regard, to strongly supporting the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To provide high-quality education and training for youth and girls with a focus on the most vulnerable, in particular persons with disabilities, including in creative, cultural and environment-related fields, so that all people have the necessary skills and can take advantage of employment opportunities to lead productive lives;

(b) To ensure that education contributes to further building peace and promoting social inclusion;

(c) To increase their investment in education, training and skills development for all, including vocational training, and to improve their access to formal and non-formal education, including to gain entrepreneurial skills, through both formal and non-formal means, such as the use of distance teaching and the development of training approaches appropriate for small island developing States.

Biodiversity

89. We agree to promote international cooperation and partnerships, as appropriate, and information exchange, and in this context we welcome the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity, 2011-2020, for the purpose of encouraging the active involvement of all stakeholders in the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, as well as their access to and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources, with the vision of living in harmony with nature.

90. We recognize that, overall, small island developing States have extraordinary marine and terrestrial biodiversity that in many cases is fundamental to their livelihoods and identity. Noting that this valuable biodiversity and the ecosystem services it provides are at grave risk, we strongly support the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To conserve biological diversity, the sustainable use of its components and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources;

(b) To export organic, natural, sustainably produced and locally grown products;

(c) To access financial and technical resources for the conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity.

91. We invite parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity[29] to consider ratifying and implementing the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity, while acknowledging that having access to and sharing the benefits of genetic resources contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity, poverty eradication and sustainable development.

Desertification, land degradation and drought

92. We recognize that addressing desertification, land degradation and drought challenges will be critical for the achievement by small island developing States of food security and nutrition, their adaptation to climate change, the protection of their biodiversity and the development of resilience to natural disasters. We also strongly support the efforts of small island developing States in designing and implementing preparedness and resilience policies relating to desertification, land degradation and drought as a matter of priority and in catalysing financial resources from a range of public and private sources, as well as in promoting the sustainability of their limited soil resources.

93. We acknowledge the decision of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification entitled “Follow-up to the outcomes of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20)”,[30] in which the Conference of the Parties established an intergovernmental working group to, inter alia, establish a science-based definition of land degradation neutrality in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas.

Forests

94. Recognizing that forests are vital to livelihoods and ecosystems, we strongly support the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To implement the Non-Legally Binding Instrument on All Types of Forests;

(b) To slow, halt and reverse deforestation and forest degradation, including by promoting trade in legally and sustainably harvested forest products;

(c) To achieve appropriate and effective reforestation, restoration and afforestation;

(d) To address obstacles and pursue opportunities to mobilize financing from all sources to support national sustainable forest management policies and improve the state of biological diversity by conserving and safeguarding ecosystems, species and genetic diversity;

(e) To participate in the review of the International Arrangement on Forests under the United Nations Forum on Forests in order to explore the full range of options on the future of the Arrangement;

(f) To strengthen their legal, institutional and human capacity for sustainable forest management on the basis of a holistic and integrated approach to the sustainable use of forest resources.

Invasive alien species

95. Noting that invasive alien species pose a threat to sustainable development and undermine the efforts of small island developing States to protect biodiversity and livelihoods, preserve and maintain ocean resources and ecosystem resiliency, enhance food security and adapt to climate change, we call for support for the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To enhance multisectoral collaboration at the national, regional and international levels, including through expanded support to existing structures, to effectively address invasive alien species;

(b) To improve efforts to eradicate and control invasive alien species, including through the provision of support for research on and the development of new technologies by expanding collaboration and supporting existing regional and international structures;

(c) To develop and strengthen their capacity to address invasive alien species issues, including prevention, as well as increasing public awareness in small island developing States about this issue.

Means of implementation, including partnerships

96. While acknowledging the primary responsibility of small island developing States for their own sustainable development, we recognize that the persistent development challenges of the small island developing States require enhanced global partnership for development, adequate provision and mobilization of all means of implementation and continued international support to achieve internationally agreed goals.

Partnerships

97. We call for an increase in all forms of partnership with and for small island developing States.

98. We recognize that, given the vulnerabilities and the need to build the resilience of small island developing States, and keeping in mind the theme of the third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, there is an urgent need to strengthen international cooperation and ensure genuine and durable partnerships at the national, regional and international levels to address issues related to their sustainable development priorities and needs.

99. We also call for enhanced international cooperation, including North-South, South-South and triangular cooperation, and especially cooperation among small island developing States. We reaffirm that North-South cooperation remains the core type of international cooperation and that South-South cooperation is not a substitute for, but rather a complement to, North-South cooperation. We recognize that genuine and durable partnerships will play an important role in advancing sustainable development by harnessing the full potential of engagement between governments at all levels, businesses, civil society and a wide range of other stakeholders. We further recognize that partnerships are effective instruments for mobilizing human and financial resources, expertise, technology and knowledge and can be powerful drivers for change, innovation and welfare.

100. We reaffirm that small island developing States are equal partners and that empowered, genuine and durable partnerships are based on mutual collaboration and ownership, trust, alignment, harmonization, respect, results orientation, accountability and transparency and that political will is required to undertake and implement long-term, predictable commitments. Partnerships in all their forms, regardless of size and economic value, should be utilized, enhanced and strengthened to ensure the meaningful engagement of various actors (including local authorities, civil society and non-governmental organizations, foundations, the private sector and international financial institutions) and should work to achieve the small island developing States’ vision of self-reliance and to cooperate in the implementation of national policies that help fulfil the commitments made in the Barbados Programme of Action, the Mauritius Strategy, the Samoa Pathway, the Millennium Development Goals and other international declarations and instruments.

101. In this regard, we request the Secretary-General, in consultation with Member States, to present recommendations, including through the use of existing intergovernmental mechanisms, for a partnership framework to monitor and ensure the full implementation of pledges and commitments through partnerships for small island developing States. The framework should ensure that partnerships focus on the priorities of small island developing States, identify new opportunities to advance their sustainable development of and ensure the full implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action, the Mauritius Strategy and the Samoa Pathway. The recommendations should be presented to the General Assembly for consideration and action at its sixty-ninth session.

Financing

102. We recognize that financing from all sources, domestic and international, public and private, the development and transfer of reliable, affordable, modern technology on mutually agreed terms, capacity-building assistance and enabling institutional and policy environments at all levels are critically important means of advancing sustainable development in small island developing States. As those States have unique and particular vulnerabilities that require dedicated attention, they will continue to make use of a wide range of available financing mechanisms to implement the Barbados Programme of Action, the Mauritius Strategy and the Samoa Pathway.

103. We recognize that international financing plays an important role in increasing the capacity of small island developing States to mitigate and effectively respond to multiple crises by increasing the impact of existing funds and mobilizing, catalysing and directly providing financial resources from a variety of public and private sources, including international financial institutions, to support the implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action, the Mauritius Strategy and the Samoa Pathway.

104. We urge all countries to fulfil their commitments to small island developing States, including through the provision of financial resources, to support the Barbados Programme of Action, the Mauritius Strategy and the Samoa Pathway. In this regard, the fulfilment of all official development assistance commitments to developing countries, including the commitments by many developed countries to achieve the target of 0.7 per cent of gross national income for official development assistance to developing countries by 2015, as well as the target of 0.15 to 0.20 per cent of gross national income for official development assistance to least developed countries, is crucial.

105. We welcome increasing efforts to improve the quality of official development assistance and to increase its development impact. We also recognize the need to improve development effectiveness, increase programme-based approaches, use country systems for activities managed by the public sector, reduce transaction costs and improve mutual accountability and transparency, and in this regard we call upon all donors to untie aid to the maximum extent. Furthermore, we will make development more effective and predictable by providing developing countries with regular and timely indicative information on planned support over the medium term. We recognize the importance of the efforts of developing countries to strengthen leadership regarding their own development, national institutions, systems and capacity to ensure the best results for effective development by engaging with parliaments and citizens in shaping those policies and deepening engagement with civil society organizations. We should also bear in mind that there is no one-size-fits-all formula that will guarantee development effectiveness. The specific situation of each country must be fully considered.

106. In this regard, we reaffirm our commitment to support the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To strengthen the use of domestic policies and financing, with due consideration for their respective levels of indebtedness and national capacities;

(b) To gain access to international arrangements and modalities for the financing of development for developing countries, particularly small island developing States, including through capacity-building and a review of application procedures;

(c) To implement, with the provision of appropriate financial resources, in line with existing international commitments within the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, climate change adaptation and mitigation projects;

(d) To reduce transfer costs related to remittances while pursuing the international targets and agreed outcomes of important international initiatives set by the United Nations system concerning remittances, given their importance for the economic growth of small island developing States.

Trade

107. Given the unique and particular vulnerabilities of small island developing States, for example, small size, limited negotiating capacity and remoteness from markets, we recognize that efforts are needed to support their further integration regionally and between the regions and in world markets. With this in mind, we strongly support the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To encourage their successful engagement in trade and economic agreements, taking into consideration existing special and differential treatment provisions, as appropriate, and taking note of the work conducted to date under the work programme on small economies of the World Trade Organization;

(b) To obtain technical assistance through trade-related assistance mechanisms and other programmes to strengthen their capacity to effectively participate in the multilateral trading system, including with respect to explaining trade rules and disciplines, negotiating and implementing trade agreements and formulating and administering coherent trade policies, with a view to improving trade competitiveness as well as development and growth prospects;

(c) To assess the implications and mitigate the impact of non-tariff barriers to their market access opportunities through, inter alia, appropriate technical assistance and the implementation of the Trade Facilitation Agreement of the World Trade Organization;

(d) To develop and strengthen partnerships to enhance the participation of small island developing States in the international trade in goods and services, build their productive capacities and address their supply-side constraints.

Capacity-building

108. We affirm that small island developing States require continued and enhanced investments in education and training programmes to develop human and institutional capacities so as to build the resilience of their societies and economies, while encouraging the use and retention of knowledge in all its forms, including traditional knowledge, within those States and ensuring accountability and transparency in all capacity-building efforts by all parties.

109. In this regard, we strongly support the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To improve existing mechanisms and resources to provide coordinated and coherent United Nations system-wide capacity-building programmes for small island developing States through United Nations country teams, in collaboration with national agencies, regional commissions and intergovernmental organizations, to enhance national capacities and institutions, building on the lessons and successes of the Capacity 2015 initiative;

(b) To strengthen their national institutions to complement capacity-building;

(c) To ensure the inclusion of capacity-building and institution-strengthening, as appropriate, in all cooperation frameworks and partnerships and their integration in the priorities and work programmes of all United Nations agencies providing assistance to small island developing States in concert with other development efforts, within their existing mandates and resources;

(d) To establish a dedicated intensive training programme for sustainable development for small island developing States in the University Consortium of Small Island States;

(e) To strengthen technical assistance programmes in partnership with the United Nations Development Programme and the United Nations Office for South‑South Cooperation and regional institutions in small island developing States;

(f) To build national capacity, where appropriate, to utilize cost-benefit analysis for informed policymaking in the area of sustainable development, including models specific to small island developing States that evaluate the technical, financial, social, economic and environmental aspects related to the accession, ratification and implementation of multilateral environmental agreements and related instruments;

(g) To build national capacity to fulfil reporting requirements deriving from commitments made by small island developing States when signing international agreements and commitments;

(h) To establish national and regional information and communications technology platforms and information dissemination hubs in small island developing States to facilitate information exchange and cooperation, building on existing information and communication platforms, as appropriate;

(i) To enhance regional and interregional cooperation among small island developing States on education and training so as to identify and apply appropriate good practices as solutions to shared challenges;

(j) To ensure that women are fully and equally able to benefit from capacity development and that institutions are inclusive and supportive of women at all levels, including at the senior leadership levels.

Technology

110. We recognize that access by small island developing States to appropriate reliable, affordable, modern and environmentally sound technologies is critical to achieving their sustainable development objectives and in fostering an environment that provides incentives for innovation and entrepreneurship and that science, technology and innovation are essential enablers and drivers for sustainable development.

111. In this regard, we reaffirm our commitment to support the efforts of small island developing States to gain access, on mutually agreed terms, to appropriate, reliable, affordable, modern and environmentally sound technologies and know-how and to increase connectivity and the use of information and communications technology through improved infrastructure, training and national legislation, as well as public and private sector involvement.

Data and statistics

112. We reaffirm the role that data and statistics play in development planning in small island developing States and the need for the United Nations system to collect statistics from those States, irrespective of size and in the least burdensome way, by, inter alia, allowing electronic submission and, where appropriate, submissions through competent regional agencies.

113. We recognize that improved data collection and statistical analysis are required to enable small island developing States to effectively plan, follow up on, evaluate the implementation of and track successes in attaining the internationally agreed development goals.

114. In this regard, we reaffirm our commitment to support the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To strengthen the availability and accessibility of their data and statistical systems, in accordance with national priorities and circumstances, and enhance their management of complex data systems, including geospatial data platforms, by launching new partnership initiatives or scaling up existing initiatives;

(b) To utilize existing United Nations statistical standards and resources in the areas of social and environmental statistics;

(c) To improve the collection, analysis, dissemination and use of gender statistics and data disaggregated by sex, age, disability and other relevant variables in a systemic and coordinated manner at the national level, through appropriate financial and technical support and capacity-building, while recognizing the need for international cooperation in this regard.

115. Furthermore, we call upon the United Nations, the specialized agencies and relevant intergovernmental organizations, in accordance with their respective mandates:

(a) To make greater use of the national statistics and development indicators of small island developing States, where available;

(b) To support a sustainable development statistics and information programme for small island developing States;

(c) To elaborate appropriate indices for assessing the progress made in the sustainable development of small island developing States that better reflect their vulnerability and guide them to adopt more informed policies and strategies for building and sustaining long-term resilience and to strengthen national disaggregated data and information systems as well as analytical capabilities for decision-making, the tracking of progress and the development of vulnerability‑resilience country profiles.

Institutional support for small island developing States

116. We call upon the United Nations system, international and regional financial institutions and other multilateral development partners to continue to support small island developing States in their efforts to implement national sustainable development strategies and programmes by incorporating the priorities and activities of small island developing States into their relevant strategic and programmatic frameworks, including through the United Nations Development Assistance Framework, at both the national and regional levels, in line with their mandates and overall priorities.

117. In this regard, we call upon the United Nations system to provide support:

(a) To ensure that United Nations entities take fully into account the issues of small island developing States and include support for those States and the development of their capacities in their programmes at the appropriate levels;

(b) To continue to enhance, through national and regional initiatives, the voice and participation of small island developing States in the decision-making and norm-setting processes of international financial institutions;

(c) To improve interregional and intraregional cooperation and collaboration among small island developing States, including, where required, through institutional mechanisms and capacity-building;

(d) To ensure that the issues of small island developing States are adequately addressed by the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council, as well as the high-level political forum on sustainable development convened under their auspices.

118. We call upon the Committee for Development Policy of the Economic and Social Council to continue to give due consideration to the unique and particular vulnerabilities of small island developing States and to continue to monitor regularly, together with their Governments, the progress of small island developing States that have graduated from least developed country status.

119. We request that the Secretary-General conduct a comprehensive review of United Nations system support for small island developing States with a view to enhancing the overall effectiveness of such support and the respective roles in supporting the sustainable development of small island developing States, and we invite the General Assembly, at its sixty-ninth session, to determine the parameters of the review. We request the Secretary-General, building on previous reports, to provide to the Assembly at its seventieth session the findings of the review and his recommendations thereon in his regular report entitled “Follow-up to and implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States”.

120. We request the Secretary-General to ensure that the Small Island Developing States Unit of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the Secretariat continues, pursuant to its support and advisory services mandate, its analysis and reporting on the situation of small island developing States, including in the implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action, the Mauritius Strategy and the Samoa Pathway, and that the Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States, pursuant to its advocacy mandate, ensure the mainstreaming of the Samoa Pathway and issues related to small island developing States in the work of the United Nations system and enhance the coherence of the issues of those States in United Nations processes, including at the national, regional and global levels, and continue to mobilize international support and resources to support the implementation of the Samoa Pathway by small island developing States.

Priorities of the small island developing States for the post-2015 development agenda

121. Recalling that the small island developing States have identified their priorities for the post-2015 development agenda in the outcome document of the interregional preparatory meeting for the third International Conference on Small Island Developing States, as further refined in the present outcome document, we recognize the need to give due consideration to those priorities in the elaboration of the post-2015 development agenda.

Monitoring and accountability

122. To ensure the realization of a transformational strategy for the sustainable development of small island developing States, we call upon the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and their subsidiary bodies to monitor the full implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action, the Mauritius Strategy and the Samoa Pathway, including through the monitoring frameworks of the regional commissions.

123. We recall that the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council, as well as the high-level political forum on sustainable development convened under their auspices, will devote adequate time to the discussion of the sustainable development challenges facing small island developing States in order to enhance engagement and implement commitments.

124. In this regard, we are committed to supporting the efforts of small island developing States:

(a) To request the Secretary-General to report to the General Assembly and to the Economic and Social Council on the progress achieved in implementing the priorities, commitments, partnerships and other activities of the small island developing States;

(b) To request the Department of Economic and Social Affairs to continue to maintain a partnerships platform focused on the small island developing States and to regularly convene the inter-agency consultative group to report on the full implementation of the Barbados Programme of Action, the Mauritius Strategy and the Samoa Pathway, with adequate and timely analysis based on relevant targets and indicators relevant to the small island developing States in order to ensure accountability at all levels.



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[1] Report of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 3-14 June 1992, vol. I, Resolutions Adopted by the Conference (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.93.I.8 and corrigendum), resolution 1, annex I.

[2] Ibid., annex II.

[3] Resolution S-19/2, annex.

[4] Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, South Africa, 26 August-4 September 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.03.II.A.1 and corrigendum), chap. I, resolution 2, annex.

[5] Ibid., resolution 1, annex.

[6] Report of the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, Bridgetown, Barbados, 25 April-6 May 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales
No. E.94.I.18 and corrigenda), chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.

[7] Report of the International Meeting to Review the Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, Port Louis, Mauritius, 10‑14 January 2005 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.05.II.A.4 and corrigendum), chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.

[8] Resolution 66/288, annex.

[9] General Assembly resolution 55/2.

[10] General Assembly resolution 60/1.

[11] Report of the International Conference on Financing for Development, Monterrey, Mexico,
18-22 March 2002 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.02.II.A.7), chap. I, resolution 1, annex.

[12] General Assembly resolution 63/239, annex.

[13] Resolution 65/1.

[14] Report of the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.95.XIII.18), chap. I, resolution 1, annex.

[15] Resolution S-21/2, annex.

[16] Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15 September 1995 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.96.IV.13), chap. I, resolution 1, annexes I and II.

[17] General Assembly resolution 217 A (III).

[18] United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1771, No. 30822.

[19] See FCCC/CP/2013/10/Add.1, decision 3/CP.19.

[20] Ibid., decision 2/CP.19.

[21] FCCC/CP/2013/10.

[22] United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1833, No. 31363.

[23] See United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Records of the General Conference, Thirty‑first Session, Paris, 15 October-3 November 2001, vol. 1 and corrigendum, Resolutions, chap. V, resolution 24.

[24] A/CONF.223/PC/2, annex.

[25] United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1673, No. 28911.

[26] Resolution 68/300 of 10 July 2014.

[27] Report of the International Conference on Population and Development, Cairo, 5-13 September 1994 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.95.XIII.18), chap. I, resolution 1, annex.

[28] Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, 4-15 September 1995 (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.96.IV.13), chap. I, resolution 1, annex II.

[29] United Nations, Treaty Series, vol. 1760, No. 30619.

[30] ICCD/COP(11)/23/Add.1, decision 8/COP.11.


A/RES/69/313- Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development (Addis Ababa Action Agenda)

8. We recognize the importance of addressing the diverse needs and challenges faced by countries in special situations, in particular African countries, least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States, as well as the specific challenges facing middle-income countries. We reaffirm that least developed countries, as the most vulnerable group of countries, need enhanced global support to overcome the structural challenges they face for the achievement of the post-2015 development agenda and the sustainable development goals. We reaffirm the need to address the special challenges and needs of landlocked developing countries in structurally transforming their economies, harnessing benefits from international trade, and developing efficient transport and transit systems. We further reaffirm that small island developing States remain a special case for sustainable development in view of their small size, remoteness, narrow resource and export base, and exposure to global environmental challenges. We also reaffirm the need to achieve a positive socioeconomic transformation in Africa, and the need to address the diverse and specific development needs of middle-income countries, including combating poverty in all of its forms. In this regard, we support the implementation of relevant strategies and programmes of action, including the Istanbul Declaration and Programme of Action, the SIDS Accelerated Modalities of Action (SAMOA) Pathway and the Vienna Programme of Action for Landlocked Developing Countries for the Decade 2014-2024, and reaffirm the importance of supporting the new development framework, “the African Union’s Agenda 2063”, as well as its 10-year Plan of Action, as a strategic framework for ensuring a positive socioeconomic transformation in Africa within the next 50 years and its continental programme embedded in the resolutions of the General Assembly on the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD). Countries in conflict and post-conflict situations also need special attention. We recognize the development challenge posed by conflict, which not only impedes but can reverse decades of development gains. We recognize the peacebuilding financing gap and the importance of the Peacebuilding Fund. We take note of the principles set out in the New Deal by the Group of Seven Plus, countries that are, or have been, affected by conflict.

9. Cohesive nationally owned sustainable development strategies, supported by integrated national financing frameworks, will be at the heart of our efforts. We reiterate that each country has primary responsibility for its own economic and social development and that the role of national policies and development strategies cannot be overemphasized. We will respect each country’s policy space and leadership to implement policies for poverty eradication and sustainable development, while remaining consistent with relevant international rules and commitments. At the same time, national development efforts need to be supported by an enabling international economic environment, including coherent and mutually supporting world trade, monetary and financial systems, and strengthened and enhanced global economic governance. Processes to develop and facilitate the availability of appropriate knowledge and technologies globally, as well as capacity-building, are also critical. We commit to pursuing policy coherence and an enabling environment for sustainable development at all levels and by all actors, and to reinvigorating the global partnership for sustainable development.

10. The enhanced and revitalized global partnership for sustainable development, led by Governments, will be a vehicle for strengthening international cooperation for implementation of the post-2015 development agenda. Multi-stakeholder partnerships and the resources, knowledge and ingenuity of the private sector, civil society, the scientific community, academia, philanthropy and foundations, parliaments, local authorities, volunteers and other stakeholders will be important to mobilize and share knowledge, expertise, technology and financial resources, complement the efforts of Governments, and support the achievement of the sustainable development goals, in particular in developing countries. This global partnership should reflect the fact that the post-2015 development agenda, including the sustainable development goals, is global in nature and universally applicable to all countries while taking into account different national realities, capacities, needs and levels of development and respecting national policies and priorities. We will work with all partners to ensure a sustainable, equitable, inclusive, peaceful and prosperous future for all. We will all be held accountable by future generations for the success and delivery of commitments we make today.


A/RES/66/288 - The Future We Want

178. We reaffirm that small island developing States remain a special case for sustainable development in view of their unique and particular vulnerabilities, including their small size, remoteness, narrow resource and export base, and exposure to global environmental challenges and external economic shocks, including to a large range of impacts from climate change and potentially more frequent and intense natural disasters. We note with concern that the outcome of the five-year review of the Mauritius Strategy concluded that small island developing States have made less progress than most other groupings, or even regressed, in economic terms, especially in terms of poverty reduction and debt sustainability. Sea-level rise and other adverse impacts of climate change continue to pose a significant risk to small island developing States and their efforts to achieve sustainable development, and for many represent the gravest of threats to their survival and viability, including for some through the loss of territory. We also remain concerned that, while small island developing States have progressed in the areas of gender, health, education and the environment, their overall progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals has been uneven.

179. We call for continued and enhanced efforts to assist small island developing States in implementing the Barbados Programme of Action and the Mauritius Strategy. We also call for a strengthening of United Nations System support to small island developing States in keeping with the multiple ongoing and emerging challenges faced by these States in achieving sustainable development.

180. Building on the Barbados Programme of Action and the Mauritius Strategy, we call for the convening in 2014 of a third international conference on small island developing States, recognizing the importance of coordinated, balanced and integrated actions to address the sustainable development challenges facing small island developing States, and we invite the General Assembly at its sixty-seventh session to determine the modalities of the conference.


E/2009/29-E/CN.17/2009/19 - Report on the 17th session of CSD

The Commission on Sustainable Development,
Recalling the decision of the General Assembly, in its resolution 63/213 of 19 December 2008, to convene a two-day high-level review in September 2010 as part of its sixty-fifth session, to assess progress made in addressing the vulnerabilities of small island developing States through the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States (?Mauritius Strategy for Implementation?),

Recalling also that the high-level review should be preceded by national and regional preparations in a most effective, well-structured and broad participatory manner, and stressing that the review should provide the international community with an opportunity to conduct an assessment of the progress made, lessons learned and constraints encountered in the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for Implementation and agree on what needs to be done to further address the vulnerabilities of small island developing States,

1. Welcomes the work in progress in all small island developing States to continue implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for Implementation, and calls upon the international community, United Nations agencies and intergovernmental bodies to further support the efforts of small island developing States in this regard;

2. Requests the Commission on Sustainable Development, at its eighteenth session, to use the Small Island Developing States day as a preparatory committee meeting for the high-level review;

3. Decides that the one-day preparatory meeting shall consider a synthesis report to be prepared by the Secretary-General on the basis of:

(a) National and regional reports, where available;
(b) The outcomes of three regional review workshops to be organized by the Division for Sustainable Development, in collaboration with members of the specialized agencies, relevant regional and international agencies and organizations, in accordance with the rules of procedure of the Commission on Sustainable Development, the rules of procedure of the World Summit on Sustainable Development and the established practices of the Commission, and encourages all countries and relevant entities of the United Nations system to participate fully in the activities identified for the preparations for the high-level review of the Mauritius Strategy for Implementation.


E/CN.17/2005/12 - Report on the 13th session (30 April 2004 and 11-22 April 2005)

(y) Reaffirm that the Commission for Sustainable Development should continue to be the high-level commission responsible for sustainable development within the United Nations system;

(z) Also reaffirm the mandate of the Commission as stipulated in Agenda 21, General Assembly resolution 47/191 of 22 December 1992 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation as well as Economic and Social Council resolution 2003/61 of 25 July 2003 on the future programme, organization and methods of work of the Commission;
(aa) Support, strengthen and implement voluntary monitoring, reporting and assessment of the thematic areas of water, sanitation and human settlements at the national and regional levels and through existing mechanisms at the global level to keep track of progress in achieving sustainable development, bearing in mind the specific needs of developing countries, by the following measures:
(i) Improving data collection at all levels;
(ii) Enhancing the comparability of data at the regional and global levels;
(iii) Facilitating the contribution of major groups to national reporting activities;
(iv) Requesting the Commission secretariat to update the policy options and practical measures contained in the Chairman?s summary of the interactive discussions held at the Intergovernmental Preparatory Meeting, on a regular basis, so as to make it a living document, and to develop web-based tools to disseminate information on implementation and best practices;
(bb) Encourage Member States to continue to work on the development and application of indicators for sustainable development at the national level, including integration of gender aspects, on a voluntary basis, in line with their national conditions and priorities, and in this regard invites the international community to support the efforts of developing countries;

Follow-up on water and sanitation

(cc) Requests UN-Water to give equal consideration to the thematic issues for the Commission?s thirteenth session of sanitation and water in its terms of reference, and to promote, within its mandate, system-wide inter-agency cooperation and coordination among relevant United Nations organizations, funds and programmes on these issues, and requests the Secretary-General to include in his report to the Commission the activities of UN-Water as they relate to the aforementioned thematic areas, including the roles and responsibilities of relevant United Nations organizations, funds and programmes in implementing and monitoring the water and sanitation agenda, including identifying duplication, overlap and gaps;
4. Decides to devote, in 2008 and 2012, without prejudice to the programme, organization and methods of work of the Commission adopted at its eleventh session, a separate segment at the end of its review sessions, for a duration to be determined by the Bureau in advance, using one to two days as a benchmark, to monitor and follow up the implementation of decisions on water and sanitation, and their interlinkages, taken at the Commission?s thirteenth session;

Follow-up on human settlements

5. Requests UN-Habitat as the focal agency for human settlements, to facilitate, in close collaboration with relevant United Nations organizations and programmes as well as other partners, effective global monitoring of progress in the implementation of human settlements goals and targets, as well as measures agreed at the thirteenth session of the Commission concerning human settlements;
6. Calls upon Member States to strengthen the capacities of UN-Habitat to provide, within its mandate, increased assistance to developing countries, and countries with economies in transition, including through the current pilot phase of the Slum Upgrading Facility;

Follow-up on small island developing States

7. Decides, recalling the decision taken by the Commission at its eleventh session that small island developing States-related issues were to be both considered cross-cutting issues at each session of the Commission and included in the thematic cluster for the Commission in 2014/2015, to devote one day of the review sessions of the Commission to the review of the implementation of the Mauritius Strategy for the Further Implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States11 focusing on that year?s thematic cluster, as well as on any new developments regarding the sustainable development efforts of small island developing States using existing modalities. In this regard, the Secretary-General is requested to submit a report to the Commission at its review session concerning progress and obstacles in respect of sustainable development in small island developing States and making recommendations on enhancing its implementation.


E/CN.17/1998/20 - Report of the Commission on Sustainable Development on its 6th Session

Decision 6/4. Review of the implementation of the Programme of Action for the
Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States

A. Overall considerations
1. The Commission on Sustainable Development takes note of the reports of the Secretary-
General on progress in the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable
Development of Small Island Developing States27 and on development of a vulnerability index
for small island developing States.28
2. The Commission recalls the decision of the General Assembly at its nineteenth special
session on the modalities for the full and comprehensive review of the Programme of Action
for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States.29 In particular, the
Commission notes the importance of the two-day special session to be convened immediately
preceding the fifty-fourth session of the General Assembly, in 1999, for an in-depth
assessment and appraisal of the implementation of the Programme of Action, as reaffirmed
in General Assembly resolution 52/202 of 18 December 1997.
3. The Commission urges small island developing States to continue and enhance their
preparations for the seventh session of the Commission and the 1999 special session, and
calls upon the international community, United Nations agencies and intergovernmental bodies
to provide assistance to small island developing States for practical and concrete actions.
Noting the work already begun by the small island developing States and regional
organizations and institutions in that regard, the Commission invites the international
community, United Nations agencies and intergovernmental bodies to support regional
initiatives and to collaborate in partnership with the regional organizations and institutions
to speed up preparations for the review.
4. In the light of paragraph 24 of the Programme for the Further Implementation of Agenda
21,30 the Commission encourages all small island developing States to put in place national
sustainable development strategies that take into account the links between economic, social
and environmental indicators and policies on an ongoing basis, and invites bilateral donors
and United Nations agencies and organizations, as well as the United Nations Development
Programme and the World Bank, to join in the promotion of coordinated capacity-building
programmes to support the development and implementation of national, subregional and
regional strategies. The implementation of strategies for sustainable development will be
primarily the responsibility of small island developing States, with the essential support of
the international community. The Commission urges proper consideration of the need for
capacity-building to develop and implement strategies for sustainable development at the
proposed donors? conference.
5. The Commission reaffirms the important coordinating role played by the Department
of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat and its efforts to assist small
island developing States with the review process, and calls on the Department to remain
actively involved in the preparatory process leading up to the special session, including
effective coordination with all relevant sectors of the international community in taking any
necessary measures to provide support and assistance to small island developing States.
6. The donors? conference on small island developing States to be held in early 1999 is
welcomed as a useful forum for assistance in the pursuit of small island States? sustainable
development objectives, and the Commission encourages all small island States to fully utilize
the donors? conference to that end. The Commission recommends that the envisaged donors?
conference consider proposed project portfolios that reflect progress to implement the relevant
components of the Programme of Action. The international donor community is urged to
engage actively with small island developing States during the conference to achieve realistic
and positive outcomes and concrete assistance for all small island developing States, including
the sharing of updated information on current donor activities in support of the sustainable
development of small island developing States. The Secretary-General?s preparations for the
donors? conference will also need to take account of and work with ongoing national and
regional round-table and consultative groups.
7. The Programme of Action recognizes that small island developing States are a special
case for both environment and development because they are ecologically fragile and
vulnerable, and because they face particular constraints in their efforts to achieve sustainable
development. In that regard, the Commission recalls that the international community
reaffirmed its commitment to the implementation of the Programme of Action at the nineteenth
special session of the General Assembly.29 It was also noted at the special session that the
considerable efforts being made at the national and regional levels need to be supplemented
by effective financial support from the international community, and by facilitating the transfer
of environmentally sound technologies in accordance with paragraph 34.14 (b) of Agenda
21.31 The Commission notes that the support of the international community is vital. The 1999
overall review of the implementation of the Programme of Action should include an
assessment of changes in the financial resource flows to small island developing States, both
overall and by sector, including private as well as public resources. That review will help
to determine whether the international community is providing effective means, including
adequate, predictable, new and additional resources for the implementation of the Programme
of Action in accordance with chapter 33 of Agenda 21.32
8. The Commission calls upon national Governments, or regional intergovernmental
organizations, as appropriate, to help ensure effective coordination of donor and recipient
government efforts, which is a basic prerequisite for successful development assistance.

B. Climate change and sea level rise
9. The Commission recalls the well-recognized vulnerability of small island developing
States to global climate change, and the likelihood that accompanying sea level rise will have
severe and negative effects on the environment, biological diversity, economy and
infrastructures of small island developing States and on the health and welfare of their peoples.
It recognizes that the ability of small island developing States to respond to the threat of
climate change is hampered by the lack of institutional, scientific and technical capacity, as
well as by the lack of financial resources.
10. The Commission recognizes the need to strengthen the response capability of small
island developing States by education, training and public awareness-raising, and through
regional and international cooperation. The Commission urges the international community
to commit adequate financial and technical resources and assistance to help small island
developing States in their ongoing efforts at the national and regional levels to build effective
response measures, and to strengthen their institutional and human resources capacity to cope
with the effects of climate change and sea level rise. The Commission calls on the international
community to commit appropriate and additional support for the regional organizations and
institutions to strengthen their effectiveness, in particular in support for ongoing regional
assessments of probable environmental changes and impacts, mitigation and adaptation
strategies; development and dissemination of guidelines for coastal protection and
management as well as in other relevant areas; use and substitution of new and renewable
sources of energy; and in the capacity-building programmes of the regional organizations and
institutions.
11. The Commission notes that climate change will also have socio-economic consequences
for small island developing States, and encourages them, in collaboration with regional
organizations and institutions, to undertake integrated assessment studies of the effects of
global warming and sea level rise on socio-economic issues, including population
concentration and location infrastructure, food security, and effects on human health and
culture.
12. The Commission notes that there is a critical need to further scientific and technical
studies and research on the climate change phenomenon and its impacts in relation to small
island developing States, and calls on the international community to continue to undertake
and to assist small island developing States in such studies and research.
13. The Commission welcomes the adoption and the opening for signature of the Kyoto
Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and urges the
international community, and in particular Annex 1 Parties to the Convention, to become
Parties to the Kyoto Protocol as soon as possible in order to facilitate its early entry into force.

C. Management of wastes
14. The Commission notes the difficulties and constraints confronting small island
developing States in the management of wastes and in their efforts to minimize and prevent
pollution. The Commission is concerned that significant work is needed at all levels to
strengthen the capacities of small island developing States and to implement the actions,
policies and measures identified in the Programme of Action. Since current waste disposal
problems and issues present immediate challenges to island communities, the Commission
calls on the international community to support the efforts of small island developing States
in the development of effective institutional capacity to cope with those issues.
15. The Commission takes note that one of the main obstacles for small island developing
States is the lack of an integrated or comprehensive approach to waste management strategies,
and encourages Governments of small island developing States to focus appropriate priority
on building integrated and environmentally sound waste management strategies and policies
that involve all sectors and industries.
16. The Commission recognizes the ongoing work that is being undertaken by the United
Nations system and by regional organizations and institutions in this process, and supports
the continuation of such work in an integrated manner across small island developing States
regions. Noting the important role played by the regional bodies in developing and
coordinating regional waste management programmes, which often provide the framework
for national action, the Commission encourages regional cooperation within respective small
island developing States regions for the establishment of regional coordinating mechanisms
for waste management in those regions where none currently exist, and calls on the
international community and the United Nations system to continue to provide appropriate
support for those efforts.
17. Noting that waste and pollution from ships, in particular the potential for major oil spills,
represent an important concern for small island developing States in view of their
consequences for the marine and coastal environment and biological diversity, the
Commission proposes that the international community, in collaboration with regional
organizations and institutions, provide effective support for international and regional
initiatives to protect small island developing States regions from ship-borne wastes and
pollution, including the development of facilities for receiving ship-borne waste in ports. The
Commission calls upon all countries to adhere to and enforce existing International Maritime
Organization regulations.
18. The Commission urges small island developing States to give early consideration to
becoming Parties to important international agreements that cover waste management and
disposal, such as the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of
Hazardous Waste and Their Disposal, as well as relevant regional agreements, such as the
Waigani Convention to Ban the Importation of Hazardous and Radioactive Wastes and to
Control the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes in the South Pacific Region.
19. The Commission calls on the international community, in particular the United Nations
system and the donor community, to continue to support small island developing States? efforts
in this area, in particular in the development of sound waste management infrastructure,
including through financial resources and transfer of environmentally sound technologies;
building adequate legislative frameworks; and the strengthening of institutional capacity.

D. Freshwater resources
20. The Commission notes that for small island developing States, the conservation and
sustainable management of freshwater resources is fundamentally dependent on sound
knowledge and understanding of the water resources potential, and that there is a vital link
to the management of coastal and marine resources and waste.
21. The lack of an adequate knowledge base and ongoing monitoring programmes, often
compounded by the small size, remoteness, physical structure and rapid urbanization of small
island developing States, exacerbates difficulties in management and adequate supply of
freshwater resources, particularly in the smaller islands and coral atoll communities. The
Commission encourages small island developing States, with the vital support of the
international community, to establish and strengthen, as appropriate, geographic information
system (GIS)-based data collection, storage, analysis and retrieval systems, including
monitoring programmes, and appropriate institutional frameworks, including legislation and
national coordinating mechanisms for the management of freshwater and groundwater
resources, and to give high priority to the immediate development and implementation of
appropriate national water action plans. The Commission notes the importance of the World
Meteorological Organization?s World Hydrological Cycle Observing System, in particular
the Caribbean Hydrological Cycle Observing System.
22. The Commission encourages small island developing States to develop an effective
integrated approach to freshwater management, involving the full collaboration of all
interested stakeholders, in particular women, to ensure the sustainable utilization of water
resources, through appropriate demand management policies, including pricing. This should
include cross-sectoral planning and cooperation between relevant sectors and industries, such
as land and waste management, tourism, and industrial and other sectors, as well as the active
participation of the private sector and local communities. The Commission encourages
Governments of small island developing States to prioritize public awareness programmes
in efforts to promote environmentally sustainable use of freshwater and coastal waters.
23. The Commission notes the importance of regional and interregional cooperation on
freshwater issues, and recommends greater cooperation and exchange of technical information,
monitoring and modelling methodologies, and expertise within and among small island
developing States regions in further efforts to promote sound water management programmes
for the benefit of small island developing States. The international community is urged to
support the efforts of small island developing States, including the implementation of
GIS-based information and data systems and training programmes for key personnel.
24. Noting the ongoing work of United Nations agencies, in particular the United Nations
Environment Programme, the United Nations Development Programme and the World Bank,
in their assistance programmes to small island developing States within the context of
implementation of the Programme of Action, the Commission encourages the continuation
of those efforts in conjunction with the regional organizations and institutions. The
Commission calls on the international community to continue to provide support for regional
and national efforts to promote sound water resources assessment and monitoring procedures,
demand management and policy frameworks, including the transfer and development of
appropriate and cleaner production technologies for small island developing States.

E. Land resources
25. Small island developing States face special constraints in the management of land
resources, particularly of agricultural, forestry and mineral resources. The Commission notes
the efforts made so far at all levels in addressing the key issues identified in the Programme
of Action, and notes in particular the significant gaps that remain in many areas, including
in the knowledge base and understanding of the various land-based resources potential.
Recognizing the environmental and cost impacts of land use on other sectors, such as water
and forest resources, the Commission encourages small island developing States to implement
a comprehensive and integrated approach to land-use management, involving all sectors,
especially those at the community level and relevant stakeholders, in the process.
26. The Commission encourages small island developing States to prioritize institutional
strengthening and capacity-building measures at the national and regional levels, including
the development of national and regional legislative frameworks and sustainable long-term
land management plans. It is essential that those be developed from the basis of sound
knowledge and proper understanding of resources. In that respect, the Commission calls on
the international community to continue to support the efforts of small island developing
States, including through the provision of technical assistance and transfer of appropriate
technologies for sustainable agriculture, forestry and mineral development practices and
environmental impact assessments. Small island developing States are encouraged to create
appropriate environment and resource databases, including GIS, which would be an invaluable
basis for all aspects of land-use planning and management, including soil erosion control,
to minimize environmental degradation, and to continue their efforts for public awareness
programmes at all levels of society on the benefits of a sustainable approach to land-use
practices. The international community is urged to support the efforts of small island
developing States, including the implementation of GIS-based information and data systems
and training programmes for key personnel.
27. The Commission notes the important role played by United Nations agencies and other
intergovernmental organizations in promoting an improved approach to land-use management
in small island developing States. The Commission calls on the international community to
help to strengthen the ability of existing regional institutions to assist small island developing
States in improving their land-use management. Where effective regional institutions do not
exist, consideration should be given to establishing such institutions with the assistance of
the international community.

F. Biodiversity resources
28. The Commission takes note of the uniqueness and extreme fragility of biological
diversity, both terrestrial and marine, in small island developing States, and in the light of
their capacity constraints, of the disproportionate responsibility facing small island developing
States in the conservation of those biological resources. It acknowledges the necessity for
further action at all levels to realize the full implementation of the relevant parts of the
Programme of Action and the Convention on Biological Diversity.
29. Noting that a lack of appropriately qualified and trained personnel is a significant
obstacle to the vital management of those natural resources, the Commission encourages small
island developing States to set a high priority on national technological and human capacitybuilding
within strong institutional frameworks to address that imbalance. Small island
developing States are encouraged to put in place effective conservation measures for the
protection of biological diversity, with particular emphasis on management and effective
monitoring and control of existing activities that may have serious environmental
consequences, such as deforestation, unsustainable agricultural practices and overfishing.
30. The Commission notes the importance of regional cooperation in the conservation of
biological diversity, and encourages small island developing States to develop strong national,
regional and interregional networks for cooperation at all levels of biodiversity conservation,
including the exchange of data and expertise. Noting ongoing regional programmes in some
small island developing States for the designation of conservation areas, the Commission urges
those small island developing States that have not done so to designate and develop terrestrial
and marine protected areas at an early stage for the conservation of biological diversity with
the goal of long-term ecological sustainability.
31. The Commission notes ongoing work and programmes currently being implemented
by small island developing States and by the international and regional organizations, and
urges the international community to continue to provide support to small island developing
States for national and regional capacity-building in their efforts for the conservation and
sustainable use of those important natural resources. In particular, the Commission
recommends that international support include technical assistance in the development of
legislative and regulatory frameworks, technology transfer and appropriate training
programmes. International support should also include technical assistance in the development
of measures to establish intellectual property rights within the context of protection of
biodiversity resources, and the Commission notes the development of programmes to assist
developing countries in this area.
32. Given the important role of small island developing States as custodians of a significant
proportion of the world?s biological diversity, the Commission stresses the importance of
enabling small island developing States to participate in the global negotiation processes on
biological diversity. In that regard, the Commission notes the significance of the Trust Fund
under the Convention on Biological Diversity in supporting the participation of developing
countries, including small island developing States.
G. National institutions and administrative capacity
33. The Commission notes that the process of building institutional and administrative
capacity for the effective achievement of sustainable development is a complex process, and
that for small island developing States, efforts have been hampered by a severe lack of
financial and technical resources and skills. The Commission urges the international
community to assist small island developing States in strengthening their national institutional
frameworks, including ? where they do not exist ? the establishment, with adequate staff and
resources, of national coordinating mechanisms for the coordination of sustainable
development policies and action plans.
34. The Commission encourages small island developing States that have not done so to
enact the necessary legislative and administrative frameworks that will provide the basis of
their national strategies and activities for sustainable development, including enhanced
inter-agency cooperation and effective integration of environmental considerations in
economic decision-making, and calls on the international community to assist their efforts
in building national capacity through effective institutional and administrative reforms.
35. The Commission recognizes that small island developing States suffer from a lack of
adequately skilled human resources. It also notes the importance of a highly skilled and
effectively trained human resources base in the effective implementation and enforcement
of sustainable development policies and measures. The Commission therefore calls on the
international community and the United Nations system to continue to provide concrete
assistance to small island developing States by providing appropriate training opportunities
for both men and women and capacity-building programmes at all levels, such as the United
Nations Development Programme Capacity 21 programme, to enable effective national
implementation of sustainable development strategies, especially in the context of the
Programme of Action.
36. The Commission encourages regional and subregional cooperation in this area, in
particular in the sharing of information and expertise on national institutional and
administrative capacity-building for the benefit of small island developing States. The
Commission calls on the international community to continue their support for the activities
of the regional organizations and institutions, including through the provision of adequate
financial resources.
37. The Commission expresses concern at current trends in the levels of external assistance
for small island developing States in national institutions and administrative capacity, and
appeals to the international donor community to provide assistance to small island developing
States at levels necessary to support the implementation of the Programme of Action.

H. Regional institutions and technical cooperation
38. The Commission recognizes the necessity for regional organizations and institutions
to play a strong and effective role in the implementation of the Programme of Action in small
island developing States regions. Small island developing States are encouraged to increase
their cooperation and support for regional organizations and institutions. The Commission
notes that effective programme delivery will be enhanced through the continued clear
identification of national priorities. The Commission notes that the work of existing regional
organizations and institutions may need to be strengthened or supplemented where gaps are
identified.
39. The Commission encourages existing regional organizations and institutions to continue
their efforts to enhance their own effectiveness and delivery of services, including through
focused and sustainable outcomes, increased regional and subregional cooperation and joint
sharing of activities, and calls on the international community to support those efforts. The
Commission calls on the regional organizations and institutions to enact appropriate screening
measures before programme delivery to ensure that their work programmes and activities
realistically target the needs and priorities of small island developing States. The Commission
also invites regional organizations to monitor programme effectiveness.
40. The Commission views with concern the absence of permanent regional coordinating
mechanisms in some regions of small island developing States, and invites States concerned
to identify the most appropriate and effective means for addressing that situation.

I. Science and technology
41. The Commission recognizes the lack of skilled and qualified scientific and technical
personnel in small island developing States owing to small populations and lack of adequate
educational and training facilities, and encourages small island developing States to accord
high priority to science and technical education opportunities and programmes at all levels
of development, including the strengthening of support for national and regional educational
institutions. It would be desirable for small island developing States to collaborate at the
regional and subregional levels to share resources and information, including traditional and
indigenous knowledge, in the development of sound networks among scientific personnel.
Small island developing States are also encouraged to promote a comprehensive approach
and to support the strengthened linkages between educational and research institutions and
all other sectors, and to actively engage the private sector in support for science development.
42. The Commission urges the international community to enhance international cooperation
in the development and promotion of relevant environmentally sound technologies applicable
to small island developing States, and ? where appropriate ? to make that a component of
regional and international projects. The international community is encouraged to take
necessary steps to facilitate the transfer of appropriate technologies to small island developing
States, wherever appropriate, and to actively assist small island developing States in
establishing regional centres for capacity-building and training. Noting the measures
undertaken by the United Nations agencies in assisting small island developing States with
the development of scientific resources, the international community and regional
organizations and institutions are urged to take necessary measures for supporting small island
developing States to implement active and effective science educational programmes.
43. The regional organizations and institutions are encouraged to better promote appropriate
science and technology training programmes at the community level in small island developing
States, and to share information, including the establishment and maintenance of information
and databases on new and innovative technologies appropriate to small island developing
States. Furthermore, regional organizations and institutions are encouraged to develop and
deploy information systems using appropriate technologies, such as remotely sensed data,
GIS and the Internet/Intranet, as the delivery mechanism.
J. Human resources development
44. The limited human resources and other constraints facing small island developing States
and the difficulties that those constraints exert on their sustainable development objectives
are recognized. The Commission acknowledges the efforts by small island developing States
and the progress made, and encourages them to continue to accord high priority to the
comprehensive development of a strong and effective human resources base in all fields and
across all sectors, giving particular attention to building health standards and care,
development of education with specific environmental components and awareness-raising,
the empowerment of women, and the provision of adequate training opportunities for all
sectors. The establishment of incentive measures would help to retain key personnel in the
public sector. Human resources development is an essential component in building the
institutional capacity of small island developing States for delivering sustainable development.
45. The Commission calls on regional organizations and institutions to enhance their support
for small island developing States in the area of human resources development by specifically
targeting the human resources needs of small island developing States in regional development
programmes, including through the provision of practical, effective and specific training
opportunities. The regional organizations and institutions are urged to assist small island
developing States in systematically identifying their needs and priorities and to give adequate
effect to those needs in project planning for development. Greater regional and subregional
cooperation is encouraged for the joint sharing of resources, technologies and expertise, as
well as at bilateral and multilateral levels.
46. The Commission notes the work undertaken by United Nations agencies,
intergovernmental organizations and donors to address human resources needs of small island
developing States in their funds and programmes, and invites them to continue to give priority
to human resources development.
47. The Commission expresses concern at current trends in the levels of external assistance
for small island developing States in human resources development, and appeals to the
international donor community to provide assistance to small island developing States at levels
necessary to support implementation of the Programme of Action.
48. The Commission recognizes the importance of the Small Island Developing States
Technical Assistance Programme and the Small Island Developing States Information
Network in the overall implementation of the Programme of Action, and noting the ongoing
efforts of the United Nations Development Programme to operationalize the two programmes,
encourages the continuation of those efforts, in cooperation with Governments of small island
developing States. The Commission further notes that the unavailability or insufficiency of
financial resources is a main obstacle to the full and early operationalization of those
programmes, especially of the Information Network, and invites the relevant organizations
and the international community to provide support for their proper development.

K. Vulnerability index
49. The Commission recalls that a vulnerability index that takes account of the constraints
arising from small size and environmental fragility, as well as the incidence of natural disasters
on a national scale, and the consequent relationship of those constraints to economic
vulnerability, would assist in defining the vulnerability of small island developing States and
in identifying the challenges to their sustainable development. The Commission notes the
progress made on the index to date.
50. The Commission takes note of the report of the ad hoc expert group meeting on
vulnerability indices for small island developing States,33 and of its conclusion that as a group,
small island developing States are more vulnerable than other groups of developing countries.
51. The Commission recalls General Assembly resolutions 52/202 and 52/210 of 18
December 1997, as well as resolution 51/183 of 16 December 1996, in which the Assembly
requested the Committee for Development Planning,34 at its thirty-second session, to formulate
its views and recommendations on the report to be prepared by the Secretary-General on the
vulnerability index for small island developing States, and to submit those views to the
General Assembly at its fifty-third session, through the Economic and Social Council, and
to make the information available to the Commission. The Commission looks forward to the
report of the Committee.
52. The Commission calls on the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development,
the United Nations Environment Programme, the regional commissions, the Department of
Economic and Social Affairs and other relevant bodies of the United Nations system, as well
as other relevant actors, to accord priority to the continuation of the quantitative and analytical
work on the vulnerability of small island developing States, in keeping with the provisions
of the Programme of Action and General Assembly resolutions 52/202 and 52/210.


E/CN.17/1997/25 - Report of the CSD on its 5th Session

Resolution 5/1. Modalities for the full and comprehensive review of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States

The Commission on Sustainable Development,

Recalling its decision 4/16 on the review of the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States,1 in which, inter alia, it was stated that in the context of the special session of the General Assembly to be convened in 1997 to review the overall implementation of Agenda 21,2 specific modalities would be recommended by the Commission for the full review of the Programme of Action in 1999,

Recalling paragraph 117 of the Programme of Action, in which Governments call for the Commission on Sustainable Development to include, in the context of the full review of the Programme of Action, the question of convening a second global conference in accordance with chapter 17, section G of Agenda 21,

Recognizing also the important coordinating role of the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the United Nations Secretariat in implementing the Programme of Action,

Having examined the report of the Secretary-General on implementation of the Programme of Action (E/CN.17/1997/14) and the recommendations that it contains concerning the modalities for the full review of the Programme of Action in 1999,

Stressing the importance of including in the full review in 1999 the vulnerability index being developed by the United Nations,

1.Recognizes the need to review outstanding chapters of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States prior to its full review in 1999;

2.Urges the task managers within the Inter-Agency Committee on Sustainable Development of the Commission on Sustainable Development and the Small Island Developing States Unit of the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the United Nations Secretariat to prepare reports on the outstanding chapters of the Programme of Action for consideration by the Commission's Ad Hoc Inter-sessional Working Group at its meeting scheduled for 1998;

3.Decides that it will undertake the review of all the outstanding chapters and issues of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States at its sixth session, in 1998;

4.Encourages Governments and participants at the high-level meeting of the Commission at its sixth session to address, inter alia, matters related to the sustainable development of small island developing States;

5.Urges all Governments, regional intergovernmental bodies or similar arrangements, relevant United Nations organizations, bodies and agencies of the United Nations system and major groups identified in Agenda 21 to commence preparations for the full review and comprehensive assessment of progress made in the implementation of the Programme of Action since its adoption at Bridgetown, Barbados, in 1994 by the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States;

6.Recommends that the General Assembly convene a two-day special session immediately preceding its fifty-fourth session for an in-depth assessment and appraisal of the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States;

7.Decides that the Commission on Sustainable Development will carry out the full review of the Programme of Action within its approved programme of work at its seventh session. That review will be considered as the preparatory process for the special session of the General Assembly recommended in paragraph 6 above;

8.Decides that the preparatory process for its seventh session, within its agreed format and programme, shall assist the Commission in carrying out the review and appraisal of the Programme of Action.


E/CN.17/1996/38 - Report of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development on the 4th Session (18 April-3 May 1996). International legal instruments and mechanisms

Decision 4/16. Review of the implementation of the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States

A. Overall considerations

1.The Commission recalls that the Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States, held in 1994, adopted the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States to promote concrete action at the national, regional and international levels in 15 priority areas, with provisions for an initial review in 1996. The Commission notes that its recommendations are complementary to those contained in the Programme of Action. In the context of the special session of the General Assembly, to be convened in 1997 to review the overall implementation of Agenda 21, specific modalities will be recommended by the Commission for the full review of the Programme of Action in 1999.

2.The Commission, having examined the report of the Secretary-General on the sustainable development of coastal areas, tourism, energy resources, air transport, maritime transport, telecommunications, and management of environmental and natural disasters in small island developing States (E/CN.17/1996/20 and Add.1-7), the report of the Secretary-General on current donor activities in support of sustainable development in small island developing States (E/CN.17/1996/21) and the report of the High-level Panel Meeting on Island Developing Countries (E/CN.17/1996/IDC/3-UNCTAD/LLDC/IDC/3), and having the benefit of the views expressed, notes the action taken by small island developing States at the national and regional levels to implement the Programme of Action.

3.The Commission notes the support of the international community, and the plans and programmes of organs, organizations and bodies of the United Nations system to assist in the implementation of the Programme of Action and in the coordination and monitoring of its implementation. The Commission welcomes the support given by other relevant intergovernmental organizations.

4.The Commission recognizes the importance of SIDSTAP and SIDSNET in the overall implementation of the Programme of Action, and encourages the United Nations Development Programme to continue, in cooperation with Governments, its action to operationalize the two mechanisms.

5.The Commission stresses the importance of coordination in the area of strategy and policy formulation and recognizes the importance of consultation and interaction at the national, regional and international levels. In this context, the Commission emphasizes the role played by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, the South Pacific Regional Environment Programme and the Caribbean Community.

6.The Commission expresses concern at the overall trend of declining levels of flows of official development assistance to small island developing States (SIDS), but notes the need for better information on flows. The Commission emphasizes that it is imperative that the domestic efforts of SIDS to mobilize financial resources for the effective implementation of the Programme of Action are adequately supported by the international community, as envisaged in the provisions of the Programme of Action, in particular those contained in paragraph 66. Recognizing that small island developing States are among the most environmentally vulnerable, the Commission urges the international community to give special priority to their situations and needs, including through access to grants and other concessional resources.

7.The Commission notes that a vulnerability index that takes into account the constraints arising from small size and environmental fragility, as well as the incidence of natural disasters on a national scale, and the consequent relationship of these constraints to economic vulnerability, should bring greater clarity to the development challenges and needs of SIDS. The Commission notes the slow progress on the index to date and encourages the relevant bodies of the United Nations system to accord priority to the development of the index, in keeping with the provisions of the Programme of Action and General Assembly resolution 50/116. The Commission notes with appreciation the offer by the Government of Malta to host the centre for the computation of the index on an ongoing basis.

8.The Commission notes that current trends of trade liberalization and globalization are bringing new challenges as well as possible opportunities to SIDS. It recommends that to meet the new challenges and take advantage of the new opportunities SIDS need to undertake necessary institutional reforms; develop responsive economic policy frameworks and human resources in order to enhance their competitiveness and their ability to diversify quickly into new activities; explore cooperative approaches for sharing information and experience and building human and institutional capacity. The Commission urges the international community to recognize the inherent weaknesses of SIDS and recommends that it provide adequate support to SIDS to meet their adjustment costs and their information, human development and technology needs to enable them to sustain the development of their exports, while maintaining the integrity of their natural resource base.

9.Recognizing the coordinating role of the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development in implementing the Programme of Action, the Commission recommends that the Secretary-General:

a.Take into account the need to continue to provide substantive secretariat support to intergovernmental and inter-agency processes related to the monitoring, review and coordination of the implementation of the Programme of Action;

b.Ensure that the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development continues to act as a liaison and focal point for agencies of the United Nations system, as well as other relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, on matters related to the follow-up and implementation of the Programme of Action;

c.Request the Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development of the United Nations Secretariat, in its coordinating role, to look into the appropriate modalities for mobilizing resources for effective implementation of the Programme of Action.

10.The Commission stresses the important role the private sector can play in investment for sustainable development in SIDS, particularly in the infrastructure and tourism sectors. This should be based on a sustainable development strategy that integrates economic, social and environmental policies and regulatory frameworks to promote appropriate private investment.

B. Climate change and sealevel rise

11.The Commission recalls that SIDS are particularly vulnerable to global climate change and sealevel rise. Potential effects of global climate change and sealevel rise are increased strength and frequency of tropical storms and inundation of some islands with loss of exclusive economic zones, economic infrastructure, human settlements and culture.

12.The Commission welcomes the growing number of ratifications of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the decision that commitments contained in article 4, paragraph 2 (a) and (b), were inadequate to meet the ultimate objective of the Convention.

13.The Commission also calls upon the international community to support SIDS in their efforts to adapt to the sealevel rise that will be experienced as a result of the impact of greenhouse gases that have already been emitted into the atmosphere.

C. Natural and environmental disasters

14.The Commission noted that this issue was being considered following a two-year period in which SIDS experienced several major natural disasters that brought catastrophes of national proportions to these countries because of their small size and fragile ecosystems.

15.The Commission recognizes that the most effective strategy for responding to natural disasters is formulated through regional cooperation as an integral part of sustainable development frameworks, with international support. In support of this objective the Commission:

a.Encourages the Governments of the small island developing States to further increase their efforts towards subregional, regional and interregional cooperation;

b.Supports the implementation of the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action 27/ with particular regard to improved education and training in disaster reduction, including the creation of interdisciplinary scientific and technical networking at all levels, for the purpose of capacity-building and human resource development in SIDS;

c.Calls upon all Governments to support the facilitation of an effective synergy between the implementation of Agenda 21, the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action;

d.Invites Governments to consider establishing an informal open-ended working group within the existing International Framework of Action for the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, with the membership of concerned States, as well as of all relevant sectors in disaster reduction, with a view to ensuring full integration and participation of SIDS in the mapping of a concerted strategy for disaster reduction into the twenty-first century.

16.The Commission also calls on the international community to support the efforts of SIDS directed towards:

a.Mobilizing additional resources to address urgent disaster reduction requirements in SIDS;

b.Improving access to disaster and warning information in order to enhance the capability of SIDS with respect to disaster management;

c.Providing technical, financial and expert support for the establishment of a mechanism for interregional cooperation and the exchange of information among small island States on disaster reduction, in particular with respect to training, institutional development and disaster mitigation programming;

d.Targeting research and further development of knowledge in the following thematic areas for building risk-reduction capacities in small island States:

i.Insurance as a preventive and mitigating tool for disaster reduction;
ii.Telecommunications and information systems as a tool for disaster reduction;
iii.Limits and opportunities for the establishment of national disaster emergency funds and emergency administrative procedures;
iv.Evaluation of constraints in the access of small island States to reliable data, disaster-specific knowledge, and technology means;
v.A review of the linkages between disasters, development and environment, including the development of methods for the systematic appraisal of developments in relation to disaster risks;
vi.An analysis of the linkage between global climate change and the characteristics and occurrence of natural hazards in small island States.

D. Coastal and marine resources

17.The Commission stresses the fact that for SIDS, effective coastal zone management is a prerequisite for sustainable development. In addition, the marine areas play an important role in meeting some essential needs. The importance of these areas in the sustainable development of SIDS were recognized in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea itself and in the 1995 Agreement for the Implementation of the Provisions of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 10 December 1982 relating to the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stocks and Highly Migratory Fish Stocks (A/50/550, annex I), as well as in the International Coral Reef Initiative (convened in the Philippines in June 1995) and the 1995 Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities.

18.The Commission also recognizes the importance of decision II/10 of the second meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in the context of the protection and conservation of coastal and marine resources of SIDS.

19.The Commission recommends that in developing integrated national coastal area management strategies and plans, Governments should ensure that all steps are undertaken with the active participation of the private sector and local communities. Mechanisms for institutional coordination should also be established.

20.Within the context of integrated coastal area management (ICAM) for SIDS, the activities, planned or under way, by international organizations should be implemented in a coordinated and cost-effective manner. These activities should include, as one of the priorities, the protection and management of marine and coastal areas through ICAM, including a number of demonstration or pilot projects in integrated "island" management, in which marine and coastal resource issues are incorporated into the development planning process of selected SIDS.

21.To assist national authorities in their tasks of designing and implementing ICAM plans, guidelines for specific subsectors such as tourism, fisheries, agriculture and forestry, which are among the main users of resources in the coastal areas of SIDS, should be further developed. The experience gained by the United Nations Environment Programme and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in these areas should be used in the process. Such guidelines can be of assistance to planners and users in these subsectors.

E. Energy resources

22.The Commission notes that SIDS continue to be heavily dependent on conventional sources of energy, although as a group the total consumed was a small percentage of world consumption. The Commission also notes that due to the small quantities involved the cost per capita was relatively high and use was generally inefficient.

23.The Commission calls upon the international community, including the Global Environment Facility, within the framework of its operational strategy, to support commercial energy development in SIDS based on those environmentally sound renewable sources with demonstrated viability, to support improvement of the efficiency of existing technologies and end-use equipment based on conventional energy sources, and to assist with the financing of investments necessary to expand energy supplies beyond urban areas.

24.The Commission notes that many SIDS continue to depend on biomass fuels. It encourages the implementation of projects that will ensure a sustainable fuelwood industry.

F. Tourism resources

25.The Commission recognizes the continued importance of tourism as one of only a few development options for many SIDS, both as a dynamic sector and as one that can stimulate growth in others.

26.The Commission encourages SIDS to pursue policies of sustainable tourism development by:

a.Diversifying the tourism product, enhancing its quality and increasingly targeting the upper segment of the tourist market;

b.Strengthening linkages of other economic sectors with tourism so that domestic production can viably provide for the consumer needs of tourists to the maximum extent possible;

c.Investing adequately in the collection of data on all relevant indicators of benefits and costs necessary for cost-benefit analysis in order to be able to carry out systematic evaluations of the contribution of the tourism sector to the domestic economy in relation to other sectors and in relation to social and environmental costs;

d.Developing a multidisciplinary approach for the rigorous vetting of tourism development proposals, taking into account prospective cumulative impacts of tourism development, and establishing environmental standards for the approval of projects.

27.The Commission calls upon the international community to provide appropriate assistance for the improvement and development of basic physical infrastructures in SIDS, such as airports and harbours, roads, telecommunications systems and freshwater systems.

28.The Commission notes the importance of regional cooperation in tourism and proposes that consideration be given to the development of common policy guidelines and standards at the regional level for the mutual benefit of SIDS. The Commission calls upon the international community to support the efforts of regional tourism organizations to improve their effectiveness.

G. Transport and communications

29.Bearing in mind the resource constraint for expansion and modernization of the telecommunications network in SIDS, the high per capita cost of infrastructure due to small market size and the lack of economies of scale, the Commission encourages SIDS to continue their telecommunications development and to improve facilities and availability. The Commission also encourages SIDS to maintain and strengthen communications and business links, on a regional and subregional basis, with larger neighbours in the continental shelf, as well as with development partners.

30.The Commission calls upon the international community to assist SIDS in identifying the most feasible ways and means of securing financial assistance from different sources, and invites the World Bank and the regional development banks, where appropriate, to systematically finance telecommunications development, particularly where most urgently needed.

31.The Commission takes note of developments in air transport since the 1994 Global Conference on the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and proposes a study of the impact on SIDS of changes taking place in the regulation of air transport. The Commission also proposes that more regional cooperation with regard to the regulatory aspects of air transport, such as joint negotiation of air transport agreements, should be pursued.

32.The Commission calls upon the international community, where appropriate, to facilitate and support new and existing initiatives taken at the regional level to improve air transport for the benefit of SIDS.

33.The Commission notes that with respect to the economies of SIDS which are open, maritime transport continues to represent an important lifeline to other markets. The Commission is convinced that improved maritime transport, which responds to the peculiar circumstances of SIDS and includes reduced overall costs, would be supportive of sustainable development goals.

34.The Commission encourages the modernization of fleets through appropriate investment incentives and innovative measures. It invites SIDS to consider becoming parties to relevant international legal instruments to promote maritime safety and environmental protection, and standardization in shipping. Regional initiatives are also encouraged to support these goals, expand maritime capabilities of regions, and provide an improved intra-regional sea transportation service with the support of the international community.

35.In view of the large investments involved in the development of infrastructure and acquisition of the means of maritime transport, the Commission calls upon the international community, where appropriate, to support the efforts of SIDS at the national and regional levels.